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biological anthropology

– can also be referred to as physical anthropology – played an unfortunate role in the development of early racial typologies – is interested in the full extent of human variability – has its earliest origins in the 15th Century Age of Discovery

The American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA)

certifies forensic anthropologists and sets professional standards

which of these is not a seminal, early forensic anthropologist

Kathy Reichs

modern forensic anthropology has roots in

anatomy, medical science, biological anthropology, taphonomic studies

The application of the principles of biological anthropology to medicolegal issues is

forensic anthropology

Which of these is NOT a primary subfield of anthropology

forensic anthropology

graduate analysts at the C.A. Pound Human Identification Lab are commonly cross-trained in


How was the C.A. Pound Human identification lab expanded beyond the focus of biological anthropology

aiding in animal cruelty cases

An event of the "Modern Period" in forensic anthropology is

the establishment of the ABFA

the facility opened at the university of Tennessee in 1980

was overseen be Dr. William "bill" bass and is devoted to the study of human decomposition



Autopsies are performed when

there is an unnatural death, a prisoner dies, the family asks for it, and to collect evidence

which of these is a cause of death

gunshot wound to the head

why would a state have a coroner system instead of the medical examiner system

there may not have been enough violent crime to have a full-time medical pathologist

a medicolegal death investigator

acts as a liaison between the medical examiner and the family

the coroner system as we know it originated in


in crime scenes involving remains, the body is in the jurisdiction of

Medical Examiner/coroner

when remains are found, fleshed or skeletonized, the discoverer should

call the police and leave them alone

which of these is NOT a main objective of the forensic anthropologist

determine cause of death

medical examiners

are licensed physicians

which of the following would be LEAST likely to initiate a medicolegal investigation

the death of an elderly patient in a nursing home



Which of the following are invasive search methods

soil probing, digging test pits, digging test trenches

locating a clandestine burial can be done using

ground penetrating radar, the observation of vegetation changes, cadaver dogs, field-searching in a line

archeological provenience is

the location where a bone or other item of evidence is found within a scene

the relationship among items of evidence and between the greater crime scene and the world at large is referred to as


which of the following is the definition of in situ

in place, as found

Which of these is FALSE

law enforcement personnel are usually extensively trained to do archeological recoveries

the recovery process is documented in all of the following ways except

processing log

which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about forensic archaeological mapping

a field map does not need to convey the relationship of human remains to other evidence and landmarks within the scene

which of these is NOT a type of search technique

random search

Which of the following is NOT a type of scene processed by forensic anthropologists




The four topics covered in this module include all of the following EXCEPT


in report writing

everything that appears in the report should appear in the notes

when conducting a peer review, the peer reviewer should

discuss openly with analyst any differences of opinion

SOP stands for

Standard operating Procedures

The processing form contains the following tasks

Maceration, Case labeling, biological profile (e.g. age)

which of the following forms are used in forensic anthropological lab analysis

skeletal inventory form, trauma form, forms for the biological profile

documentation of all cases that come into the

the case log book

why do forensic anthropologists do peer reviews

as a means of quality assurance – to double check analyses and reports

Audits can be performed by the following individuals

External Auditors and Internal Auditors

Which of these would NOT be found in the case file?

These are all found in the case file (fed-ex receipts, measurement forms, emails from medical examiners, the original case report, testimonies from trial)



What is N’ganga

cauldron used to perform rituals in Palo Mayombre

Locard’s exchange principle states that:

every contact leaves a trace

After 24 hours after death, the medical examiner and her consultants may look at ______ to determine time since death?

entomology, botany, taphonomy, decomposition

Bone that appears green-ish in color can results from

Algae staining and copper staining

which of the following is evidence of shark predation/scavenging

parallel incised bone gouges, punctures, compression fractures


is the flaking of the outer (cortical) layer of bone

which of the following is NOT a shark that typically attacks people as mentioned in Stock et al

Hammerhead shark

Postmortem damage can be distinguished from perimortem damage by

color of the fracture

Soil staining can reveal

original position of the remains, type of soil, if the remains have been moved, differential preservation environments

Santeria and Palo Mayombe are

a combination of catholicism/Christianity and traditional African religions



The bones of the leg include

Femur, patella, tibia

It is important to establish __________ standards for metric methods of analysis because of population differences


the zygomatic bones articulate (connect) with

the maxillae

which of the following is distal to the humerus


the sternum is ________ to the vertebrae


the fibula is _____________ to the tibia


population differences are important to keep in mind during which parts of the biological profile

metric analysis, non-metric analysis, and sex assessment

the sagittal suture lies in the

skull midline



The average difference in size between male and female human is


the pelvis is the best place to assess _____


Which of these is typical of a female pelvis

wide subpubic angle and wide sciatic notch

the type of natural selection that involves the ways in which members of one sex attracts mates is known as what?

sexual selection

which of the following traits is most commonly observed in females

vertical forehead

which of the following traits is most commonly observed in males?

large mastoid process

which of these is typical of a male pelvis?

narrow subpubic angle

how do forensic anthropologists use the postcranial skeleton to assess sex?

using metric measurements of articular (ie joint surfaces) surfaces, observing the morphology of rib-end cartilage, observing the morphology of the pelvis

Differences in the pelvis between human males and females are primarily due to

the need to accommodate for childbirth

the male skull is characterized by

Square chin, large browridges



Age estimation in subadults can be performed using all of the following except

pubic symphysis

Of the six major joints, the bones of the shoulder will fuse


you can age a _________ but you can’t sex it; you can sex an ________ but you cant age it


a pubic symphysis with no ridges and furrows, rim erosion, and a pitted or porous face is typical of which age group

older adults

which of the following methods would give the most accurate and precise age estimate in subadult remains?

dental development

the fontanelle is

the "soft spot" in the head of an infant



which of the following statements is true of human stature

stature increases until adulthood, then decreases over time

americans have steadily increased in height over the last century. this is an example of

secular change

why do adults tend to decrease in stature as they get older?

the intervertebral (between the vertebrae) disc spaces narrow and vertebral bodies may collapse

why is stature usually reported in terms of interval rather than a point estimate?

to account for normal human variation, errors in self reported stature, and for measurement error

human bodies, like those of other mammals, follow general rules of proportions dealing with:

heat conservation and distribution

Which of the following was discovered to be the major problem with the Trotter and Gleser stature estimation study?

The tibia was incorrectly measured

by how much can cadaver stature vary from living stature in a given individual

2 inches

a problem with the Fully method of stature estimation is

the need for all bones contributing to height

which of the following statements is FALSE concerning stature

All are true

For males, self-reported stature is usually _________ actual living stature

higher than



anterior facial proganthism, rectangular eye orbits, wide interorbital distance, and a broad nasal aperture

african ancestry

non-metric traits characterizing one ancestral group can be found

more commonly within that group but also in every ancestral group

a given skull has receding zygomatics, "steepled" (narrow and pointed) nasal bones, a narrow palate, and a narrow nasal aperture. The ancestry is most likely


the concept that individuals are born with a specific set of genes that determines their behavioral norms is known as what?

biological determinism

non-metric traits used in ancestry assessment include

nasal bone morphology

a disadvantage o non-metric traits is

lack of good definitions of traits

Which continent has the greatest human genetic diversity?


FORDISC analysis is invalid when

the individual is unlikely to belong to one of the FORDISC reference populations

Why is "Hispanic" such a difficult ancestry group to define?

"Hispanic" refers to linguistically and culturally defined group that has different biological ancestry contributions in different parts of the world

the ______ is the best area to look when assessing ancestry




What is the difference between presumptive and positive identification?

Presumptive identification is based on evidence that can potentially describe more than one person, while positive identification is based on evidence that can only describe one person

Which of the following forms highly unique patterns in the cranium that can only be seen radiographically?

frontal sinus

Which of the following was suspected of preventing the death of Anastasia Romanov after she was shot?

jewels sewn into her clothes, acting as a bullet proof vest

Context of the remains is _________ in the identification process.

very useful

What types of DNA can help to make an identification?

Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA

in radiographic comparisons, it is important to remember

the passage of time between antemortem and postmortem films

Radiographic comparisons of which of the following are NOT useful in an identification

postmortem damage

which of the following is NOT an example of a biological factor helpful for an ID

nailpolish color

Identification of unidentified skeletal remains does NOT rely on which of the follwoing

visual identification

Which of the following showed DR. Falsetti that one of the individuals in the Anastasia film was female

the sciatic notch



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