Anth Chap 10 Questions

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Humans differ from apes because

humans use spoken language.

The _____________ fossil, mistakenly thought of as the missing link between humans and apes, had a large cranial capacity but ape-like dentition.


The _____________ hypothesis about hominin bipedalism states that energy-efficient walking on two legs arose so that hominins could search for food that was dispersed as a result of climatic changes at the end of the Miocene.

patchy forest

The _____________ hypothesis proposed by Owen Lovejoy states that the advantages of males carrying food and bringing it to females and young could have contributed to the rise of bipedalism.


Bipedalism has disadvantages to quadrupedalism, including

development of arthritis and back injuries.

The oldest pre-australopithecine, or a fossil link between late Miocene apes and australopithecines, found to date is

Sahelanthropus tchadensis.

The oldest australopithecine species is

Au. anamensis.

The best-known australopithecine, represented by hundreds of fossils and dozens of individuals found mostly at Laetoli and Hadar, is

Au. afarensis.

Robust australopithecine species include

Au. aethiopicus.

The genus Australopithecine includes hominins that lived about

4 – 1 mya.

The Oldowan tool complex is attributed to __________________, making that hominin species the first to use tools.

Au. garhi

______________ arose around 3.5 mya and gave rise to at least two branches of hominins – later australopithecines and the genus Homo

Au. afarensis

Kamoya Kimeu, a Kenyan whose excavation team has found numerous fossil remains, worked primarily with

Richard Leakey.

Your old roommate is in Australia on a one-year study abroad program. She excitedly skypes you and says her Aborigine friend mentioned an australopithecine skull he discovered while on "walkabout" in the desert. The skull has a small brain and wear on the tip of the canines. You respond that

there is no evidence that australopithecines ever left Africa.

While walking through a natural history museum, your little cousin points out the skull of an australopithecine with a large crest on the top and asks you what its purpose was. To simplify a complicated evolutionary trait, you tell your cousin that

these hominins had muscles to eat hard foods such as nuts

In an argument with your parents, they claim that the only difference between australopithecines and early Homo species is a bigger brain in the latter. You argue that there are other differences, such as

in addition to a larger brain, early Homo species have a smaller face and smaller teeth.

Your mom has started complaining to you about her varicose veins and is thinking about surgery. You try to convince her not to by noting that

people might not mind varicose veins as much if they realized they were a direct consequence of bipedality.

Charles Darwin hypothesized that bipedalism arose so that hominins would have two free hands to create and carry weapons. The fossil evidence that now refutes this hypothesis includes

the small brain and large canines of Ardipithecus.

The discovery of Kenyanthropus platyops was important mainly because:

it showed diversity in the hominin fossil record 3.5 mya.

Robust australopithecines were extinct by:

1 mya.

Australopithecus garhi may be the ancestor of:

Homo habilis.

Australopithecus robustus’s large masticatory complex (large molars, face, and muscles) indicate an adaptation:

to eating foods requiring heavy chewing.

Two types of australopithecines were using two different types of locomotion in East Africa:

one was a climber and the other a biped.

A preaustralopithecine most likely has which of the following characteristics?

modified honing chewing, primitive apelike traits, small brain size

Ardi was adapted to life in trees and

on the ground.

Owen Lovejoy’s Provisioning hypothesis proposes that

monogamy and food provisioning created the necessity for bipedalism.

Humans use their molars for:


Australopithecus robustus was likely the longest-surviving species of australopithecine in South Africa. It had:

large molars, a big face, and a sagittal crest.

Evidence indicating that Orrorin tugenensis was bipedal comes mainly from which part of the skeleton?

femur (thighbone)

A hominin is defined as having two obligate behaviors:

bipedal locomotion and nonhoning chewing complex.

The Patchy Forest hypothesis proposes that:

forests became patchy and food more dispersed.

Fossils attributed to Australopithecus garhi were found at the Bouri site, in Ethiopia, along with:

animal bones with cutmarks.

The Oldowan Complex is a part of the:

Lower Paleolithic.

Which of the following is an adaptive characteristic of bipedalism?

longitudinal arch in the foot

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