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What is the normal range for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood?

35 – 45 mm Hg

Hyperventilation can result in _______.

too little carbon dioxide in the blood

Respiratory alkalosis is characterized by a blood pH _______.

greater than 7.45

Why was the breath held after the second hyperventilation?

to retain carbon dioxide

Which of the following is NOT one of the body’s physiological chemical buffering systems?


Which of the following has the greatest capacity for pH change in the body?

renal system

Respiratory alkalosis is a result of _______.

too little carbon dioxide in the blood

Hyperventilation is defined as _______.

an increase in the rate and depth of breathing

Respiratory acidosis can be a result of _______.


Which of the following occurred during rebreathing?

carbon dioxide increased

Respiratory acidosis can be compensated for by _______.

the kidneys

Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and blood pH are _______.

inversely proportional to each other

The formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide is catalyzed by _______.

carbonic anhydrase

Too much carbon dioxide in the blood can be the result of _______.


Why does rebreathing simulate hypoventilation?

Carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood with either

Respiratory acidosis is a result of _______.

an increase in the H+ in the blood

The kidneys compensate for respiratory alkalosis by _______.

conserving H+ and excreting bicarbonate ion

In uncompensated respiratory acidosis, the _______.

carbon dioxide levels of the blood are elevated

When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was decreased, what changes occurred in the urine?

H+ in the urine decreased and bicarbonate ion increased in the urine.

At which partial pressure of carbon dioxide did respiratory acidosis occur?

60 mm Hg

How do the kidneys compensate for acid-base imbalances?

all of the above

Which of the following have the same effect on plasma pH?

reabsorption of bicarbonate and excretion of H+

The movement of fluid and solutes from the peritubular capillary to the renal tubule is referred to as _______.

tubular secretion

The nephron is responsible for maintaining _______.

all of the above

Compensation of metabolic alkalosis includes which of the following?

excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system

Metabolic acidosis results in _______.


Which metabolic rate resulted in metabolic acidosis?

80 kcal/hr

Which of the following occurred when the metabolic rate was set to 20 kcal/hr?

metabolic alkalosis and hypoventilation

Excessive diarrhea results in which of the following?

loss of bicarbonate, metabolic acidosis

Ingestion of too much alcohol results in which of the following?

gain of acid, metabolic acidosis

Which of the following does NOT result in metabolic alkalosis?


Ketoacidosis is usually a result of _______.

uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

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