Anatomy Test 3

Corpus callosum

Which structure connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres?

Thalamus

Which of the following areas form the central core of the brain?

Where is the arbor vitae located

cerebellum

Superior colliculus

What part of the corpora quadrigemina is clearly observed in a midsagittal section?

Cerebrum

Which region of the brains is necessary for consciousness?

Visceral agnosia

In a rare accident, both temporal lobes have been significantly injured. As you render care, you are least worried about...

to the depth of the epidural space

To what depth must an injection of anesthetic be inserted to numb the spinal cord and thus relieve pain caudal to that area

that person would experience a lack of communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres

If a person's corpus callosum was severed....

The axons of upper motor neurons cross to the opposite side of the brain

What neuronal action occurs at the pyramids of the medulla oblongata?

Which is not associated with the spinal cord

Through the cranial nerves that attach to it, the spinal cord is involved in sensory and motor innervation of the head and neck.

What are functions of the spinal cord

major integration center for reflexes, it provides a two way conduction pathway for signals between the body and the brain, through the spinal nerves that attach to it-the spinal cord is involved in sensory and motor innervation of the entire body inferior to the head

The flax cerbri passes through the

longitudinal fissure

Insula

Region of the adult telencephalon that is covered by parts of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes.

somatosensory association cortex

Damage to which region of the brain would result in someone being unable to identify an item in his or her pocket by touch alone?

Hypothalamus

controls the autonomic nervous system and regulates hunger and thirst sensations

Dorsal column

Which fiber tract carries the sensation of discriminative touch and proprioception?

undamaged neurons in the brain sprout new cytopalsmic branches after a stroke that partially restores lost functions

Neural plasticity may occur when

The pons

Sometimes cranial nerve 6 stops functioning normally - a "VIth nerve palsy." This can be the result of a system disease like diabetes mellitus, or it can be the result of a brain stem lesion. If you were looking for a localized brain lesion, you would check which of the following?

abnormal and painful sensations in ones legs and feet

Which symptom is least suggestive of a cerebellar disorder?

The cerebellum

balance, smooth movements, and moving with eyes closed

sleeping faster

avoid light exposure after sunset, increase physical activity, and avoid stressful situations later in the day to

Speech impairment

The neglect syndrome would be LEAST likely to be associated with which of the following?

Neglect syndrome

is associated with awareness of the left hand, vision impairment,

The size of the ventral horns reflects the amount of skeletal musculature innervated at each level.

Why does the size of the ventral horns of the spinal cord vary along it length

After the third month of development, the caudal vertebrae grow faster than the spinal cord.

Why does the spinal cord of a newborn usually end at the level of L3?

a mixture of neuronal cell bodies, unmyelinated axons, dendrites, and neuroglia

The gray matter of the spinal cord

Flaccid

Damage to the ventral horns of the spinal cord or to the ventral motor roots destroys motor neurons in the region of injury, resulting in ______ paralysis

The spinal cord ends at approximately the level of L1, making the area between L4 and L5 a safe location to sample cerebral spinal fluid without injuring the neural tissue of the spinal cord

Why does a lumbar puncture take place in the lower lumbar region of the spinal cord?

Cerebellum, pons and medulla

The hindbrain of the embryo develops into which three structures

cerbrum

The telencephalon develops into what brain structure as an adult

hypothalamus, thalamus, and epithalamus

The diencephalon develops into which three structures

cerebrum

during the human embryonic and fetal periods, the brain grows rapidly, most noticeably the growth of what structure?

hypothalmus

body temp, hunger and thirst. what regulates these

cerebrum and cerebellum

both have an outer cortical layer of gray matter

Cerebellum

which region superior-most aspect is found in close proximity to the fourth ventricle and lies just posterior to the pons?

cerebrum

has frontal, parietal, temproal, and occipital lobes, and insula

cerebrum

the insula is considered to be part of the ________?

cerebrum

region of the brain that contains the basal forebrain nuclei in the deep gray matter

thalamus

largest part of the diencephalon and forms the upper and lateral walls of the third ventricle

thalamus

directs nearly all sensory input, exempt for olfactory impulses, to the cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

regulates hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland

hypothalamus

lies between the optic chiasma and the posterior border of the mammillary bodies

We have very expressive faces

A "motor homunculus" can be visualized as an overlay on the precentral gyrus. The reason why the facial region of this homunculus covers such a large surface area is because

groove, ridge

sulcus is a _____, gyrus is a _______

proprioception

The axons in the inferior olivary nuclei relay sensory impulses for....

occipital lobe

the visual association area of the cerebral cortex is located in the _______

central canal

the fluid-filled ventricles within the cerebrum are similar in function to the _______ of the spinal cord

the function of the blood-brain barrier is to

help protect the central nervous system

superior colliculi, motor nucleus for oculomotor nerve, and motor nucleus for trochlear nerve

three "seeing/vision" nuclei that occupy the midbrain of humans are the...

central canal

cerebrospinal fluid is produced by choroid plexuses in all the following locations except the

frontal lobe

lobe anterior to central sulcus

flocculonodular lobes

region of the cerebellum functionally sequences complex voluntary muscle contractions to adjust posture as body position changes

cerebellum

second largest region of the brain

falx cerebri

the sheet of dura mater that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is the

caudate nucleus

All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the

basal nuclei

Which of the following is not a hindbrain structure?

hindbrain structures

fourth ventricle, medulla, pons

Consolidate and store memories

Which of the following is not a function of nuclei within the reticular formation?

arachnoid and pia

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

dura mater

the tough, dense fibrous connective tissue meningeal layer is the

The right cerebral hemisphere cannot communicate directly with the left hemisphere.

Cutting the corpus callosum would lead to which of the following?

The basal forebrain nuclei are located closer to the hypothalamus, whereas the basal ganglia lie near the internal capsule.

What is the anatomical distinction between the basal ganglia and the basal forebrain nuclei?

Genitals proximal to the longitudinal fissure.

The abstract representation of the homunculus overlaid on the somatosensory cerebral cortex has the

Frontal eye field

Which of the following is a motor area for vision?

primary visual

The calcarine sulcus contains which functional area?

cerebellum

A lesion to the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla would interfere with the function of which other structure(s)?

fibers of the cerebellum enter and leave ipsilaterally, whereas those of the cerebrum enter and leave contralateraly.

One of the distinctions between the cerebrum and cerebellum is that

subarachnoid space

Cerebrospinal fluid is located within the

Pia mater

The only one of the meninges that follows the brain surface into a cerebral sulcus is the

alzheimer's

All of the following can lead to hydrocephalus except

the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

Which areas of the brain are most likely to process and store motor skill memories?

transverse cerebral fissure

groove that separates the cerebrum from cerebellum

the function of sensory input to the reticular activating system

After someone faints, smelling salts of ammonia may be placed under the person's nose. The person breathes the ammonia vapors, which deliver a sharp jolt to the nasal membranes, and the person wakes up. This illustrates

cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus

two parts of the brain that are most involved in emotions

the temporal lobe

A cerebrovascular accident patient who is unable to recognize faces and objects but can still visually perceive spatial arrangement of objects most likely has damage to

hypothalamus

the main visceral control center of the brain is the

hypothalamus and pineal gland

Sleep-wake cycles are controlled which two parts of the brain

prefontal lobes

If the most caudal part of the CNS is the conus medullar is, then the most rostral part is the

putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus

What are the parts of the basal ganglia

wernicke's area

Which of the following is not part of the basal ganglia

third ventricle

which of the following is not a midbrain structure?

red nucleus, corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles

midbrain structures

medulla

Neural centers that control heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the

sulcus

A shallow groove on the surface of the cerebral cortex is called

hypothalamus, cerebral cortex is in control of emotional responses. T or F

True

True

The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is connected to the hypothalamus and receives regulatory impulses that control the secretion of hormones. T of F

The ventral portion of the cerebral peduncles connect the midbrain to the cerebellum and contain the pyramidal (corticospinal) motor tracts descending to the spinal cord. T or F

False

In the olivary nuclei in the medulla, mostly proprioceptive sensory impulses are relayed to the cerebellum. T or F

True

The medullary respiratory center controls the rhythm and rate of breathing.

true

The cerebellum has an outer cortex, internal white matter, and areas of gray matter buried deep in the white matter. T or F

T

Cerebrospinal fluid passes through choroidal villi to enter the superior sagittal sinus. T or F

False

The reticular activating system (RAS) contains structures that regulate and cause emotional responses. T F

False

The amygdala is part of the limbic system and has neurons that process the emotions and reactions to fear. TF

True

The limbic system has neural ties to the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamus, and the reticular formation. TF

True

The meninges of the brain differ from those of the spinal cord in that the dura mater of the brain splits into two layers and that there is no epidural space. T or F

True

Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Mechanoreceptor/blood pressure

Baroreceptors are a type of ____ that monitors ______

tongue movement in speech and swallowing

what are functions of hypoglossal nerve

Late in the 4th week of development

At what point in embryonic development do sensory peripheral axons begin growing from the neural crest of dorsal root ganglia?

Why are sensory neurons that monitor touch, pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature considered "general sensory receptors"?

Their receptors are widely distributed over the body

propreioception

somatic sensory receptor

tregeminal

Branches of the__________cranial nerve are desensitized when a dentist gives a shot of Novocain which prevents pain impulse transmission from the teeth and gums.

bestibulocochlear

The _____ nerve transmits afferent impulses for the special senses of hearing and balance

If the L1-L4 nerves are damaged what would become paralized

quadriceps femurs and adductor muscle group

It lies inferior to the 12th rib

what is unusual about the last nerve in the thoracic series (T12)

Somatic division of the nervous system

Motor neurons to skeletal muscle belong to the

When you contract your Biceps brachii muscle, you are utilizing the somatic sensory portion of the nervous system. TF

False

Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions are part of the somatic motor nervous division. TF

False

Which injury could trigger paresthesia?

all of the above

What is a characteristic of all general sensory receptors?

They are widely distributed throughout the body

Visceral organs

Interoceptors are sensitive to stimuli arising from __________.

They are both slowly adapting receptors. (Only bulbous corpuscles (ruff ini endings) are slowly adapting

Lamellar corpuscles (Pacinian corpuscles) and bulbous corpuscles (Ruffini endings) are similar in many aspects,EXCEPT for?

Tactile corpuscles (meissner's corpuscles)

Which type of sensory receptors are found in dermal papillae of hairless skin, particularly nipples and fingertips?

pain

Nociceptors respond to harmful stimuli that result in ______.

A lemellar corpuscle (Pacinian corpuscle)

An example of an encapsulated receptor is

Mechanoreceptor and proprioceptor

A receptor that monitors stretch of the patellar tendon can be classified as a

mechanoreceptor and interoceptor.

A receptor that monitors stretch of the stomach can be classified as a

α efferent neurons

Extrafusal muscle fibers that surround a muscle spindle and resist excessive muscle stretching are innervated by

Tactile corpuscles (Meissner's)

Which of these receptors would not be found within a synovial joint capsule?

Tactile corpuscles (Meissner's corpuscles)

Occur in dermal papillae

peripheral nervous system

All of the special senses taste, smell, vision, hearing, and equilibrium are part of the afferent division of the ______ nervous sytem

Exteroceptors

what process information from visceral organs

exteroceptors

tactile corpuscles, lamellar corpuscles, and tactile epithelial cells are all what

tactile corpuscles, lamellar corpuscles, and bulbous corpuscles

Of the exteroceptors, what corpuscles are encapsulated?

muscle spindles, tendon organs, and joint kinesthetic receptors.

The primary proprioceptors are

An interoceptor receives information from receptors in the skin, such as temperature, pressure, and pain. T F

False

Jugular Foramen

Through which hole in the skull do the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves pass?

cranial nerves III, IV, VI

Which nerves innervate muscles that move the eye?

Olfactory and optic nerves

All EXCEPT which two cranial nerves attach to the brain at the brainstem?

The meninges and the epithelial lining of the nasal mucosa were punctured

As a result of fracturing the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone in a motor vehicle accident, a 37-year-old female reports losing her sense of smell. After the accident, she was told she was dripping cerebrospinal fluid from her nose. Which other injury might she have sustained?

either to his right eye or his right optic nerve

After a trauma, Jeremy has loss of vision in his right eye. He appears to have normal vision in the left eye. Based on this information, where has Jeremy's injury occurred?

The muscle inserts in the back part of the eye, causing the front of the eye to move downward.

As you can clearly see, the trochlear nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle. Why does the superior oblique muscle cause the eye to move inferiorly at all?

She will walk looking to the left as much as possible

You have accurately diagnosed a right abducens nerve paralysis. The individual has double vision because of the paralysis. The patient does not want to wear an eye patch How will she minimize her double vision?

Facial and vestibulocochlear nerves

Which cranial nerves pass through the internal acoustic meatus?

They transmit special sensory impulses

What do cranial nerves I, II, and VIII have in common?

vagus

The__________nerve is the only cranial nerve to innervate structures of the thoracic cavity and abdomen.

double vision and reduced ability to rotate the eye inferolaterally

Paralysis or damage to the trochlear nerve results in __________.

facial

If your patient had problems tasting on the anterior two-thirds of his tongue, you would suspect damage to the __________nerves

glossopharyngeal

The __________ nerve transmits parasympathetic visceromotor impulsesto the parotid salivary gland and relays sensory impulses from chemoreceptors in the carotid body.

directs somatic motor axons to four of the six extrinsic eye muscles and also transmits parasympathetic visceromotor impulses to pupillary constrictor muscle of the eye

The oculomotor nerve __________.

facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus

Identify ALL of the cranial nerves that transmit gustatory (taste) impulses.

Each contain general visceral motor axons and are characterized as nerves of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X _________.

motor to the muscles of the tongue

Which type of fibers are found in the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)?

IV

Which cranial nerve, along with the abducens and oculomotor nerves, has somatic motor fibers that pass through the superior orbital fissure?

VIII

Which cranial nerve pair has two sensory branches which both pass through the internal acoustic meatus?

IV

Of the cranial nerve pairs listed below, which nerve, along with XI and XII, relays only somatic motor impulses?

II

Which cranial nerve pair is characterized by somatic sensory fibers crossing at the ventral midline of the brain?

IV

Which cranial nerve pair, along with cranial nerve III, has fibers that pass through the superior orbital fissure?

XII

Which cranial nerve pair, similar to cranial nerve II, runs through a canal that bears the same name?

XII

Damage to which cranial nerve pair can cause difficulties in speech and swallowing?

XI

The spinal root of which cranial nerve pair innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles?

VIII

Damage to which cranial nerve pair can cause deafness and problems with equilibrium?

V

Which cranial nerve pair has three major branches, the maxillary, mandibular, and ophthalmic divisions?

V

Which of the cranial nerve listed below is the largest in diameter?

XI

Which cranial nerve pair along with the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, exits through the jugular foramen?

I

Sensory fibers of which cranial nerve pair pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone?

I

Damage to which cranial nerve pair may result in anosmia?

trochlea

Which of the cranial nerves listed below provides innervation to one of the extrinsic eye muscles?

XI

What is the only cranial nerve that has fibers that enter and leave the skull through different foramen? (Hint: It enters through the foramen magnum and leaves through the jugular foramen.

vestibulocochlear

Which of the cranial nerves listed below is a special somatic sensory nerve?

IX and X

Which cranial nerves have fibers that relay somatic motor impulses to pharyngeal muscles during swallowing?

Optic

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all of the following except the

vagus, facial, trigeminal

Mixed cranial nerves include both motor and sensory fibers include

accessory

The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all of the following except the

facial, trigeminal, glossopharyngeal

the cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include

optic

Which of these cranial nerve pairs do not pass through the superior orbital fissures?

oculomotor, abdecens, trochlear

which of these cranial nerve pairs pass through the superior orbital fissure

The abducens nerve (CN VI)

Innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye

VII

A person who cannot blink or smile could have damage to which cranial nerve

Somatic motor and general somatic sensory

The trigeminal nerve contains which class(es) of nerve fibers?

spinosum

Which of these foramen does not include a branch of the trigeminal nerve?

rotundum, ovale, mandibular

which foremen include a branch of the trigeminal nerve

III, IV, VI

To avoid double vision, which of the following groups of cranial nerves must be functioning correctly?

Accessory

Which cranial nerve pair is comprised of ventral rootlets from C1-C5?

V

The cranial nerve pair with large branches that passes through the foramen ovale of the skull is

Vestibulocochlear

Disorders of balance may follow trauma to which nerve?

The vagus nerve (CN X) is the only cranial nerve pair found inferior to the diaphragm. TF

T

vagus nerve

only cranial nerve pair found inferior to the diaphram

deltoid

The nerves of the anterior division of the brachial plexus innervate all of the following muscles EXCEPT the __________.

supinator

Which of the following muscles is innervated by the posterior division of the brachial plexus?

pectineus

Which of the following muscles is innervated by both the femoral and obturator nerves of the lumbar plexus?

adductor longus

Which of the following muscles is NOT innervated by the branches of the sacral plexus?

"claw hand" and the inability to adduct or abduct the fingers

Damage to the ulnar nerve results in __________.

cutaneous branches of the tibial nerve

If a patient had numbness of the skin on the bottom of her foot and calf, this would indicate damage to __________.

innervates the biceps brachii, brachialis, and coracobrachialis muscles

The musculocutaneous nerve __________.

phrenic

One of the most important nerves of the cervical plexus is the__________nerve which innervates the diaphragm.

branch from spinal nerves to innervate the deep/intrinsic muscles of the back

Dorsal rami __________.

axillary

The__________nerve innervates the deltoid and teres minor muscles.

Dermatomes can help pinpoint the level of spinal injuries.

What is one of the primary clinical benefits of the distribution of dermatomes?

long thoracic nerve

The serratus anterior muscle is innervated by the __________.

t2-t12

From which region of the spinal cord do the ventral rami of spinal nerves NOT form plexuses?

posterior / triceps brachii and posterior muscles of the forearm

The radial nerve is a branch of the __________ cord of the brachial plexus and it supplies the __________.

femoral

The__________nerve supplies motor innervation to the anterior compartment of the thigh, including the quadriceps femoris and sartorius

any nerve that innervates a muscle producing a movement at a joint also innervates the joint itself (and the skin over it)

Hilton's law states that

sciatic

The__________is actually two nerves wrapped in a common sheath. It supplies the entire lower limb except for the anterior and medial regions of the thigh.

Dorsal root of spinal nerve

Sensory impulses from the skin would be transmitted into the spinal cord on the

radial

Which spinal nerve relays motor impulses to most of the muscles of the posterior forearm?

sciatic

The tibial and common fibular nerves branch from the ________ nerve.

ventral and dorsal rami

If one likens a spinal nerve to the trunk of a tree, then the two roots of this tree are the dorsal and ventral roots. What would represent the two large branches of this tree?

phrenic

Contraction rate of the diaphragm is controlled by which nerve?

median

Of the following, the nerve that forms from fibers of both the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus is the

phrenic

Which of these nerves does not arise primarily from the brachial plexus?

tibial

The gastrocnemius muscle is innervated by the ________ nerve.

anterior thigh muscles

Which of the following regions is not innervated by nerves of the sacral plexus (L4 - S4)?

sacral plexus

Spinal nerves found at the level of L4 to about S4 form the

claw hand

An injury to the ulnar nerve causes

spinal nerves are

present in 31pairs

femoral

The primary nerve to muscles of the anterior thigh is the

t10

what specific dermatome lies at the level of the navel?

radial

Which of these nerves arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?

The ventral rami of T1-T12 spinal nerves lie just inferior to each rib.

Which of these statements about intercostal nerves is true?

the anterior divisions of the upper and middle trunks.

The lateral cord of the brachial plexus forms directly from

Which nerve does not arise from the anterior division of the brachial plexus?

Which nerve does not arise from the anterior division of the brachial plexus?

wrist drop

A lesion/injury to the radial nerve causes

musculocutaneous

The muscles that initiate flexion at the elbow joint (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve from the lateral cord?

rami, trunks, divisions, cords

Starting at the spinal cord and proceeding distally, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are

sciatic nerve

one of the largest branches of the sacral plexus

dermatome

an area of skin that is innervated by the cutaneous branches from one spinal nerve pair

roots, trunks, divisions, cords

the sequence of brachial plexus components from the spinal cord to the distal targets

vitamin B deficiency and diabetes

What conditions can cause peripheral neuropathy?

cause migraines

Dilation of cerebral arteries due to release of chemicals from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve is now known to __________.

weakness in the adductor muscles of the thigh

Which symptom would NOT be caused by neuropathy in the femoral nerve?

trigeminal nerve

Migraine headaches result when cerebral arteries dilate in response to neurotransmitters released from the

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Anatomy Test 3

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Corpus callosum

Which structure connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres?

Thalamus

Which of the following areas form the central core of the brain?

Where is the arbor vitae located

cerebellum

Superior colliculus

What part of the corpora quadrigemina is clearly observed in a midsagittal section?

Cerebrum

Which region of the brains is necessary for consciousness?

Visceral agnosia

In a rare accident, both temporal lobes have been significantly injured. As you render care, you are least worried about…

to the depth of the epidural space

To what depth must an injection of anesthetic be inserted to numb the spinal cord and thus relieve pain caudal to that area

that person would experience a lack of communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres

If a person’s corpus callosum was severed….

The axons of upper motor neurons cross to the opposite side of the brain

What neuronal action occurs at the pyramids of the medulla oblongata?

Which is not associated with the spinal cord

Through the cranial nerves that attach to it, the spinal cord is involved in sensory and motor innervation of the head and neck.

What are functions of the spinal cord

major integration center for reflexes, it provides a two way conduction pathway for signals between the body and the brain, through the spinal nerves that attach to it-the spinal cord is involved in sensory and motor innervation of the entire body inferior to the head

The flax cerbri passes through the

longitudinal fissure

Insula

Region of the adult telencephalon that is covered by parts of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes.

somatosensory association cortex

Damage to which region of the brain would result in someone being unable to identify an item in his or her pocket by touch alone?

Hypothalamus

controls the autonomic nervous system and regulates hunger and thirst sensations

Dorsal column

Which fiber tract carries the sensation of discriminative touch and proprioception?

undamaged neurons in the brain sprout new cytopalsmic branches after a stroke that partially restores lost functions

Neural plasticity may occur when

The pons

Sometimes cranial nerve 6 stops functioning normally – a "VIth nerve palsy." This can be the result of a system disease like diabetes mellitus, or it can be the result of a brain stem lesion. If you were looking for a localized brain lesion, you would check which of the following?

abnormal and painful sensations in ones legs and feet

Which symptom is least suggestive of a cerebellar disorder?

The cerebellum

balance, smooth movements, and moving with eyes closed

sleeping faster

avoid light exposure after sunset, increase physical activity, and avoid stressful situations later in the day to

Speech impairment

The neglect syndrome would be LEAST likely to be associated with which of the following?

Neglect syndrome

is associated with awareness of the left hand, vision impairment,

The size of the ventral horns reflects the amount of skeletal musculature innervated at each level.

Why does the size of the ventral horns of the spinal cord vary along it length

After the third month of development, the caudal vertebrae grow faster than the spinal cord.

Why does the spinal cord of a newborn usually end at the level of L3?

a mixture of neuronal cell bodies, unmyelinated axons, dendrites, and neuroglia

The gray matter of the spinal cord

Flaccid

Damage to the ventral horns of the spinal cord or to the ventral motor roots destroys motor neurons in the region of injury, resulting in ______ paralysis

The spinal cord ends at approximately the level of L1, making the area between L4 and L5 a safe location to sample cerebral spinal fluid without injuring the neural tissue of the spinal cord

Why does a lumbar puncture take place in the lower lumbar region of the spinal cord?

Cerebellum, pons and medulla

The hindbrain of the embryo develops into which three structures

cerbrum

The telencephalon develops into what brain structure as an adult

hypothalamus, thalamus, and epithalamus

The diencephalon develops into which three structures

cerebrum

during the human embryonic and fetal periods, the brain grows rapidly, most noticeably the growth of what structure?

hypothalmus

body temp, hunger and thirst. what regulates these

cerebrum and cerebellum

both have an outer cortical layer of gray matter

Cerebellum

which region superior-most aspect is found in close proximity to the fourth ventricle and lies just posterior to the pons?

cerebrum

has frontal, parietal, temproal, and occipital lobes, and insula

cerebrum

the insula is considered to be part of the ________?

cerebrum

region of the brain that contains the basal forebrain nuclei in the deep gray matter

thalamus

largest part of the diencephalon and forms the upper and lateral walls of the third ventricle

thalamus

directs nearly all sensory input, exempt for olfactory impulses, to the cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

regulates hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland

hypothalamus

lies between the optic chiasma and the posterior border of the mammillary bodies

We have very expressive faces

A "motor homunculus" can be visualized as an overlay on the precentral gyrus. The reason why the facial region of this homunculus covers such a large surface area is because

groove, ridge

sulcus is a _____, gyrus is a _______

proprioception

The axons in the inferior olivary nuclei relay sensory impulses for….

occipital lobe

the visual association area of the cerebral cortex is located in the _______

central canal

the fluid-filled ventricles within the cerebrum are similar in function to the _______ of the spinal cord

the function of the blood-brain barrier is to

help protect the central nervous system

superior colliculi, motor nucleus for oculomotor nerve, and motor nucleus for trochlear nerve

three "seeing/vision" nuclei that occupy the midbrain of humans are the…

central canal

cerebrospinal fluid is produced by choroid plexuses in all the following locations except the

frontal lobe

lobe anterior to central sulcus

flocculonodular lobes

region of the cerebellum functionally sequences complex voluntary muscle contractions to adjust posture as body position changes

cerebellum

second largest region of the brain

falx cerebri

the sheet of dura mater that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is the

caudate nucleus

All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the

basal nuclei

Which of the following is not a hindbrain structure?

hindbrain structures

fourth ventricle, medulla, pons

Consolidate and store memories

Which of the following is not a function of nuclei within the reticular formation?

arachnoid and pia

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

dura mater

the tough, dense fibrous connective tissue meningeal layer is the

The right cerebral hemisphere cannot communicate directly with the left hemisphere.

Cutting the corpus callosum would lead to which of the following?

The basal forebrain nuclei are located closer to the hypothalamus, whereas the basal ganglia lie near the internal capsule.

What is the anatomical distinction between the basal ganglia and the basal forebrain nuclei?

Genitals proximal to the longitudinal fissure.

The abstract representation of the homunculus overlaid on the somatosensory cerebral cortex has the

Frontal eye field

Which of the following is a motor area for vision?

primary visual

The calcarine sulcus contains which functional area?

cerebellum

A lesion to the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla would interfere with the function of which other structure(s)?

fibers of the cerebellum enter and leave ipsilaterally, whereas those of the cerebrum enter and leave contralateraly.

One of the distinctions between the cerebrum and cerebellum is that

subarachnoid space

Cerebrospinal fluid is located within the

Pia mater

The only one of the meninges that follows the brain surface into a cerebral sulcus is the

alzheimer’s

All of the following can lead to hydrocephalus except

the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

Which areas of the brain are most likely to process and store motor skill memories?

transverse cerebral fissure

groove that separates the cerebrum from cerebellum

the function of sensory input to the reticular activating system

After someone faints, smelling salts of ammonia may be placed under the person’s nose. The person breathes the ammonia vapors, which deliver a sharp jolt to the nasal membranes, and the person wakes up. This illustrates

cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus

two parts of the brain that are most involved in emotions

the temporal lobe

A cerebrovascular accident patient who is unable to recognize faces and objects but can still visually perceive spatial arrangement of objects most likely has damage to

hypothalamus

the main visceral control center of the brain is the

hypothalamus and pineal gland

Sleep-wake cycles are controlled which two parts of the brain

prefontal lobes

If the most caudal part of the CNS is the conus medullar is, then the most rostral part is the

putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus

What are the parts of the basal ganglia

wernicke’s area

Which of the following is not part of the basal ganglia

third ventricle

which of the following is not a midbrain structure?

red nucleus, corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles

midbrain structures

medulla

Neural centers that control heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the

sulcus

A shallow groove on the surface of the cerebral cortex is called

hypothalamus, cerebral cortex is in control of emotional responses. T or F

True

True

The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is connected to the hypothalamus and receives regulatory impulses that control the secretion of hormones. T of F

The ventral portion of the cerebral peduncles connect the midbrain to the cerebellum and contain the pyramidal (corticospinal) motor tracts descending to the spinal cord. T or F

False

In the olivary nuclei in the medulla, mostly proprioceptive sensory impulses are relayed to the cerebellum. T or F

True

The medullary respiratory center controls the rhythm and rate of breathing.

true

The cerebellum has an outer cortex, internal white matter, and areas of gray matter buried deep in the white matter. T or F

T

Cerebrospinal fluid passes through choroidal villi to enter the superior sagittal sinus. T or F

False

The reticular activating system (RAS) contains structures that regulate and cause emotional responses. T F

False

The amygdala is part of the limbic system and has neurons that process the emotions and reactions to fear. TF

True

The limbic system has neural ties to the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamus, and the reticular formation. TF

True

The meninges of the brain differ from those of the spinal cord in that the dura mater of the brain splits into two layers and that there is no epidural space. T or F

True

Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Mechanoreceptor/blood pressure

Baroreceptors are a type of ____ that monitors ______

tongue movement in speech and swallowing

what are functions of hypoglossal nerve

Late in the 4th week of development

At what point in embryonic development do sensory peripheral axons begin growing from the neural crest of dorsal root ganglia?

Why are sensory neurons that monitor touch, pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature considered "general sensory receptors"?

Their receptors are widely distributed over the body

propreioception

somatic sensory receptor

tregeminal

Branches of the__________cranial nerve are desensitized when a dentist gives a shot of Novocain which prevents pain impulse transmission from the teeth and gums.

bestibulocochlear

The _____ nerve transmits afferent impulses for the special senses of hearing and balance

If the L1-L4 nerves are damaged what would become paralized

quadriceps femurs and adductor muscle group

It lies inferior to the 12th rib

what is unusual about the last nerve in the thoracic series (T12)

Somatic division of the nervous system

Motor neurons to skeletal muscle belong to the

When you contract your Biceps brachii muscle, you are utilizing the somatic sensory portion of the nervous system. TF

False

Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions are part of the somatic motor nervous division. TF

False

Which injury could trigger paresthesia?

all of the above

What is a characteristic of all general sensory receptors?

They are widely distributed throughout the body

Visceral organs

Interoceptors are sensitive to stimuli arising from __________.

They are both slowly adapting receptors. (Only bulbous corpuscles (ruff ini endings) are slowly adapting

Lamellar corpuscles (Pacinian corpuscles) and bulbous corpuscles (Ruffini endings) are similar in many aspects,EXCEPT for?

Tactile corpuscles (meissner’s corpuscles)

Which type of sensory receptors are found in dermal papillae of hairless skin, particularly nipples and fingertips?

pain

Nociceptors respond to harmful stimuli that result in ______.

A lemellar corpuscle (Pacinian corpuscle)

An example of an encapsulated receptor is

Mechanoreceptor and proprioceptor

A receptor that monitors stretch of the patellar tendon can be classified as a

mechanoreceptor and interoceptor.

A receptor that monitors stretch of the stomach can be classified as a

α efferent neurons

Extrafusal muscle fibers that surround a muscle spindle and resist excessive muscle stretching are innervated by

Tactile corpuscles (Meissner’s)

Which of these receptors would not be found within a synovial joint capsule?

Tactile corpuscles (Meissner’s corpuscles)

Occur in dermal papillae

peripheral nervous system

All of the special senses taste, smell, vision, hearing, and equilibrium are part of the afferent division of the ______ nervous sytem

Exteroceptors

what process information from visceral organs

exteroceptors

tactile corpuscles, lamellar corpuscles, and tactile epithelial cells are all what

tactile corpuscles, lamellar corpuscles, and bulbous corpuscles

Of the exteroceptors, what corpuscles are encapsulated?

muscle spindles, tendon organs, and joint kinesthetic receptors.

The primary proprioceptors are

An interoceptor receives information from receptors in the skin, such as temperature, pressure, and pain. T F

False

Jugular Foramen

Through which hole in the skull do the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves pass?

cranial nerves III, IV, VI

Which nerves innervate muscles that move the eye?

Olfactory and optic nerves

All EXCEPT which two cranial nerves attach to the brain at the brainstem?

The meninges and the epithelial lining of the nasal mucosa were punctured

As a result of fracturing the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone in a motor vehicle accident, a 37-year-old female reports losing her sense of smell. After the accident, she was told she was dripping cerebrospinal fluid from her nose. Which other injury might she have sustained?

either to his right eye or his right optic nerve

After a trauma, Jeremy has loss of vision in his right eye. He appears to have normal vision in the left eye. Based on this information, where has Jeremy’s injury occurred?

The muscle inserts in the back part of the eye, causing the front of the eye to move downward.

As you can clearly see, the trochlear nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle. Why does the superior oblique muscle cause the eye to move inferiorly at all?

She will walk looking to the left as much as possible

You have accurately diagnosed a right abducens nerve paralysis. The individual has double vision because of the paralysis. The patient does not want to wear an eye patch How will she minimize her double vision?

Facial and vestibulocochlear nerves

Which cranial nerves pass through the internal acoustic meatus?

They transmit special sensory impulses

What do cranial nerves I, II, and VIII have in common?

vagus

The__________nerve is the only cranial nerve to innervate structures of the thoracic cavity and abdomen.

double vision and reduced ability to rotate the eye inferolaterally

Paralysis or damage to the trochlear nerve results in __________.

facial

If your patient had problems tasting on the anterior two-thirds of his tongue, you would suspect damage to the __________nerves

glossopharyngeal

The __________ nerve transmits parasympathetic visceromotor impulsesto the parotid salivary gland and relays sensory impulses from chemoreceptors in the carotid body.

directs somatic motor axons to four of the six extrinsic eye muscles and also transmits parasympathetic visceromotor impulses to pupillary constrictor muscle of the eye

The oculomotor nerve __________.

facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus

Identify ALL of the cranial nerves that transmit gustatory (taste) impulses.

Each contain general visceral motor axons and are characterized as nerves of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X _________.

motor to the muscles of the tongue

Which type of fibers are found in the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)?

IV

Which cranial nerve, along with the abducens and oculomotor nerves, has somatic motor fibers that pass through the superior orbital fissure?

VIII

Which cranial nerve pair has two sensory branches which both pass through the internal acoustic meatus?

IV

Of the cranial nerve pairs listed below, which nerve, along with XI and XII, relays only somatic motor impulses?

II

Which cranial nerve pair is characterized by somatic sensory fibers crossing at the ventral midline of the brain?

IV

Which cranial nerve pair, along with cranial nerve III, has fibers that pass through the superior orbital fissure?

XII

Which cranial nerve pair, similar to cranial nerve II, runs through a canal that bears the same name?

XII

Damage to which cranial nerve pair can cause difficulties in speech and swallowing?

XI

The spinal root of which cranial nerve pair innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles?

VIII

Damage to which cranial nerve pair can cause deafness and problems with equilibrium?

V

Which cranial nerve pair has three major branches, the maxillary, mandibular, and ophthalmic divisions?

V

Which of the cranial nerve listed below is the largest in diameter?

XI

Which cranial nerve pair along with the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, exits through the jugular foramen?

I

Sensory fibers of which cranial nerve pair pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone?

I

Damage to which cranial nerve pair may result in anosmia?

trochlea

Which of the cranial nerves listed below provides innervation to one of the extrinsic eye muscles?

XI

What is the only cranial nerve that has fibers that enter and leave the skull through different foramen? (Hint: It enters through the foramen magnum and leaves through the jugular foramen.

vestibulocochlear

Which of the cranial nerves listed below is a special somatic sensory nerve?

IX and X

Which cranial nerves have fibers that relay somatic motor impulses to pharyngeal muscles during swallowing?

Optic

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all of the following except the

vagus, facial, trigeminal

Mixed cranial nerves include both motor and sensory fibers include

accessory

The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all of the following except the

facial, trigeminal, glossopharyngeal

the cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include

optic

Which of these cranial nerve pairs do not pass through the superior orbital fissures?

oculomotor, abdecens, trochlear

which of these cranial nerve pairs pass through the superior orbital fissure

The abducens nerve (CN VI)

Innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye

VII

A person who cannot blink or smile could have damage to which cranial nerve

Somatic motor and general somatic sensory

The trigeminal nerve contains which class(es) of nerve fibers?

spinosum

Which of these foramen does not include a branch of the trigeminal nerve?

rotundum, ovale, mandibular

which foremen include a branch of the trigeminal nerve

III, IV, VI

To avoid double vision, which of the following groups of cranial nerves must be functioning correctly?

Accessory

Which cranial nerve pair is comprised of ventral rootlets from C1-C5?

V

The cranial nerve pair with large branches that passes through the foramen ovale of the skull is

Vestibulocochlear

Disorders of balance may follow trauma to which nerve?

The vagus nerve (CN X) is the only cranial nerve pair found inferior to the diaphragm. TF

T

vagus nerve

only cranial nerve pair found inferior to the diaphram

deltoid

The nerves of the anterior division of the brachial plexus innervate all of the following muscles EXCEPT the __________.

supinator

Which of the following muscles is innervated by the posterior division of the brachial plexus?

pectineus

Which of the following muscles is innervated by both the femoral and obturator nerves of the lumbar plexus?

adductor longus

Which of the following muscles is NOT innervated by the branches of the sacral plexus?

"claw hand" and the inability to adduct or abduct the fingers

Damage to the ulnar nerve results in __________.

cutaneous branches of the tibial nerve

If a patient had numbness of the skin on the bottom of her foot and calf, this would indicate damage to __________.

innervates the biceps brachii, brachialis, and coracobrachialis muscles

The musculocutaneous nerve __________.

phrenic

One of the most important nerves of the cervical plexus is the__________nerve which innervates the diaphragm.

branch from spinal nerves to innervate the deep/intrinsic muscles of the back

Dorsal rami __________.

axillary

The__________nerve innervates the deltoid and teres minor muscles.

Dermatomes can help pinpoint the level of spinal injuries.

What is one of the primary clinical benefits of the distribution of dermatomes?

long thoracic nerve

The serratus anterior muscle is innervated by the __________.

t2-t12

From which region of the spinal cord do the ventral rami of spinal nerves NOT form plexuses?

posterior / triceps brachii and posterior muscles of the forearm

The radial nerve is a branch of the __________ cord of the brachial plexus and it supplies the __________.

femoral

The__________nerve supplies motor innervation to the anterior compartment of the thigh, including the quadriceps femoris and sartorius

any nerve that innervates a muscle producing a movement at a joint also innervates the joint itself (and the skin over it)

Hilton’s law states that

sciatic

The__________is actually two nerves wrapped in a common sheath. It supplies the entire lower limb except for the anterior and medial regions of the thigh.

Dorsal root of spinal nerve

Sensory impulses from the skin would be transmitted into the spinal cord on the

radial

Which spinal nerve relays motor impulses to most of the muscles of the posterior forearm?

sciatic

The tibial and common fibular nerves branch from the ________ nerve.

ventral and dorsal rami

If one likens a spinal nerve to the trunk of a tree, then the two roots of this tree are the dorsal and ventral roots. What would represent the two large branches of this tree?

phrenic

Contraction rate of the diaphragm is controlled by which nerve?

median

Of the following, the nerve that forms from fibers of both the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus is the

phrenic

Which of these nerves does not arise primarily from the brachial plexus?

tibial

The gastrocnemius muscle is innervated by the ________ nerve.

anterior thigh muscles

Which of the following regions is not innervated by nerves of the sacral plexus (L4 – S4)?

sacral plexus

Spinal nerves found at the level of L4 to about S4 form the

claw hand

An injury to the ulnar nerve causes

spinal nerves are

present in 31pairs

femoral

The primary nerve to muscles of the anterior thigh is the

t10

what specific dermatome lies at the level of the navel?

radial

Which of these nerves arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?

The ventral rami of T1-T12 spinal nerves lie just inferior to each rib.

Which of these statements about intercostal nerves is true?

the anterior divisions of the upper and middle trunks.

The lateral cord of the brachial plexus forms directly from

Which nerve does not arise from the anterior division of the brachial plexus?

Which nerve does not arise from the anterior division of the brachial plexus?

wrist drop

A lesion/injury to the radial nerve causes

musculocutaneous

The muscles that initiate flexion at the elbow joint (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve from the lateral cord?

rami, trunks, divisions, cords

Starting at the spinal cord and proceeding distally, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are

sciatic nerve

one of the largest branches of the sacral plexus

dermatome

an area of skin that is innervated by the cutaneous branches from one spinal nerve pair

roots, trunks, divisions, cords

the sequence of brachial plexus components from the spinal cord to the distal targets

vitamin B deficiency and diabetes

What conditions can cause peripheral neuropathy?

cause migraines

Dilation of cerebral arteries due to release of chemicals from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve is now known to __________.

weakness in the adductor muscles of the thigh

Which symptom would NOT be caused by neuropathy in the femoral nerve?

trigeminal nerve

Migraine headaches result when cerebral arteries dilate in response to neurotransmitters released from the

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