Anth028, Chapter 10

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In East Africa, robust australopithecines are also called


The diversity of the hominins included increasingly specialized:


Evidence indicating that Orrorin tugenensis was bipedal comes mainly from which part of the skeleton?

Femur (thighbone)

Using tools and toolmaking is an adaptation by hominins linked to:


Australopithecus robustus’s large masticatory complex (large molars, face, and muscles) indicate an adaptation to:

eating foods requiring heavy chewing

According to the Larsen text (and based on the research of Philip Reno), some scholars argue that early hominins show reduced sexual dimorphism, which is evidence for cooperation and likely for:

Pair bonding

Ardi’s intermediate form of bipedality included the use of:

palms and feet to move along the tree branches

In an ape, the space between the upper lateral incisor and the canine that accommodates a large, projecting lower canine is a:
Selected Answer:


The earliest hominins probably lived in which kind of environment?

complex hybrid habitats

An increased ability to see greater distances is one of the adaptations to:


Australopithecus garhi has been proposed as an ancestor for Homo mainly because it:

had longer legs relative to arm length than other australopithecine

The Oldowan Complex includes tools like:

choppers, cobbles, flakes, and bone tools.

The patchy forest hypothesis proposes that forests:

became patchy and food more dispersed.

The only preaustralopithecine found outside the East African Rift Valley is:

Sahelanthropus tchadensis.

Owen Lovejoy’s provisioning hypothesis proposes that:

monogamy and food provisioning created the necessity for bipedalism.

The first hominids…

were bipedal and had small cranial capacities.

The oldest known robust australopithecine species is

Australopithecus aethiopicus.

The later (3-2mya) species of gracile Australopithecines have been found in

South Africa and East Africa

The oldest suggested possible hominids, dating back close to 6 million years ago, are classified as

Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, and Ardipithecus

The robust australopithecines were extinct by…

1 mya

The three species of robust australopithecine are

Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, and Australopithecus afarensis

The canine teeth of Australopithecus afarensis are…

smaller than modern apes, but larger than modern humans

Compared to other hominid species, the robust australopithecines have relatively ______ front teeth and ______ back teeth

smaller, larger

Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, and Ardipithecus are…

possible hominids

Imagine you have found a skull with an ape-size brain, very large back teeth, and large cheekbones. Based on this information, this is most likely a specimen of

robust australopithecine

Many hypotheses regarding the origin of bipedalism have assumed that the first bipeds evolved in the savanna. Why has this idea been recently challenged?

New evidence shows that the earliest hominids evolved in a woodland environment.

The ______ of Orrorrin suggests that it was bipedal

leg bone

Bipedalism first appeared in


The first hominids are found in


Compared to the robust australopithecines, Australopithecus africans has…

dental proportions more similar to later Homo.

A sagittal crest found in…

the robust australopithecine

The fossil known as "Lucy" belongs to the species

Australopithecus afarensis

The most definitive evidence for bipedalism found in Laetoli is

foot bones with an arch

The tool-use model of hominid origins has been rejected because

bipedalism existed long before stone tools were used.

Bipedalism may have been originally selected for, in part, because

it allows food and infants to be easily carried.

Australopithecus afarensis

was biped, but retained considerable climbing/arboreal ability

Australopithecus africans lived roughly ______ million years ago


Distinctive traits of robust australopithecines include…..

small front teeth and large back teeth, and a big face and a sagittal crest

the discovery of Kenyanthropus Platyops was important because

it shows diversity in the hominin fossil record 3.5 mya

The Laetoli footprints demonstrate that the foot of Austrlopithecus afarensis was humanlike in having a…

rounded heel, non divergent bit toe, double arch

The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than

4 mya

A hominin is defined as having the following two obligate behaviors

bipedal locomotion and non honing chewing complex

the foundational behavior of hominins was


Fossils attributed to Australopithecus garhi were found at the Bouri site, in Ethiopia, along with

animal bones with cut marks

Do speech, advanced cognition, and complex material define a hominin?


Australopithecus robustus was likely the longest-surviving species of australopithecine in South Africa. It had

large molars, big face, sagittal crest

You find a fossil that you are sure shows evidence of bipedalism. You know this because which of the following anatomical traits is present?

kthisbones that angle in toward the knees

along with other distinct traits, robust australopithecines had large ____ adapted for grinding food

premolars and molars, and temporalis muscles and a sagittal crest

The species australopithecus anamnesis dates within the ______ million years ago range


the sagittal crest functions to…

anchor chewing muscles

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