Anth Ch 6 & 7

Your page rank:

Total word count: 1716
Pages: 6

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant


Refers to a behavior that benefits others while being a disadvantage to the individual.


Refers to the process of animals becoming accustomed to human observers.


The killing of a juvenile.

Kin selection

Altruistic behaviors that increase the donor’s inclusive fitness, that is, the fitness of the donor’s relatives.


Refers to a social group that includes an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring.


Refers to a social group that includes one reproductively active female, several adult males, and their offspring.


Refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offspring.

Sexual selection

The frequency of traits that change due to those traits’ attractiveness to members of the opposite sex.

Arboreal adaptation

A suite of physical traits that enable an organism to live in trees.


Refers to lower molars, in Old World monkeys, that have two ridges.


Organisms that move by brachiation, or arm-swinging.

Canine-premolar honing complex

The dental form in which the upper canines are sharpened against the lower third premolars when the jaws are opened and closed.

Dental formula

The numerical description of a species’ teeth, listing the number, in one quadrant of the jaws, of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.

Derived characteristics

Characteristics present in only one or a few species of a group.


A space between two teeth.

Dietary plasticity

A diet’s flexibility in adapting to a given environment.


Refers to those organisms that normally are awake and active during daylight hours.


Humans and human ancestors in a more recent evolutionary taxonomy; based on genetics.


An enamel ridge connecting cusps on a tooth’s surface.

Olfactory bulb

The portion of the anterior brain that detects odors.


Refers to primates’ thumb, in that it can touch each of the four fingertips, enabling a grasping ability.

Parental investment

The time and energy parents expend for their offspring’s benefit.


The evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.

Power grip

A fistlike grip in which the fingers and thumbs wrap around an object in opposite directions.


An organism’s use of an anatomical feature in a way unrelated to the feature’s original function.

Precision grip

A precise grip in which the tips of the fingers and thumbs come together, enabling fine manipulation.

Prehensile tail

A tail that acts as a kind of a hand for support in trees, common in New World monkeys.

Primitive characteristics

Characteristics present in multiple species of a group.


The naked surface around the nostrils, typically wet in mammals.

Sectorial (premolar)

Refers to a premolar adapted for cutting.

Tooth comb

Anterior teeth (incisors and canines) that have been tilted forward, creating a scraper.


Hominoids’ pattern of lower molar cusps.

Anthropoids differ from prosimians in all the following ways except that they

have more teeth than prosimians.

The dental formula for Old World primates, including humans, is

2 / 1 / 2 / 3.

Fingerprints help enhance primates’ sense of touch.


According to the map of primate distribution throughout the world, there are no primates in


Visual differences between primates and other animals include

overlapping vision fields.

It is possible to tell an ape skeleton from a human skeleton based on

the position of the foramen magnum. the shape of the pelvis. the length of the limbs.

Male primates use their canines for eating food and for scaring enemies.


The teeth of Old World monkeys and apes differ in that

apes have a Y-5 pattern of cusps, whereas Old World monkeys have a bilophodont pattern.

At the primate exhibit at the zoo, you notice a slew of monkeys dangling from branches by their tails. The information plaque notes that they are colobus, gibbons, and orangutans. When you read this, you immediately seek out the zookeeper to complain about the error because

none of those monkeys have prehensile tails.

The fact that humans are related to chimpanzees can be seen in Linnaean taxonomy, where both are

in the superfamily Hominoidea.

Your sister calls you crying because she just hit an animal with her car and she thinks it was a ring-tailed lemur. You calm her down by saying that

lemurs exist in the wild only in Madagascar, so she probably hit a raccoon.

One of your friends is originally from Ecuador. When he was a kid, he would sneak into the forest and watch howler monkeys. On one of these trips, though, he insists that he and his friends found a human skull. As he describes it, you realize it was not human because

the foramen magnum was not located at the bottom of the skull.

Which of the following is not true of primates?

Primates inhabit every continent.

One of the main differences observable between human dentition and the dentition of other primates is humans’ lack of a/an


On a visit to the zoo, you overhear a teacher telling a young student that the chimpanzees climb and swing on branches because

heir good sense of touch lets them grip trees.

Hominoids include

orangutans. chimpanzees. gorillas.

According to British anatomist Wilfrid Le Gros Clark, the main tendencies that help to define what a primate is include:

the ability to eat a wide variety of foods; investing time and effort into offspring; and adaptations to life in the trees.

A fossil with bilophodont molars is most likely an Old World monkey.


Hominoids do not have tails.


Primates that are adapted for eating large amounts of plants and leaves can be distinguished by their

sagittal crests.

Primates’ enhanced ___________ led to a reduced sense of ___________.

vision / smell

All primates have opposable toes.


Researchers have found that many primates can learn how to fashion tools and pass this information along to younger members of their society, indicating other primates may tell us more about ancient humans’

material culture.

The average life span of humans is about

twice as long as other primates’.

When there is competition among primates for mates,

males may become larger.

During an internship at the Jane Goodall Institute, you are tasked with observing the residence patterns of the chimpanzees in Gombe National Park. At the end of the summer, you have learned all of the chimps’ names and have recorded all of the following groups of chimps living together except

Athena, Cindy, Kay, and Lulu.

Female primates with good nutrition have

shorter intervals between birth of offspring.

Sometimes male primates will kill infant primates

to gain access to receptive, fertile females.

Natural selection is related to primate communication in that

he ability to communicate allows primates to pass on information necessary for survival.

During a class presentation on communication among apes, your classmate makes an error while listing examples of this behavior. Based on your knowledge of primate communication in general, which of the following is incorrect?

Diana monkeys can count to five by stomping on the ground.

This chimpanzee has fashioned a tool for defense against predators.


A female primate has a better chance of feeding herself and her young when

large patches of fruit-bearing trees dot the landscape.

These bones were found in the nest of an eagle, a major predator of tree-dwelling primates. Analysis of these bones reveals they are from primate species known to live a mainly solitary existence. From this analysis, you can hypothesize that

primate sociality is beneficial to survival.

During your first week as an intern at Gombe National Park, you fail to spot any chimpanzees, even in areas replete with food that the chimps are known to frequent. Dejected, you tell your supervisor, who reassures you that it will get better when

the chimpanzees become habituated to your presence.

Primate behavior studies targeting the mother/infant bond suggest that

growing up with a wire surrogate mother causes infants to lack social skills.

While swimming in the ocean with your friends, one of them starts to struggle to stay above the water. Your other friend braves a strong undertow, and both emerge safely on the beach. When the lifeguard arrives, he chastises your friend for brazenly jumping into the surf, but you praise your friend’s instincts, noting that

cooperative behaviors such as altruism have a long history in both human and primate societies.

In this form of primate grouping, both sexes mate promiscuously and there is little competition for mates.

Multimale, multifemale

Chimpanzees are known to hunt other animals for their meat. A chimpanzee group will have the most success in which of the following scenarios?

A dozen male chimps hunt juvenile red colobus monkeys *solitary adult male chimp may have about a 33% success rate catching another animal, a group of ten or more males will have nearly a 100% success rate. Additionally, chimps appear to prefer (or are preferentially able to capture) red colobus monkeys, particularly the juveniles of the group, so answer d represents the scenario that maximizes the chimps’ chances of capturing food.

Dominance hierarchies among female primates are especially important with respect to

resources for raising offspring. access to mates. food procurement.

At the primate habitat at the zoo, your friend comments that the orangutans seem to be monogamous or mated for life. You take one look at these apes and assert that you friend is wrong when

the male orangutan bares his large canines and rears up to show he is twice the size of the female. *sexual dimorphism and residence pattern are related. There is less sexual dimorphism between male and female primates that typically enter into monogamous pairings, whereas there is a greater amount of sexual dimorphism in primates such as orangutans, which tend to be solitary. Orangutan males tend to be about twice the size of females and have large canines; when you noted the disparity in body size, you were easily able to correct your friend’s misconception about the residence pattern of orangutans.

A polygynous primate society will tend to have a residence pattern of

one-male, multifemale.

Which of the following is true about chimpanzee tool use?

Chimpanzees use tools mostly for acquiring food.

The primate residence pattern of one-female, multimale can also be described as


Chimpanzees have been trained to communicate with humans through


The key factor(s) that contribute to a female primate’s success at feeding include

food quality. distribution of food. food availability.

Machiavellian intelligence

Manipulation of others for personal use

Share This

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more


A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message