Anatomy Chapter 24

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vasa recta

The __________ are an important part of the kidney’s urine-concentrating mechanism found surrounding the nephron loops (loops of Henle) of juxtamedullary nephrons. a) peritubular capillaries b) renin-angiotensin mechanisms c) macula densa d) proximal convoluted tubules e) vasa recta

glomerulus

Mesangial cells show contractile properties and regulate blood flow within the__________ .

stress incontinence

If an elderly patient exhibited urethral sphincter dysfunction, where coughing and sneezing resulted in urine expulsion, he or she probably is suffering from __________. urge incontinence urinary retention syndrome reflexive voiding syndrome overflow incontinence stress incontinence

detrusor

Contraction of the bladder’s__________ muscle squeezes urine from the bladder during urination.

Their luminal epithelium is transitional epithelium

In what way is the histology of the ureters the same as that of the urinary bladder? a) Both the ureters and the urinary bladder contain the detrusor muscle. b) Their muscularis is composed of smooth muscle and skeletal muscle. c) Their luminal epithelium is transitional epithelium. d) The muscularis of the ureters is comprised of inner longitudinal, middle circular, and outer longitudinal for its entire length and the muscularis of the urinary bladder is comprised of the same three layers.

Renal agenesis would occur.

If the metanephric kidneys (metanephros) fail to develop, what is the result? a) Polycystic kidney disease would occur. b) The kidneys would fail to ascend to their normal position. c) The cloaca would not divide into the future rectum and the urogenital sinus. d) The two kidneys would fuse into one "horseshoe" kidney. e) The volume of amniotic fluid would be low or inadequate. f) Renal agenesis would occur.

pons

The micturition center is located in what part of the brain?

Most nutrients, water, and essential ions are returned to the blood renal capillaries.

What happens in tubular resorption? a) Most nutrients, water, and essential ions are returned to the blood renal capillaries. b) The urine becomes more dilute because of the addition of water from surrounding renal capillaries. c) Some waste compounds are returned to the blood of renal capillaries for further processing. d) Undesirable molecules are moved into the tubule from surrounding renal capillaries.

transitional epithelium

Which type of epithelium lines the lumen of the ureter (shown here), urinary bladder, and proximal portions of the urethra? a) stratified squamous epithelium b) transitional epithelium c) columnar epithelium d) stratified cuboidal epithelium

distal convoluted tubule / simple cuboidal epithelium with long microvilli

Which region of the urinary system is NOT correctly paired with its epithelial tissue? a) urinary bladder / transitional epithelium b) distal convoluted tubule / simple cuboidal epithelium with long microvilli c) parietal layer of the glomerular capsule / simple squamous epithelium d) mid-urethra (particularly in males) / pseudostratified columnar epithelium e) thin segment of the nephron loop (loop of Henle)/ simple squamous epithelium f) distal end of the urethra / stratified squamous epithelium

abnormal acidity or alkalinity of urine; dehydration; oversaturation of renal filtrate with oxalate or uric acid

Which factors can predispose someone to form kidney stones (renal calculi)? a) high blood pressure; high protein diet; obesity; dehydration b) obesity; history of smoking; use of artificial sweeteners c) oversaturation of renal filtrate with calcium ions or uric acid; blockage of urine flow in the urinary tract; excessive hydration; use of artificial sweeteners d) abnormal acidity or alkalinity of urine; dehydration; oversaturation of renal filtrate with oxalate or uric acid

It develops in the pelvic region in week 5.The ureteric bud grows from the mesonephric duct inducing mesoderm there to form nephrons.

When and how does the metanephric kidney develop? a) Around week 8 it develops in the pelvis from the allantois. b) Around week 8 it develops in the dorsal abdominal wall from the urogenital sinus. c) It develops in the pelvic region in week 5.The ureteric bud grows from the mesonephric duct inducing mesoderm there to form nephrons. d) It develops from intermediate mesoderm in the dorsal abdominal wall in week 4 and forms a set of nephrons.

consist of a glomerulus and a glomerular capsule

Renal corpuscles __________. a) consist of a glomerulus and a glomerular capsule b) are located in the cortex and medulla of the kidney c) are the final portion of the nephron before the collecting duct d) contain the afferent and efferent arterioles

They are adapted for secretion.

Which of these statements concerning peritubular capillaries is FALSE? a) They are continuous from efferent arterioles draining the cortical glomeruli. b) They are adapted for secretion. c) They are low-pressure porous capillaries. d) They absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells after these substances are resorbed from filtrate.

urea: results from breakdown of amino acids during normal recycling of the body’s proteins

Which of these nitrogenous wastes produced by the kidneys are correctly paired with the original substance and process from which it is derived? a) uric acid: derives from breakdown of a molecule in muscle that stores energy for manufacture of ATP b) urea: results from breakdown of amino acids during normal recycling of the body’s proteins c) creatinine: results from turnover of nucleic acids d) All choices are correctly paired. e) No choice is correctly paired.

clings to the glomerulus, consists of branching cells call podocytes, and plays an important role in the formation of filtrate

The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule __________. a) is a fenestrated endothelium, like the glomerular capillaries b) plays no role in formation of filtrate c) is a simple squamous epithelium that contributes to the structure of the capsule d) clings to the glomerulus, consists of branching cells call podocytes, and plays an important role in the formation of filtrate

the fibrous capsule

Which structure helps maintain the shape of the kidneys, and forms a barrier that prevents spread of infection from surrounding regions? ribs 11 and 12 vertebrae T12-L3 perirenal fat the fibrous capsule pararenal fat

urachus

The closed remnant of the allantois is the__________ .

active

Secretion is a/an__________ process that moves undesirable molecules from the blood of surrounding capillaries into the uriniferous tubules.

filtrate

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule plays no role in the formation of__________ . filtrate

juxtaglomerular

__________ cells secrete renin in response to falling blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.

These regions have narrower diameters than other regions of the ureter.

Why are the regions of L2, the sacroiliac joint, and the site where the ureters join the urinary bladder particularly susceptible places for kidney stones to lodge in the ureters? a) These are regions where the straight ureter turns at a right angle. b) These regions have higher tubular resorption, so have the potential for more solutes accumulating as kidney stones. c) These regions have narrower diameters than other regions of the ureter. d) These regions are more convoluted than other areas of the ureter.

The thin segments of the nephron loop (loop of Henle.)

Which structure(s) is/are confined to the renal medulla? a) The renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, and distal convoluted tubule b) only cortical nephrons c) only the renal corpuscle d) the juxtaglomerular apparatus e) The thin segments of the nephron loop (loop of Henle.)

segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, cortical radiate artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillary

Which of these sequences correctly traces arterial blood as it flows from the renal artery to the renal cortex? a) segmental artery, arcuate artery, interlobar artery, cortical radiate artery, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillary, afferent arteriole, glomerulus b) interlobar artery, segmental artery, cortical radiate artery, peritubular capillary, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, glomerulus, arcuate artery c) arcuate artery, interlobar artery, segmental artery, cortical radiate artery, peritubular capillary, efferent arteriole, afferent arteriole, glomerulus d) segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, cortical radiate artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillary e) None of the listed choices is correct.

99

Eventually, throughout the uriniferous tubules, about__________ % of fluid is resorbed into the blood

is the actual filter that lies between the blood in the glomerulus and the capsular space

The filtration membrane __________. a) is formed of two layers: a basal lamina of endothelium and the podocyte epithelium b) is specialized for the selective secretion and resorption of ions c) has long microvilli on the luminal surface of its epithelium, numerous mitochondria, and a highly infolded basolateral plasma membrane that contains ion-pumping enzymes responsible for resorbing molecules from filtrate d) is the actual filter that lies between the blood in the glomerulus and the capsular space

The collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules become more permeable to water, which results in additional water being resorbed into blood vessels from the filtrate

Which of these events occurs after the posterior pituitary gland secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH)? a) A normal volume of more concentrated urine is produced. b) There is potential for dehydration. c) Copious amounts of dilute urine are produced. d) The collecting ducts become less permeable to water, which results in water being resorbed from blood vessels into the tubules and collecting ducts. e) The collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules become more permeable to water, which results in additional water being resorbed into blood vessels from the filtrate.

Arterioles are high-resistance blood vessels, and the efferent arteriole is narrower than the afferent arteriole

Why is blood pressure in the glomerulus higher than in other capillary beds? a) The volume of blood passing through the glomerulus is higher per unit area than in other capillary beds. b) The afferent arteriole is more permeable than the efferent arteriole, causing blood leaving the glomerulus to retain most of the solutes and ions destined to be released in urine. c) Arterioles are low-resistance blood vessels, and the afferent arteriole is narrower than the efferent arteriole. d) Arterioles are high-resistance blood vessels, and the efferent arteriole is narrower than the afferent arteriole. e) Peritubular capillaries are less permeable than efferent arterioles, causing blood pressure to increase in the glomerulus.

renal hilum

The region of the kidney where the renal vessels and the ureter enter and exit the kidney is called the ________________. renal hilum renal cortex major calyx renal pelvis

collecting duct

Which of the following portions of the nephron is found in both the renal cortex and medulla? distal convoluted tubule proximal convoluted tubule collecting duct renal corpuscle

interlobar arteries

Which vessels pass through the renal columns as they carry blood toward the glomerular capillaries? segmental arteries interlobar arteries arcuate vein cortical radiate arteries

proximal convoluted tubule; simple cuboidal epithelium with long microvilli

Which section of the renal tubule is most active in secretion and resorption? What type of epithelium is located in this region? a) glomerular capsule; podocytes in the visceral layer and simple squamous epithelium in the parietal layer b) nephron loop (loop of Henle); simple squamous epithelium c) proximal convoluted tubule; simple cuboidal epithelium with long microvilli d) distal convoluted tubule; simple cuboidal epithelium

glomerular capillaries

Which vessels in the nephron function in filtration? peritubular capillaries glomerular capillaries vasa recta afferent arteriole

granular cells

Which cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete the hormone renin podocytes mesangial cells macula densa granular cells

glomerulus

Knot of capillaries that directs blood into the efferent arteriole. afferent arterioles cortical radiate arteries arcuate arteries glomerulus peritubular capillaries

hilum

The medial concave cleft in which vessels, ureters, and nerves enter/leave the kidney. sinus cortex renal corpuscle renal capsule hilum

sinus

A large fat-filled space within the kidney that also contains the renal pelvis, blood vessels, and nerves. renal pyramids cortical columns renal corpuscle sinus convoluted tubules

minor calyx

Cup-shaped tubes that enclose the papillae of the pyramids. renal pelvis minor calyx renal sinus cortical columns major calyx

cortical

85% of nephrons are described by this term that relates to their location in the kidney. sinusoidal medullary cortical trabecular extrinsic

macula densa

Region of the distal tubule that monitors concentration of the filtrate. macula densa mesangial vasa recta extraglomerular collecting duct

retroperitoneal

The descriptive term for the location of the kidneys relative to the abdominal cavity. intraperitoneal extraabdominal subcapsular supraperitoneal retroperitoneal

vasa recta

Ladderlike looping blood vessels within the medulla. vasa recta cortical radiate vasa vasorum peritubular capillaries interlobular

afferent arteriole

Blood vessel that contains granular cells involved in blood pressure regulation. efferent arteriole macula densa extraglomerular mesangial segmental artery afferent arteriole

glucose

Which of the following is not normally found in urine? creatinine urea glucose uric acid

openings of papillary ducts

If you looked closely at the tip of a renal papilla with a hand lens, the hundreds of little openings you would see on its surface are minor calyces. renal sinuses. openings of papillary ducts. glomeruli.

medial hilum

Vessels and nerves enter and leave the kidney through the lateral convex surface. fibrous capsule. medial hilum. inferior surface.

cortex

The most superficial layer of the kidney is the renal pyramids. renal papilla. cortex. medulla.

1%

How much of the fluid filtered by the kidney actually becomes urine? 1% 50% 10% 99%

paraenal fat

Which of the following supportive tissues is most superficial? pararenal fat fibrous capsule renal fascia perirenal fat

renal pelvis

Before it enters the ureter, urine collects in the renal pyramids. renal sinus. renal pelvis. renal cortex.

interlobar arteries

Which vessels lie within the renal columns? cortical radiate arteries segmental arteries arcuate arteries interlobar arteries

granular cells

Which of the following is not part of the filtration membrane? capillary endothelium filtration slit diaphragm basement membrane granular cells

evaporation

Which of the following processes does not participate in the production of urine in the kidney? evaporation resorption filtration secretion

the nephron loop

Which of the following is not found in the renal corpuscle? glomerular capsule the glomerulus podocytes the nephron loop

determine the final volume and concentration of urine.

The function of the collecting duct is to a) drain blood from the kidney and deliver it to the renal vein. b) transport resorbed water back into the cardiovascular system. c) contract its muscular walls to expel urine from the cortex. d) determine the final volume and concentration of urine.

abdominal

The kidneys lie behind the ________ cavity. cranial pelvic abdominal thoracic

the granular cells

Renin is produced in the granular cells. the renal medulla. the glomerulus. glomerular capsules.

descending limb of the nephron loop

Which segment of the nephron has a simple squamous epithelium? a) distal convoluted tubule b) ascending limb of the nephron loop c) descending limb of the nephron loop d) proximal convoluted tubule

the proximal tubule cells have long microvilli that are fewer than or absent from the distal tubule cells.

An important difference between a cuboidal epithelial cell of the proximal versus the distal convoluted tubules is that a) the former only secretes, the latter only filters. b) only one has a folded basolateral membrane containing enzymes for ion transport. c) the proximal tubule cells have long microvilli that are fewer than or absent from the distal tubule cells. d) one lies in the renal cortex, the other in the medulla.

the vasa recta are in the medulla, whereas the peritubular capillaries are in the cortex.

An important difference between the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta in the kidney is that a) the vasa recta are involved in filtration, whereas the peritubular capillaries are involved in resorption. b) the vasa recta drain into arterioles, whereas the peritubular capillaries drain into venules. c) only the vasa recta are supplied by efferent arterioles. d) the vasa recta are in the medulla, whereas the peritubular capillaries are in the cortex.

is longer than

The left renal vein ________ the right renal vein. is the same length as carries less blood than is shorter than is longer than

L1 or L2

Based on what you know about the location of the kidneys in the posterior abdominal wall, the hilum of the kidney must be at the level of which vertebra? T8 L4 L1 or L2 T11 or T12

nephron loop of juxtamedullary nephrons

Which of the following is found exclusively in the renal medulla? a cortical radiate arteries b) nephron loop of juxtamedullary nephrons c) proximal convoluted tubules d) peritubular capillaries

proximal tubule.

The part of the nephron whose epithelial cells are most responsible for resorption and secretion is the a) proximal tubule. b) thin segment. c) distal tubule. d) glomerular capsule (podocytes).

visceral layer of glomerular capsule.

The layer of podocytes is the same as the a) glomerulus. b) capsular space. c) parietal layer. d) visceral layer of glomerular capsule.

cortical radiate arteries.

Arteries that branch to form the afferent arterioles to the glomeruli are interlobar arteries. arcuate arteries. segmental arteries. cortical radiate arteries.

renal corpuscles

Which of the following structures is most numerous within a kidney? cortical radiate arteries minor calyces renal corpuscles renal papillae

proximal and distal tubules.

The parts of the nephron whose epithelial cells contain the most mitochondria are the a) proximal and distal tubules b) renal corpuscle and distal tubule. c) thin segment and glomerular capsule. d) vasa recta and collecting tubules.

terminal nephron loop.

In the juxtaglomerular apparatus, the macula densa belongs to the a) terminal nephron loop. b) visceral layer of the glomerular capsule (podocytes). c) glomerulus. d) efferent arteriole.

renal fascia

Which structure(s) is (are) most important for holding the kidney in place in the abdomen? a) the diaphragm, through its muscle tone b) renal vessels c) renal fascia d) renal ligaments

their nephron loop is shorter, with a shorter thin segment.

Cortical nephrons are different from juxtamedullary nephrons in that a) they do not have a proximal convoluted tubule. b) they are much less abundant. c) their nephron loop is shorter, with a shorter thin segment. d) they produce urine, whereas juxtamedullary nephrons do not.

renal corpuscles

When Melinda was asked to identify a "mystery" slide on a histology test, she immediately identified it as renal cortex because of the presence of scattered vasa recta. thin segments. renal papillae. renal corpuscles.

collecting duct

Which of the following regions of the nephron is most likely to be found in the renal medulla? collecting duct distal convoluted tubule proximal convoluted tubule glomerulus

renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder to the urethra.

Urine passes through the a) glomerulus to the ureter to the nephron. b) renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder to the urethra. c) hilus to the urethra to the bladder. d) kidney hilum to the bladder to the ureter.

an increase in the production of ADH.

An increase in the permeability of collecting tubule cells to water is due to a) a decrease in the concentration of solutes in the blood plasma. b) an increase in the production of ADH. c) the presence of a salty urine in the bladder. d) a decrease in the production of ADH.

adrenal

Which gland sits atop each kidney? pituitary pancreas interlobar gland adrenal

true

The glomerular capsule and the glomerular capillaries together make up the renal corpuscle. True False

false

The epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule have an abundance of absorptive microvilli. True False

true

The descending thin limb of the nephron loop consists of a simple squamous epithelium. True False

false

A network of peritubular capillaries surrounds the convoluted tubules and nephron loop for the purpose of filtration. True False

false

The kidneys are located just below lumbar vertebrae L2 and L3. True False

true

The correct sequence of arterial blood flow is the renal artery to the segmental arteries to the interlobar arteries. True False

true

Venous structures of the kidney mirror those of the arterial circuit, except for the absence of segmental veins. True False

true

Urine drains from the kidney in the following sequence: from the collecting duct to the minor calyx to the major calyx to the renal pelvis and then to the ureter. True False

true

Cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons can be distinguished by the absence of a vasa recta in the cortical nephrons. True False

all of the listed responses are correcct

Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidneys. Which of the following statements regarding pyelonephritis is correct? a) It maybe caused by blood borne bacteria that lodge in the kidney. b) Pyelonephritis maybe caused by spread of bacteria from the anal region superiorly through the urinary tract. c) Timely administration of antibiotics usually achieves a total cure of the inflammation. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

These are specialized cells of the DCT that act as chemoreceptors for monitoring ion concentrations in the filtrate.

What is the function of the macula densa? a) These are modified smooth muscle cells with secretory granules that contain renin, which is secreted in response to falling blood pressure in the afferent arteriole. b) These are specialized cells of the DCT that act as chemoreceptors for monitoring ion concentrations in the filtrate. c) These are cells that show contractile properties that regulate blood flow within the glomerulus. d) These are urine-concentrating cells, similar to those of the collecting ducts.

It has an inner longitudinal and outer circular layer.

What is unusual about the muscularis layer of the proximal ureter when compared to the muscularis of the digestive tract? a) It only develops after toilet training begins. b) It has an inner longitudinal and outer circular layer. c) The muscularis is formed from three separate layers for its entire length. d) It lacks a circular muscularis. e) It is much thicker proportionally than that of the digestive tract.

transverse processes of lumbar vertebra

Which skeletal structures act as landmarks for the path of the ureters from the kidney to the bladder? a) pubic symphysis b) iliac crest c) pelvic brim d) transverse processes of lumbar vertebra

a type of X-ray procedure (radiology).

Pyelography is a) a way to cure kidney stones. b) failure of the embryonic kidney to ascend. c) a type of X-ray procedure (radiology). d) kinking of the ureter.

true

Urine flows from the kidney to the bladder by gravity and peristalsis. True False

false

The ureters enter the bladder obliquely at the anterolateral corners. True False

Pyelography enables the clinician to examine the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder.

Which of the following statements regarding pyelography is correct? a) Pyelography enables the clinician to examine the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder. b) It is inflammation of the renal calices and ureters. c) The x-ray contrast medium can be administered by oral ingestion. d) The radiographic procedure for examining the true pelvis is called pyelography.

increase the total surface area of proximal convoluted tubules and maximize their capacity for resorbing water, ions, and solute from the filtrate

The microvilli along the luminal surface of the proximal convoluted tubule __________. a) increase the total surface area of proximal convoluted tubules and maximize their capacity for resorbing water, ions, and solute from the filtrate b) secrete antidiuretic hormone c) provide the energy for resorption d) help dilute urine by adding water to it from surrounding capillaries e) concentrate urine by removing water from it

filtration

The only region of a nephron where__________ takes place is the glomerulus.

trigone

The region in the urinary bladder, defined by the openings of the ureters and the urethra, is called the__________ .

detrusor

Contraction of this muscle forces urine from the bladder. diaphragm dartos detrusor cremaster vesicular

have the same basic function as transitional epitheliumaccommodating stretch as the bladder fills.

The mucosal folds in the bladder (rugae) a) act to increase the surface area for absorption. b) are not present in life, only in cadavers. c) thicken the bladder wall so that it does not burst. d) have the same basic function as transitional epitheliumaccommodating stretch as the bladder fills.

In females, the bladder lies posterior to the uterus but anterior to the rectum.

Which of the following statements about the urinary bladder is false? a) When empty, the bladder lies inferior to the abdominal cavity. b) Two ureteral openings and the internal urethral orifice bound the trigone of the bladder. c) In females, the bladder lies posterior to the uterus but anterior to the rectum. d) The ureters attach to the bladder through oblique posterolateral orifices.

the ureters run medially for some distance within the posterior bladder wall.

During a dissection, Arnie saw the ureters entering the lateral corners of the bladder but found the internal openings of the ureters in the trigone near the midline of the bladder. His observation necessarily means that a) the ureters run medially for some distance within the posterior bladder wall. b) this bladder had a congenital defect. c) the ureters and urethra are really the same tube. d) each ureter must have four distinct openings into the bladder.

inferior angle

Another name for the neck of the bladder is the superior surface. anterior angle. trigone. inferior angle.

transitional

The epithelium lining the urinary bladder that permits distension is transitional. stratified squamous. pseudostratified columnar. simple squamous.

true

In females, the urinary bladder lies anterior to the vagina and uterus. True False

false

The urinary bladder, when empty, lies within both the abdominal and pelvic cavities. True False

500 ml

When full, an adult urinary bladder contains about __________ of urine. 50 ml 1 liter 500 ml 1.5 liters

internal urethral orifice

The name of the inferior of the three openings in the trigone of the bladder is the ureteric orifice. internal urethral orifice. detrusor. urachus opening.

simple squamous

Of the following, the only epithelial type that does not line the urethra is pseudostratified columnar. stratified squamous. stratified columnar. simple squamous.

It is surrounded by the urogential diaphragm.

Which of the following statements about the internal urethral sphincter is false? a) It is located superior to the prostatic urethra in males. b) It is not consciously controlled. c) It is surrounded by the urogential diaphragm. d) It is a thickening of the detrusor muscle.

at the urogenital diaphragm

The external urethral sphincter is located a) at the external urethral orifice. b) at the junction of the bladder wall and urethra. c) at the urogenital diaphragm. d) at the ureteral orifice.

spongy urethra

The longest of the three parts of the male urethra is the prostatic. spongy urethra. neck. membranous.

external urethral sphincter and levator ani muscle

Which structures serve to voluntarily inhibit urination? a) internal urethral sphincter and coccygeus muscle b) external urethral sphincter and levator ani muscle c) external urethral orifice and external urethral sphincter d) membranous urethra and levator ani muscle

prevents backflow of urine into the ureters from the urinary bladder

The oblique entry of the ureters into the bladder __________. a) sometimes leads to hydronephrosis b) prevents backflow of urine into the ureters from the urinary bladder c) prevents entry of fecal material into the urinary bladder d) is one of the reasons why many more women develop urinary tract infections than men e) is one of the little-recognized but important factors leading to kidney cancer

pronephros

During embryological development, the first pair of kidneys is called the__________ .

external urethral sphincter

Which urethral sphincter is innervated by somatic (voluntary) motor neurons? external urethral sphincter detrusor muscle uretic sphincter internal urethral sphincter

relaxation of the internal urethal sphincter

Which of the following would not inhibit micturition? a) stimulation of the somatic motor neurons to the external urethral sphincter b) relaxation of the internal urethal sphincter c) activation of the sympathetic pathways d) relaxation of the detrusor muscles

parasympathetic fibers.

In the micturition reflex, the detrusor muscle is stimulated to contract by a) sympathetic fibers. b) sphincter neurons from the brain. c) visceral sensory fibers from the vagus. d) parasympathetic fibers.

pons of the brain stem

The micturition center is located in the a) pons of the brain stem. b) detrusor muscle layer of the bladder wall. c) sacral spinal cord. d) cerebellum.

true

The internal urethral sphincter is composed of smooth muscle and is under involuntary control. True False

Stress incontinence occurs when coughing or sneezing forces urine through the sphincter.

Urinary incontinence is any involuntary leakage of urine. Which of the following statements regarding urinary incontinence is correct? a) Overflow incontinence occurs when the detrusor muscle has uncontrolled contractions. b) Urge incontinence occurs when the bladder overflows. c) This condition has yet to be controlled or treated. d) Stress incontinence occurs when coughing or sneezing forces urine through the sphincter.

It usually occurs following general anesthesia and in older men with enlarged prostate glands.

Which of the following statements regarding urinary retention is correct? a) It usually occurs following general anesthesia and in older men with enlarged prostate glands. b) It can be alleviated by insertion of a catheter through the ureter into the bladder. c) Urinary retention occurs when the kidneys are unable to produce urine. d) The straight short ureter of females is much easier to catheterize than the long, curved ureter of males.

It is involved in the emotional evaluation of the urge to micturate.

What role does the anterior cingulate gyrus play in micturition? a) It is the major structure involved in reflexive voiding of urine. b) It is involved in the emotional evaluation of the urge to micturate. c) It enables the conscious decision that it is safe to micturate. d) It prevents dribbling of urine between voidings.

Visceral afferent impulses are sent to the pontine micturition center, which stimulates the parasympathetic pathway (pelvic splanchnic nerves).

Which of these statements correctly describes how micturition is initiated? a) Somatic motor neurons to the internal and external urethral sphincters are stimulated, causing the internal urethral sphincter to relax and the external urethral sphincter to contract. b) Stimulation of somatic motor neurons to the external urethral sphincter causes it to contract. c) Sympathetic pathways relax the detrusor muscle. d) Visceral afferent impulses are sent to the pontine micturition center, which stimulates the parasympathetic pathway (pelvic splanchnic nerves). e) Parasympathetic pathways stimulate the external urethral sphincter to contract. f) Sympathetic pathways stimulate the internal urethral sphincter to contract.

glomerulus

The uniqueness of the__________ , when compared to other capillary beds, is that it is both fed and drained by arterioles.

renal pelvis and calices

In which regions of the kidney do renal calculi (kidney stones) commonly form? renal pelvis and calices renal pyramids renal cortex ureter

pyelitis

Infection of the renal pelvic and calyces is known as cystitis. hydronephritis. nephritis. pyelitis.

In females the urethra is shorter than in males.

Why are urinary tract infections more common in females than in males? a) In females the urethra is attached to the anterior vaginal wall by connective tissue. b) In males the urethra is made up of three regions, whereas in females it is made of only one. c) In males the urethra is shared by the both the reproductive and the urinary systems, whereas in females it is part of the urinary system only. d) In females the urethra is shorter than in males.

urinary retention

Which of the following conditions is most often seen in elderly males with prostatic hyperplasia? overflow incontinence stress incontinence urge incontinence urinary retention

polyurea

Which of the following is not usually associated with the formation of renal calculi? bacterial infection polyurea dehydration increased intake of calcium

true

The location and length of the urethra are two factors that contribute to the high incidence of urinary tract infections in women. True False

The failing kidney is usually left in place

A kidney transplant is the transfer of a functioning kidney from a donor to a recipient with a failing kidney. Which of the following statements regarding kidney transplants is correct? a) The transplanted kidney is usually positioned in the right upper quadrant which has more room than the crowded lumbar region b) All kidney transplants come from living donors. c) The failing kidney is usually left in place. d) Kidney transplants have a greater success rate than corneal transplants because of the rich blood supply.

efferent arteriole

Where does blood flow immediately after it leaves the glomerulus in the renal corpuscle? a) efferent arteriole b) peritubular capillaries c) afferent or efferent arteriole, depending on which side of the glomerulus the blood is flowing d) cortical radiate veins e) afferent arteriole

metanephros

The only embryonic kidney that survives into adulthood is the metanephros. mesonephros. pronephros. paranephros.

mesoderm

From which embryonic tissue layer(s) does the kidney arise? endoderm mesoderm ectoderm all three layers

derives from the cloaca

The embryonic urogenital sinus derives from the cloaca. gives rise to the rectum. gives rise to the anus. gives rise to the ureters.

a duct that branches from the mesonephric duct.

The ureters develop from a) a duct that branches from the mesonephric duct. b) the urogenital sinus. c) pronephric nephrons. d) the cloaca.

pelvic kidney

The condition in which the metanephros has failed to ascend is pelvic kidney. horseshoe kidney. polycystic renal disease. hydronephrosis.

Which of the following is not part of the filtration membrane? capillary endothelium filtration slit diaphragm basement membrane granular cells

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