Anth Chap 9 Questions

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The arboreal hypothesis of primate origins explains that:

grasping hands and feet were necessary for living in trees

As a corollary to the idea that primates emerged as an adaptation to an arboreal environment, Matt Cartmill proposed that

catching small prey was more important in primate evolution than living in the trees

Robert Sussman’s angiosperm radiation hypothesis is based on finding that

fruit was a newly available food source in the Cenozoic era

Euprimates,the first true primates, consisted of the following two groups

Omomyids and Adapids

Higher primates most likely evolved from


While flipping through the channels, you stop on a television program about primate evolution. The host says that there is a 6-million-year gap in the fossil evidence between the latest Oligocene catarrhines and the earliest Miocene proconsulids, which could mean that primates disappeared from Earth and evolved anew some time later. Your roommate comes running when you start yelling at the television,

"The resemblance between the Fayum catarrhines and the Miocene proconsulids in skull form and dentition suggests an evolutionary relationship, even if the direct fossil evidence isn’t there!"

Which of the following is unique to hominins

precision grip

The first primate fossil to be described by a scientist was recorded by

Georges Cuvier

A valid criticism of the idea that anthropoids evolved independently in Africa and South America is that

c. there are striking similarities between Old and New World primates not only in phenotype but also in genotype.

The common ancestor of all later catarrhines, Old World Monkeys, and hominins was likely


From 12 to 8 mya, Dryopithecids were found in __________ while Sivapithecids were found in__________

Europe; Asia

A valid criticism of the arboreal hypothesis of primate origins is that

the opossum is also an arboreal mammal but did not develop uniquely primate traits.

Your classmate, whose part-time job entails reorganizing the paleoanthropology lab on campus, asks you to take a look at a skeleton that she thinks is from a primate. After noting the absence of a postorbital bar, nails, and an opposable thumb, you tell her that

she should label this skeleton as a plesiadapiform rather than as a primate.

While walking across campus, you overhear a guy telling his girlfriend that the origin of every human ancestor was in Africa. You stop him and explain that he is not completely correct because

based on the current fossil evidence, Asia could equally likely be the place where higher primates originated.

Your biology instructor says in class that the fossil remains of primates from the Eocene demonstrate that they were nothing like the primates of today. After class, you argue with him, noting that

a variety of primate traits, such as convergent eyes, grasping digits, and a large brain, are common to both Eocene primates and those of today.

This anthropologist is sweeping away layers of sand to

search for fossils in the Fayum Depression, Egypt.

The Fayum desert has yielded fossils of these three primates:

Oligopithecus, Apidium, and Aegyptopithecus.

If you are examining the fossil remains of the genus Dryopithecus, they are most likely from where?


The most distinctive feature of ape dentition, which clearly distinguishes apes from Old World monkeys, is:

a Y-5 molar pattern

The angiosperm radiation hypothesis proposes that:

certain primate traits were responses to the acquisition of fruit during the Cenozoic.

Basal anthropoids are:

Eocene primates that are the earliest anthropoids.


stood ten feet tall and weighed 660 pounds.

Two genera of propliopithecids include:

Propliopithecus and Aegyptopithecus

Paleocene organisms that may have been the first primates were:


Monkeys underwent massive__________in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

adaptive radiation

Comparisons of tooth wear in living apes and extinct Miocene apes suggest that some extinct species of apes ate:

leaves, nuts, and fruits.

The shift from the Miocene, which had greater diversity of ape species and fewer monkey species, to a living assemblage with greater diversity of monkey species and fewer ape species may be the result of:

differences in ability to exploit the habitats that resulted after a change in global climate.

Sivapithecus is widely recognized as an ancestral member of which ape lineage?


Chororapithecus is considered the

common ancestor of African apes and hominins.

Plesiadapiforms are also called:


Which anatomical feature would you expect to find in the fossil remains of a nocturnal species?

large eye orbits

The northern African fossil primate called Biretia may be an early anthropoid, based on the morphology of its:

lower premolar tooth.

Based on genetic analysis of living primates calibrated by the fossil record, it is estimated that apes and Old World monkeys diverged into separate lineages around

25 mya.

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