Anatomy Chapter 23

They are made from a single layer of peritoneum.

Which of the following statements regarding the mesenteries is FALSE? a) They contain adipose and lymphoid tissues that can respond to ingested pathogens. b) They provide a passageway for blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves. c) They are made from a single layer of peritoneum. d) They anchor the digestive organs to the dorsal and ventral walls of the body.

Visceral peritoneum

Serous membrane that covers the digestive organs

parietal peritoneum

Serous membrane that forms the outer lining of the peritoneal cavity

Secondarily retroperitoneal

Organs that lose their mesenteries and get pushed to the dorsal body wall, developing behind the peritoneal cavity

intraperitoneal

Organs that have mesenteries and are completely surrounded by the peritoneal cavity

During the initial stages of fetal development, all digestive organs are intraperitoneal.

Which of the following statements regarding the structure and development of the digestive system is true? a) Digestive organs do not begin to migrate into their retroperitoneal positions until after birth. b) During the initial stages of fetal development, all digestive organs are intraperitoneal. c) In an adult, all digestive organs are surrounded by a visceral peritoneum and a parietal peritoneum. d) Only digestive organs that have migrated to the retroperitoneal position have mesenteries.

stomach

Which of the following digestive organs will have a mesentery? Stomach Rectum Pancreas Duodenum

peristalsis

__________ is the major means of propulsion of foodstuffs through the alimentary canal, where adjacent sections alternately contract and relax, moving food distally toward the anus.

Its superior one-third is composed of skeletal muscle.

When compared to other regions of the alimentary canal, what is different about the muscularis externa of the esophagus? a) The muscularis externa has an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layer. b) The esophagus is the only region in which the muscularis externa is absent. c) Its superior one-third is composed of skeletal muscle. d) Its longitudinal layer is arranged into three longitudinal bands.

gallbladder

Which of the following organs is an accessory digestive organ? esophagus duodenum pharynx gallbladder

kidney

Which organ(s) in this transverse section of the abdomen is NOT within the peritoneal cavity? stomach spleen kidney liver

epigastric region, umbilical region, and hypogastric region

Which abdominal regions are located between the midclavicular lines? a) epigastric region, umbilical region, and hypogastric region b) right iliac region, hypogastric region, and left iliac region c) right hypochondriac region, epigastric region, and left hypochondriac region d) left hypochondriac region, left lumbar region, and left iliac region

epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae

Which of these statements accurately lists the components of the mucosa of the alimentary canal? a) epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae b) submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa c) longitudinal muscularis and circular muscularis d) major blood and lymphatic vessels, connective tissue, and intrinsic glands e) goblet cells, intrinsic glands, and simple squamous epithelium

pepsin

The stomach begins the breakdown of ingested proteins by secreting__________, a protein-digesting enzyme.

haustra

The large intestine is puckered into sacs called __________. circular folds epiploic appendages haustra teniae coli lacteals

Ingested and absorbed fat-soluble toxins can circulate throughout the body before detoxification.

What is a disadvantage of absorbed fats traveling in the lymphatic vessels to the venous system before reaching the liver? a) A person could easily eat several hundred grams of fat per day that are not digested, causing weight gain and fatty stools. b) The villi of the small intestines do not have the opportunity to further digest ingested fats. c) The smooth muscle located within each villus of the small intestine can become overwhelmed with fat and, thus unable to perform its important role in increasing the amount of contact between villi and nutrients in the intestinal lumen. d) Ingested and absorbed fat-soluble toxins can circulate throughout the body before detoxification.

exocrine / endocrine

The pancreas is both a(n) __________ gland and a(n) __________ gland. a) submandibular / sublingual b) intestinal / duodenal c) exocrine / endocrine d) large / heavy

hepatitis A

viral disease spread by the fecal-oral route, often in contaminated food or water a) peptic ulcer b) hepatitis A c) hepatitis B d) cystic fibrosis

peptic ulcer

Infectious disease caused by Helicobacter pylori, an acid-resistant bacterium; may be spread by fecal-oral route or by kissing a) hepatitis A b) cystic fibrosis c) peptic ulcer d) hepatitis B

gastroesophageal reflux disease

may be due to weak cardiac sphincter; symptoms include belching, heartburn, and regurgitation of stomach contents a) ulcerative colitis b) cystic fibrosis c) hepatitis C d) gastroesophageal reflux disease

ulcerative cells

shallow inflammation of the large-intestinal mucosa; now understood to be an abnormal immune and inflammatory response a) ulcerative colitis b) gastroesophageal reflux disease c) cystic fibrosis d) hepatitis A

hepatitis B

a viral disease transmitted through infected blood or body fluids; some individuals infected with this virus develop a chronic form of the disease a) ulcerative colitis b) hepatitis B c) gastroesophageal reflux disease d) cystic fibrosis

cystic fibrosis

disrupts or blocks important secretions in the respiratory and digestive systems; thick mucus blocks ducts of digestive glands (most seriously affecting the pancreas a) ulcerative colitis b) peptic ulcer c) cystic fibrosis d) hepatitis b

rectum and most of the anal canal

The cloaca gives rise to the __________. a) first segment of the digestive tract, from the pharynx to the beginning of the duodenum b) descending colon and sigmoid colon c) rectum and most of the anal canal d) portion of the digestive system from the duodenum to the transverse colon

right and left lumbar regions

The abdominal regions lateral to the umbilical region are the __________. a) right and left iliac regions b) umbilical and hypogastric regions c) right and left lumbar regions d) right and left hypochondriac regions

sigmoid

The sigmoid mesocolon is the mesentery that connects the__________ colon to the posterior pelvic wall.

submandibular, sublingual and parotid salivary glands

All of these organs contribute to mechanical digestion EXCEPT ? a) tongue b) submandibular, sublingual and parotid salivary glands c) teeth d) small intestines

appendicitis

What would cause pain that extends or moves to the right in the umbilical region? peptic ulcer kidney stones gallstones appendicitis

somatic mesoderm

Which embryonic layer forms the parietal peritoneum? somatic mesoderm splanchnic mesoderm somite endoderm

lesser omentum

Attaches the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach. a) porta hepatis b) lesser omentum c) haustra d) hepatopancreatic ampulla e) greater omentum

falciform ligament

Attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm. a) porta hepatis b) lesser omentum c) ligamentum teres d) greater omentum e) falciform ligament

visceral peritoneum

Another name for serosa is visceral peritoneum. serous gland. parietal peritoneum. mucosa.

lesser curvature of the stomach and the porta hepatis of the liver.

The lesser omentum extends between the a) greater curvature of the stomach and the posterior abdominal wall. b) transverse colon and the posterior abdominal wall. c) sigmoid colon and the posterior pelvic wall. d) lesser curvature of the stomach and the porta hepatis of the liver.

left hypochondriac region

The splenic, or left colic, flexure of the colon is located within the a) left hypochondriac region. b) right hypochondriac region. c) right lumbar region. d) left lumbar region.

mesentery proper

The mesentery that suspends the small intestine is the lesser omentum. greater omentum. mesentery proper. falciform ligament.

it stores fat

Which of the following correctly describes the function of the greater omentum? a) It stores fat. b) It wraps around most of the large intestine and anchors it to the anterior abdominal wall. c) It absorbs heat from the digestive process and radiates it to the outside of the body. d) It is a vestigial structure that has no known function.

descending colon

Which of the following is a secondarily retroperitoneal organ? sigmoid colon ileum descending colon transverse colon

absorption

Of the basic digestive processes, the one in which nutrients enter capillaries is called absorption. mechanical digestion. propulsion. ingestion.

spleen

Which of the following is not an accessory digestive organ? teeth salivary gland spleen liver

false

The lesser omentum directly attaches the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall. True False

true

The pancreas and duodenum are secondarily retroperitoneal organs. True False

true

Most of the ascending colon lies between the subcostal and transtubercular planes. True False

There is no relationship between the loudness of bowel sounds and increased activity associated with inflammation, diarrhea, or other bowel disorders.

The GI tract is a system of tubes that allow for ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion of substances. There are certain sounds -- bowel sounds -- that are associated with this process. Which of the following statements regarding bowel sounds is incorrect? a) Bowel sounds usually occur every 5-15 seconds and indicate normal intestinal activity. b) Bowel sounds result from movement of gas. c) Bowel sounds result from peristalsis of intestinal content. d) There is no relationship between the loudness of bowel sounds and increased activity associated with inflammation, diarrhea, or other bowel disorders.

Peritonitis

The peritoneum plays an important role in providing support for the viscera of the abdominal cavity. Infection of this structure is called: Pericarditis Pleurisy Peritonitis Laryngitis

mesentary

a double layer of peritoneum; sheet of two fused serous membranes that enclose blood vessels and nerves a) submandibular gland b) laryngopharynx c) mesentary d) liver

submandibular gland

contains mucus and serous secretory cells a) mesentary b) submandibular gland c) duodenum d) large intestine/colon

laryngopharynx

a passageway for air and food a) laryngopharynx b) mesentary c) duodenum d) liver

duodenum

receives digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder a) submandibular gland b) mesentary c) liver d) duodenum

large intestine/colon

has a modified longitudinal muscularis externa layer a) mesentary b) large intestine/colon c) liver d) duodenum

liver

largest exocrine gland in the body a) liver b) laryngopharynx c) submandibular gland d) duodenum

have interdigitating thick and thin filaments

Smooth muscle cells __________. a) contract more quickly than skeletal muscle cells b) are composed of sarcomeres c) are striated d) have interdigitating thick and thin filaments

All salivary glands are compound tubular glands.

Which of these statements about salivary glands is FALSE? a) Serous cells in human salivary glands secrete a small amount of mucus. b) All salivary glands are compound tubular glands. c) The sublingual glands are mixed glands, but contain mostly mucus cells. d) The parotid gland contains only serous cells.

secrete gastrin, which signals the parietal cells to secrete HCl when food enters the stomach

Enteroendocrine cells in the gastric glands of the stomach __________. a) secrete gastrin, which signals the parietal cells to secrete HCl when food enters the stomach b) secrete several hormones, which signal the gallbladder to release stored bile c) secrete hormones that signal the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes and bicarbonate-rich substance to neutralize acidic chyme entering the duodenum d) secrete mucus onto the internal surface of the stomach, which prevents damage to the lining from the stomach acid

numerous mitochondria

Absorptive cells of the small intestine contain these microscopic organelles. a) very few endoplasmic reticulum b) the components to form mucus c) bicarbonate-rich enzymes and hormones d) numerous mitochondria

myenteric nerve plexus / controlling peristalsis and segmentation

The nerve plexus located between the two layers of the muscularis externa is the __________ and its function is __________. a) submucosal nerve plexus / stimulates secretion by the glands in the mucosa and induces the muscularis mucosae to contract b) myenteric nerve plexus / controlling peristalsis and segmentation c) parasympathetic nerve complex / stimulates secretion by the glands in the mucosa and increases peristalsis d) sympathetic nerve complex / inhibits secretions by the glands in the mucosa and halts peristalsis

calcium

Similar to the contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscle, the release of__________ into the sarcoplasm stimulates smooth muscle cells to contract.

They divide continuously to replace the mucus-secreting cells of the epithelial liningls of the stomach every 3â€"7 days.

What is the function of the undifferentiated stem cells located in the gastric glands throughout the stomach? a) They secrete gastrin, which signals parietal cells to secrete HCl when food enters the stomach. b) They secrete gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), which is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12. c) They divide continuously to replace the mucus-secreting cells of the epithelial liningls of the stomach every 3â€"7 days. d) They secrete pancreatic polypeptide, which signals the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes. e) They induce smooth muscle contractions for mechanical digestion of foodstuffs in the stomach.

There are three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa.

Which of these statements accurately describes important differences in the histology of the stomach compared to other regions of the digestive tract? a) There are three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa. b) The outer layer is the serosa (visceral peritoneum). c) There are three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis mucosa. d) The outer layer is called adventitia.

premolars

________ are teeth specialized for grinding food

salivary

all _______ glands are compound tubuloalveolar glands

parietal cells

_____ produce the stomach's hydrochloric acid

microvilli

__________ , located on the surface of simple columnar epithelium in the small intestine, increase the surface area for absorption, and contain enzymes that complete the final stages of digestion.

No / 2I - 1C - 2P - 3M

As part of a forensic investigation, you found a mandible in the woods. The mandible had the formula 3I - 1C - 4P - 3M. Is the specimen from a human? What is the dental formula for the mandible of an adult human? a) No / 2I - 1C - 2P - 3M b) Yes / 3I - 1C - 4P - 3M c) No / 2I - 1C - 2M d) No / None of these formulas are consistent with the mandible of an adult human.

by surgically cutting the frenulum

How is the condition ankyloglossia corrected? a)Vitamin B12 b) by surgically cutting the frenulum c) by interferon injection d) by administering pancreatic enzymes with meals e) by daily flossing

diverticulosis

__________ is a condition consisting of small outward herniations of the mucosa through the colon wall.

small intestine

The longest region of the alimentary canal is the__________ .

adventitia

The most external (superficial) layer of the esophagus is (the)__________

preganglionic sympathetic fibers

Which type of nerve fibers are NOT found in smooth muscle? a) preganglionic parasympathetic fibers b) postganglionic parasympathetic fibers c) postganglionic sympathetic fibers d) preganglionic sympathetic fibers

glossopharyngeal nerve

Which cranial nerve innervates the parotid salivary gland? facial nerve hypoglossal nerve trigeminal nerve glossopharyngeal nerve

digested fats

Which food molecules are absorbed from the small intestine lumen into the lacteal, the lymphatic capillary located within the villus? digested carbohydrates digested fats water digested proteins

adventitia

Retroperitoneal organs have a serosa facing the peritoneal cavity and a(n) ________ on the posterior side embedded in the abdominal wall. mesothelium caveolae adventitia vasa vasorum muscularis externa

caveolae

Infoldings of the sarcolemma of smooth muscle fibers. caveolae vasa vasorum adventitia mesothelium muscularis externa

hepatic flexure

Junction of the transverse and ascending colon. haustra hepatic flexure ileocecal valve cecum splenic flexure

ileocecal valve

Smooth muscle constriction between the ileum and cecum. hepatic flexure haustra ileocecal valve splenic flexure cecum

muscularis externa

Layer of the GI tract responsible for peristalsis and segmentation. submucosa muscularis mucosae serosa lamina propria muscularis externa

hepatopancreatic ampulla

Bulblike union of the main pancreatic duct and bile duct. a) accessory pancreatic duct b) porta hepatis c) cystic duct d) hepatopancreatic ampulla e) hepatic duct

teniae coli

Three strips of longitudinal muscles of the muscularis of the colon causing it to pucker into sacs. haustra pyloric sphincter ileocecal junction muscularis mucosae teniae coli

muscularis externa

Which layer of the digestive tract is responsible for the peristaltic waves that propel materials from one portion to another? mucosa submucosa muscularis externa serosa

chief cell; pepsinogen

Which of the following choices correctly pairs a type of cell in the stomach with its secretion? a) parietal cell; pepsinogen b) chief cell; pepsinogen c) enteroendocrine; hydrochloric acid d) parietal cell; mucus

it is the main site of nutrient absorption

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the large intestine? a) It is the main site of nutrient absorption. b) It contains an abundant bacterial flora. c) It absorbs much of the water and salts remaining in the wastes. d) It includes the ascending, transverse, and descending colon.

large intestine

The digestive organ primarily responsible for the absorption of water is the ileum. duodenum. large intestine. anus.

lingual frenulum is short

To say someone is "tongue-tied" means that the a) tongue muscles are weak. b) lips are exceptionally immobile. c) salivary glands produce little lubricant. d) lingual frenulum is short.

enzymes that begin the digestion of proteins

Which of the following is not contained in saliva? a) bactericidal enzymes b) bicarbonate buffer c) enzymes that begin the digestion of proteins d) enzymes that initiate the digestion of carbohydrates

20

How many deciduous teeth are there? a) 18 b) 32 c) 20 d) It varies from person to person.

lamina propria

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is primarily located within the serosa. lamina propria. muscularis mucosa. submucosa.

It controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juices into the alimentary canal.

What is the function of the hepatopancreatic sphincter? a) As it contracts, it squeezes pancreatic secretions into the duodenum. b) It inhibits defecation in the upper alimentary canal while the anal sphincters do the same in the lower regions. c) It prevents the movement of bile into the gallbladder. d) It controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juices into the alimentary canal.

lateral to the upper molars

Secretions of the parotid gland empty a) anterior to the frenulum of the tongue. b) lateral to the upper molars. c) through 10 ducts on the floor of the oral cavity. d) between the lingual tonsil and epiglottis.

Secretions of parietal cells kill bacteria in the stomach.

Why are bacteria abundant in the large intestines but not in the stomach? a) Secretions of parietal cells kill bacteria in the stomach. b) Food enters the stomach first and does not spend much time there. c) The stomach wall contains so much lymphoid tissue that it destroys all bacteria there. d) The intestine is much warmer and moister, encouraging bacterial growth.

churns food into a paste by mechanical means.

The stomach a) stores food for later use in the form of fat. b) dehydrates food materials before passing them to the small intestine. c) churns food into a paste by mechanical means. d) absorbs most of the nutrients in food.

parotid

The largest salivary gland is the sublingual. intrinsic. submandibular. parotid.

parietal cells

Which of the following cells produce intrinsic factor? parietal cells chief cells mucous neck cells enteroendocrine cells

Breakdown products of fats enter its lacteals.

Which of the following applies to the small intestine? a) It is where carbohydrates and fats but not proteins are digested. b) It is where foodstuffs first encounter protein-splitting enzymes. c) Its walls secrete most of the digestive enzymes that are active in its lumen. d) Breakdown products of fats enter its lacteals.

mouth

All of the following structures have all four tissue layers in their walls except the mouth. stomach. sigmoid colon. esophagus.

transverse colon

The portion of the large intestine closest to the liver is the descending colon. transverse colon. rectum. cecum.

duodenal glands

The duodenum contains these structures whose products neutralize the acidic chyme. duodenal glands intestinal glands Peyer's patches gastric glands

It is more movable than the ileum or jejunum, which are retroperitoneal.

Which of the following statements about the duodenum is false? a) It receives chyme from the stomach. b) It is shorter than either the ileum or jejunum. c) It is more movable than the ileum or jejunum, which are retroperitoneal. d) It is the site of action of liver and pancreas secretions

muscularis mucosae

Which of the following layers is present in the mucosa of the stomach and intestines, but not in the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx? lamina propria muscularis mucosae lumen lining epithelium

sublingual

The "mostly mucous" extrinsic salivary gland is the ________ gland. sublingual intrinsic parotid submandibular

circular folds in the small intestine

Which of the following are the only mucosal folds that do not flatten out at all when the organ stretches? a) mucosal folds in the gallbladder b) rugae in the stomach c) longitudinal folds in the esophagus d) circular folds in the small intestine

has longitudinal folds called columns

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the rectum? a) has transverse folds called rectal valves b) is secondarily retroperitoneal c) lacks tenia coli d) has longitudinal folds called columns

It divides regions of somatic and visceral innervation.

Which of the following is true of the pectinate line of the anal canal? a) It lies just below the level of the rectal valves. b) It divides regions of somatic and visceral innervation. c) All hemorrhoids occur there. d) It is also called the anal columns.

They are scattered throughout the lining of the rectum

Which of the following is not a characteristic of enteroendocrine cells? a) They secrete hormones that help signal the events of digestion. b) They never secrete their product into the lumen of the digestive canal. c) They are scattered throughout the lining epithelium of the stomach and intestines. d) They are scattered throughout the lining of the rectum

transverse and descending colon

The splenic flexure is the boundary between the a) transverse and ascending colon. b) descending colon and sigmoid colon. c) spleen and stomach. d) transverse and descending colon

deep within the intestinal glands

In the stomach, the undifferentiated epithelial stem cells lie near the junction between the gastric pits and gastric glands. In the intestine, the corresponding stem cells occur a) deep within the intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkühn). b) where the intestinal crypts meet the villi. c) in the duodenal (Brunner's) glands. d) on the tips of the villi.

It lifts the anal canal superiorly around the feces.

Which of the following is a role of the levator ani muscle in defecation? a) It has no role in defecation, only in inhibiting defecation (it is the external sphincter muscle). b) It pushes down on the feces. c) Its stretch and proprioception properties initiate the defecation reflex. d) It lifts the anal canal superiorly around the feces.

biting off pieces of food versus grinding.

In mastication, the relative roles of an incisor versus a molar are a) piercing versus tearing. b) chewing versus holding food in the mouth. c) only incisors function in mastication. d) biting off pieces of food versus grinding.

periodontal ligament

Disease of which structure is the most common cause of tooth loss in adults? periodontal ligament crown enamel dentin

pharynx and anal canal

Most of the gastrointestinal tract is innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the nervous system. Which parts are innervated by the somatic nervous system? a) pharynx and anal canal b) pyloric, ileocecal, and internal anal sphincters c) small and large intestines d) esophagus and stomach

intrinsic factor and HCl

The parietal cells in the stomach produce pepsin. mucin. intrinsic factor and HCl. secretin.

ileum

The terminal portion of the small intestine is the duodenum. jejunum. pyloric sphincter. ileum.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.

The correct sequence of layers in the wall of the alimentary canal, from internal to external, is a) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa. b) mucosa, muscularis, serosa, submucosa. c) serosa, muscularis, mucosa, submucosa. d) submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis

submucosa

The layer of the digestive tube that contains abundant elastin plus blood vessels, lymphoid nodules, and deep glands is the muscularis. serosa. adventitia. submucosa.

It is longer than the small intestine.

Which of the following statements about the large intestine is false? a) It has haustra. b) It has no villi. c) It is longer than the small intestine. d) It exhibits external muscular bands called taeniae coli.

true

The vermiform appendix is suspended from the cecum true false

false

The terms taste bud and papillae are synonymous. True False

true

From the lumen outward, the layers of the gastrointestinal tract are mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa. True False

false

The most superficial layer of the esophagus is the serosa. True False

false

Smooth muscle fibers differ from skeletal muscle in that they do not contain contractile myofilaments. True False

false

Stretching of the anal sphincter initiates the defecation reflex. True False

false

Villi are cytoplasmic projections on the surface of intestinal absorptive cells. True False

true

Chief cells of the gastric glands secrete pepsinogen. True False

true

The small intestines contain bacteria that synthesize some essential vitamins. True False

Impacted teeth cause pressure and pain and usually are removed.

Which of the following statements about an impacted tooth is correct? a) Wisdom teeth usually do not impact because they form after the permanent teeth. b) An impacted tooth is one that is decayed and must be removed. c) An impacted tooth results from poor bone formation or osteoporosis. d) Impacted teeth cause pressure and pain and usually are removed.

The resulting periodontitis is not reversible.

Gum disease is an important condition associated with poor dental care. Understanding the process of gum disease is important for maintaining healthy teeth throughout life. Identify the incorrect statement regarding gum disease. a) Plaque can become calcified over time, forming a bacteria filled calculus that leads to inflammation of the gums. b) Plaque is an accumulation of substances around the necks of the teeth, which occurs after the ingestion of foods. c) The resulting periodontitis is not reversible. d) Periodontitis often results in the loss of teeth and is the reason many people wear dentures.

The inflammation of the parotid gland resulting from spread of viruses among individuals.

What is the definition of mumps? a) The inflammation of the parotid gland resulting from spread of viruses among individuals. b) It is the spread of bacteria from one person to another, via saliva. c) The inflammation of the submandibular gland by infectious spread of bacteria. d) The painful swelling and inflammation of the parotid gland by viruses that are usually not infectious to other persons.

Joe was experiencing gastroesophageal reflux and the acidic contents of his stomach were inflaming the wall of the lower esophagus.

Joe Mackenzie complained of a painful sensation in his chest. His doctor prescribed antacids and a drip to reduce secretion of stomach acids. Why? a) Joe has a history of an inguinal hernia and this allows the superior part of the stomach to protrude into the thorax leading to painful inflammation of the esophagus. b) Joe was having a mild heart attack and the antacids help to increase blood blow to cardiac tissue. c) Joe has a weakened cardiac sphincter and regurgitation of the contents of the left ventricle stimulates acid production in the stomach. d) Joe was experiencing gastroesophageal reflux and the acidic contents of his stomach were inflaming the wall of the lower esophagus.

All of the listed responses are correct

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. Which of the following statements regarding the appendix is correct? a) Appendicitis usually results from a blockage that traps infectious bacteria in its lumen, and that can result in swelling and rupture over time. b) A ruptured appendix can spill bacteria and feces into the surrounding abdominal cavity leading to inflammation of the peritoneum. c) The symptoms of appendicitis are pain in the umbilical region, followed by loss of appetite, fever, nausea, vomiting, and eventual spread of pain to the lower right quadrant. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

all of the listed responses are correct

Diverticulosis is a condition where increased pressure on the wall of the colon during contractions can result in the formation of small sacs, which are small outward herniations of mucosa through the colon wall. Which of the following statements is correct? a) In serious cases of diverticulitis, the affected region of the colon is removed by survey and antibiotics are given to fight the peritonitis. b) In some patients, the diverticula can become infected and perforate, leaking feces into the peritoneal cavity. This condition is called diverticulitis. c) The diverticula are generally produced in response to low colon volume and greater contractions of the circular muscle as a result of a diet lacking fiber. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line in the anal canal.

What causes hemorrhoids? a) External hemorrhoids are located below the pectinate line in the rectum. b) Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line in the anal canal. c) Hemorrhoids are swollen arteries in the anal canal that rupture and bleed. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

Glycosomes contain stored glycogen.

What is the importance of hepatocytes containing numerous glycosomes? a) Glycosomes synthesize a number of plasma proteins. b) Glycosomes contain stored glycogen. c) Glycosomes store fats for rapid energy mobilization if needed. d) They help detoxify alcohol and other poisons.

They produce, store, and secrete about 22 different types of pancreatic enzymes.

What is the function of the serous acinar cells in the pancreas? a) They produce, store, and secrete about 22 different types of pancreatic enzymes. b) They secrete glucagon. c) They secrete insulin. d) They secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

mucosa, smooth muscle, and connective tissue covered by a serosa

Name the three histological layers of the wall of the gallbladder. a) mucosa, smooth muscle, and connective tissue covered by a serosa b) goblet cells, columnar cells, and lamina propria c) mucosa, exocrine glands, and endocrine cells d) goblet cells, absorptive cells, and enteroendocrine cells

well-developed smooth ER

The presence of __________ in hepatocytes helps produce bile salts and detoxifies bloodborne poisons. a) large and abundant Golgi apparatus b) large numbers of mitochondria c) well-developed smooth ER d) abundant peroxisomes and glycosomes e) abundant rough ER

Kupffer

__________ cells in the walls of liver sinusoids that destroy bacteria and other foreign particles. These cells also destroy worn-out blood cells.

a portal triad

The microscopic collection of tubules comprised of a branch of the hepatic artery, a branch of the hepatic portal vein, and a small branch of a bile duct is __________. pancreatic acini a pancreatic islet a portal triad the hepatopancreatic ampulla the porta hepatis

oxygen-poor and nutrient-rich blood drained from the digestive tract

Which statement best describes the composition of the blood in the portal vein? a) oxygen-poor and nutrient-rich blood drained from the digestive tract b) oxygen-rich blood supplying the hepatocytes c) oxygen-poor, toxin-free blood exiting the liver sinusoids and draining toward the inferior vena cava d) oxygen-poor blood with a low concentration of urea drained from the kidneys

common bile duct

The union of the cystic and common hepatic ducts. main pancreatic duct bile canaliculi hepatopancreatic ampulla accessory pancreatic duct common bile duct

storage of bile

What is the function of the gallbladder? secretion of gastrin production of cholesterol secretion of bile storage of bile

hilum

The pancreas contains all of the following regions except a head. tail. hilum. body.

producing digestive enzymes

Which of the following is not a function of hepatocytes? a) picking up and processing nutrients from the portal blood b) detoxifying poisons c) producing digestive enzymes d) storing some vitamins

lipids

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the bile-secreting liver were severely damaged? proteins lipids carbohydrates nucleic acids

is fused with the diaphragm

The bare area of the liver a) is covered with visceral peritoneum. b) is on the liver's inferior and anterior surface. c) contains the ligamentum teres. d) is fused with the diaphragm.

in the curvature formed by the duodenum

If we say the pancreas is shaped like a tadpole, then the tadpole's head lies a) against the hilum of the spleen. b) inside the mesentery proper. c) posterior to the fundus of the stomach. d) in the curvature formed by the duodenum

hepatic macrophages

Some bacteria from the intestinal microbiota work their way into the intestinal wall and start to spread through the circulation. Many of these bacteria are stopped by MALT, while many more are destroyed by a) the walling-off action of the greater omentum. b) hepatic macrophages. c) megakaryocytes. d) hepatocytes.

duodenum

In most cases, the accessory pancreatic duct drains into the common hepatic duct. jejunum. duodenum. common bile duct.

hepatic veins

Which of the following structures neither enters nor leaves the porta hepatis? a) hepatic ducts b) hepatic veins c) branches of hepatic artery d) branches of hepatic portal vein

true

Hepatic portal blood is mixed with blood from the hepatic artery in the liver. True False

false

A gallstone lodged in the cystic duct may also cause blockage of the pancreas. True False

false

The sinusoids of the liver lobule receive blood from the portal arteriole and deliver blood to the portal venule. True False

Cirrhosis leads to liver malfunction because poisoned hepatocytes are replaced by connective tissue.

Cirrhosis is a progressive inflammation of the liver. How does this occur? a) Cirrhosis leads to hepatitis. b) Cirrhosis leads to liver malfunction because poisoned hepatocytes are replaced by connective tissue. c) Cirrhosis is caused by alcohol ingestion; the alcohol kills the splenic cells. d) Decreased blood flow through the liver leads to cirrhosis.

all of the listed responses are correct

Which of the following statements about gallstones is correct? a) Gallstones are easily diagnosed with ultrasound imaging and treated by administering drugs to dissolve the stones or cholecystectomy. b) Blockage of the cystic duct by gallstones can lead to agonizing pain during peristaltic contractions of the duct. c) Too much cholesterol or too few bile salts can lead to the formation of gallstones. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

Pancreatitis is caused by blockage of the pancreatic duct by gallstones or alcohol inducted precipitation of protein.

Pancreatitis is a painful condition. What causes this condition? a) Pancreatitis is caused by blockage of the pancreatic duct by gallstones or alcohol inducted precipitation of protein. b) Usually the accessory duct will alleviate the problem and subsequent treatment is not necessary. c) The blockage results in loss of pancreatic enzymes resulting in bacteria infiltration and thus inflammation. d) Pancreatitis usually leads to the development of carcinoma of the pancreas.

chronic burning sensation in the epigastric region 1-3 hours after a meal

What is/are (a) major symptom(s) of peptic ulcer? a) shallow inflammation of the mucosa of the large intestine b) flulike symptoms and jaundice c) chronic burning sensation in the epigastric region 1-3 hours after a meal d) cramping, vomiting, and failure to pass gas or feces

Crohn's disease produces deeper erosions of the mucosa and occurs throughout the intestines, whereas ulcerative colitis occurs mostly in the rectum.

What is the distinction between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis? a) Crohn's disease produces deeper erosions of the mucosa and occurs throughout the intestines, whereas ulcerative colitis occurs mostly in the rectum. b) Although both diseases are caused by inflammation, Crohn's disease occurs only in the small intestine, whereas ulcerative colitis occurs only in the large intestine. c) Crohn's disease results in diverticula, caused by insufficient dietary fiber, whereas ulcerative colitis is caused by the bacterium H. pylori. d) Crohn's disease is caused by the bacterium H. pylori, whereas ulcerative colitis results from the failure of acid to be neutralized before it reaches the colon.

vitelline

The__________ duct divides the embryonic gut into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut regions.

allantois

The caudal part of the early hindgut joints a tube-like outpocketing called the__________ .

ectoderm

The epithelial lining of the mouth derives from endoderm. ectoderm. mesoderm. neural crest.

foregut

The liver and pancreas form as part of the embryonic the hindgut and midgut. midgut. hindgut. foregut

splanchnic mesoderm

The lamina propria and submucosa of the stomach both derive from which embryonic layer? ectoderm somatic mesoderm intermediate mesoderm splanchnic mesoderm

endoderm

The lining epithelium of the developing digestive tract (pharynx through anal canal) comes from neural crest. ectoderm. mesoderm. endoderm.

Abnormal rotation of the intestine, a condition called volvulus.

Many things can go wrong during development. That is what we mean by "the miracle of life" -- the fact that millions of cells form and grow into specific organs and organs systems that work together to provide normal homeostasis for the species. With respect to development of the digestive tract, there are several common developmental abnormalities. What are they? a) Failure of the testicles to descend. b) Abnormal rotation of the intestine, a condition called volvulus. c) Failure of the the baby teeth to exfoliate. d) Incomplete formation of the diaphragm and subsequent hiatal hernias.

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Anatomy Chapter 23

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They are made from a single layer of peritoneum.

Which of the following statements regarding the mesenteries is FALSE? a) They contain adipose and lymphoid tissues that can respond to ingested pathogens. b) They provide a passageway for blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves. c) They are made from a single layer of peritoneum. d) They anchor the digestive organs to the dorsal and ventral walls of the body.

Visceral peritoneum

Serous membrane that covers the digestive organs

parietal peritoneum

Serous membrane that forms the outer lining of the peritoneal cavity

Secondarily retroperitoneal

Organs that lose their mesenteries and get pushed to the dorsal body wall, developing behind the peritoneal cavity

intraperitoneal

Organs that have mesenteries and are completely surrounded by the peritoneal cavity

During the initial stages of fetal development, all digestive organs are intraperitoneal.

Which of the following statements regarding the structure and development of the digestive system is true? a) Digestive organs do not begin to migrate into their retroperitoneal positions until after birth. b) During the initial stages of fetal development, all digestive organs are intraperitoneal. c) In an adult, all digestive organs are surrounded by a visceral peritoneum and a parietal peritoneum. d) Only digestive organs that have migrated to the retroperitoneal position have mesenteries.

stomach

Which of the following digestive organs will have a mesentery? Stomach Rectum Pancreas Duodenum

peristalsis

__________ is the major means of propulsion of foodstuffs through the alimentary canal, where adjacent sections alternately contract and relax, moving food distally toward the anus.

Its superior one-third is composed of skeletal muscle.

When compared to other regions of the alimentary canal, what is different about the muscularis externa of the esophagus? a) The muscularis externa has an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layer. b) The esophagus is the only region in which the muscularis externa is absent. c) Its superior one-third is composed of skeletal muscle. d) Its longitudinal layer is arranged into three longitudinal bands.

gallbladder

Which of the following organs is an accessory digestive organ? esophagus duodenum pharynx gallbladder

kidney

Which organ(s) in this transverse section of the abdomen is NOT within the peritoneal cavity? stomach spleen kidney liver

epigastric region, umbilical region, and hypogastric region

Which abdominal regions are located between the midclavicular lines? a) epigastric region, umbilical region, and hypogastric region b) right iliac region, hypogastric region, and left iliac region c) right hypochondriac region, epigastric region, and left hypochondriac region d) left hypochondriac region, left lumbar region, and left iliac region

epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae

Which of these statements accurately lists the components of the mucosa of the alimentary canal? a) epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae b) submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa c) longitudinal muscularis and circular muscularis d) major blood and lymphatic vessels, connective tissue, and intrinsic glands e) goblet cells, intrinsic glands, and simple squamous epithelium

pepsin

The stomach begins the breakdown of ingested proteins by secreting__________, a protein-digesting enzyme.

haustra

The large intestine is puckered into sacs called __________. circular folds epiploic appendages haustra teniae coli lacteals

Ingested and absorbed fat-soluble toxins can circulate throughout the body before detoxification.

What is a disadvantage of absorbed fats traveling in the lymphatic vessels to the venous system before reaching the liver? a) A person could easily eat several hundred grams of fat per day that are not digested, causing weight gain and fatty stools. b) The villi of the small intestines do not have the opportunity to further digest ingested fats. c) The smooth muscle located within each villus of the small intestine can become overwhelmed with fat and, thus unable to perform its important role in increasing the amount of contact between villi and nutrients in the intestinal lumen. d) Ingested and absorbed fat-soluble toxins can circulate throughout the body before detoxification.

exocrine / endocrine

The pancreas is both a(n) __________ gland and a(n) __________ gland. a) submandibular / sublingual b) intestinal / duodenal c) exocrine / endocrine d) large / heavy

hepatitis A

viral disease spread by the fecal-oral route, often in contaminated food or water a) peptic ulcer b) hepatitis A c) hepatitis B d) cystic fibrosis

peptic ulcer

Infectious disease caused by Helicobacter pylori, an acid-resistant bacterium; may be spread by fecal-oral route or by kissing a) hepatitis A b) cystic fibrosis c) peptic ulcer d) hepatitis B

gastroesophageal reflux disease

may be due to weak cardiac sphincter; symptoms include belching, heartburn, and regurgitation of stomach contents a) ulcerative colitis b) cystic fibrosis c) hepatitis C d) gastroesophageal reflux disease

ulcerative cells

shallow inflammation of the large-intestinal mucosa; now understood to be an abnormal immune and inflammatory response a) ulcerative colitis b) gastroesophageal reflux disease c) cystic fibrosis d) hepatitis A

hepatitis B

a viral disease transmitted through infected blood or body fluids; some individuals infected with this virus develop a chronic form of the disease a) ulcerative colitis b) hepatitis B c) gastroesophageal reflux disease d) cystic fibrosis

cystic fibrosis

disrupts or blocks important secretions in the respiratory and digestive systems; thick mucus blocks ducts of digestive glands (most seriously affecting the pancreas a) ulcerative colitis b) peptic ulcer c) cystic fibrosis d) hepatitis b

rectum and most of the anal canal

The cloaca gives rise to the __________. a) first segment of the digestive tract, from the pharynx to the beginning of the duodenum b) descending colon and sigmoid colon c) rectum and most of the anal canal d) portion of the digestive system from the duodenum to the transverse colon

right and left lumbar regions

The abdominal regions lateral to the umbilical region are the __________. a) right and left iliac regions b) umbilical and hypogastric regions c) right and left lumbar regions d) right and left hypochondriac regions

sigmoid

The sigmoid mesocolon is the mesentery that connects the__________ colon to the posterior pelvic wall.

submandibular, sublingual and parotid salivary glands

All of these organs contribute to mechanical digestion EXCEPT ? a) tongue b) submandibular, sublingual and parotid salivary glands c) teeth d) small intestines

appendicitis

What would cause pain that extends or moves to the right in the umbilical region? peptic ulcer kidney stones gallstones appendicitis

somatic mesoderm

Which embryonic layer forms the parietal peritoneum? somatic mesoderm splanchnic mesoderm somite endoderm

lesser omentum

Attaches the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach. a) porta hepatis b) lesser omentum c) haustra d) hepatopancreatic ampulla e) greater omentum

falciform ligament

Attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm. a) porta hepatis b) lesser omentum c) ligamentum teres d) greater omentum e) falciform ligament

visceral peritoneum

Another name for serosa is visceral peritoneum. serous gland. parietal peritoneum. mucosa.

lesser curvature of the stomach and the porta hepatis of the liver.

The lesser omentum extends between the a) greater curvature of the stomach and the posterior abdominal wall. b) transverse colon and the posterior abdominal wall. c) sigmoid colon and the posterior pelvic wall. d) lesser curvature of the stomach and the porta hepatis of the liver.

left hypochondriac region

The splenic, or left colic, flexure of the colon is located within the a) left hypochondriac region. b) right hypochondriac region. c) right lumbar region. d) left lumbar region.

mesentery proper

The mesentery that suspends the small intestine is the lesser omentum. greater omentum. mesentery proper. falciform ligament.

it stores fat

Which of the following correctly describes the function of the greater omentum? a) It stores fat. b) It wraps around most of the large intestine and anchors it to the anterior abdominal wall. c) It absorbs heat from the digestive process and radiates it to the outside of the body. d) It is a vestigial structure that has no known function.

descending colon

Which of the following is a secondarily retroperitoneal organ? sigmoid colon ileum descending colon transverse colon

absorption

Of the basic digestive processes, the one in which nutrients enter capillaries is called absorption. mechanical digestion. propulsion. ingestion.

spleen

Which of the following is not an accessory digestive organ? teeth salivary gland spleen liver

false

The lesser omentum directly attaches the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall. True False

true

The pancreas and duodenum are secondarily retroperitoneal organs. True False

true

Most of the ascending colon lies between the subcostal and transtubercular planes. True False

There is no relationship between the loudness of bowel sounds and increased activity associated with inflammation, diarrhea, or other bowel disorders.

The GI tract is a system of tubes that allow for ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion of substances. There are certain sounds — bowel sounds — that are associated with this process. Which of the following statements regarding bowel sounds is incorrect? a) Bowel sounds usually occur every 5-15 seconds and indicate normal intestinal activity. b) Bowel sounds result from movement of gas. c) Bowel sounds result from peristalsis of intestinal content. d) There is no relationship between the loudness of bowel sounds and increased activity associated with inflammation, diarrhea, or other bowel disorders.

Peritonitis

The peritoneum plays an important role in providing support for the viscera of the abdominal cavity. Infection of this structure is called: Pericarditis Pleurisy Peritonitis Laryngitis

mesentary

a double layer of peritoneum; sheet of two fused serous membranes that enclose blood vessels and nerves a) submandibular gland b) laryngopharynx c) mesentary d) liver

submandibular gland

contains mucus and serous secretory cells a) mesentary b) submandibular gland c) duodenum d) large intestine/colon

laryngopharynx

a passageway for air and food a) laryngopharynx b) mesentary c) duodenum d) liver

duodenum

receives digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder a) submandibular gland b) mesentary c) liver d) duodenum

large intestine/colon

has a modified longitudinal muscularis externa layer a) mesentary b) large intestine/colon c) liver d) duodenum

liver

largest exocrine gland in the body a) liver b) laryngopharynx c) submandibular gland d) duodenum

have interdigitating thick and thin filaments

Smooth muscle cells __________. a) contract more quickly than skeletal muscle cells b) are composed of sarcomeres c) are striated d) have interdigitating thick and thin filaments

All salivary glands are compound tubular glands.

Which of these statements about salivary glands is FALSE? a) Serous cells in human salivary glands secrete a small amount of mucus. b) All salivary glands are compound tubular glands. c) The sublingual glands are mixed glands, but contain mostly mucus cells. d) The parotid gland contains only serous cells.

secrete gastrin, which signals the parietal cells to secrete HCl when food enters the stomach

Enteroendocrine cells in the gastric glands of the stomach __________. a) secrete gastrin, which signals the parietal cells to secrete HCl when food enters the stomach b) secrete several hormones, which signal the gallbladder to release stored bile c) secrete hormones that signal the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes and bicarbonate-rich substance to neutralize acidic chyme entering the duodenum d) secrete mucus onto the internal surface of the stomach, which prevents damage to the lining from the stomach acid

numerous mitochondria

Absorptive cells of the small intestine contain these microscopic organelles. a) very few endoplasmic reticulum b) the components to form mucus c) bicarbonate-rich enzymes and hormones d) numerous mitochondria

myenteric nerve plexus / controlling peristalsis and segmentation

The nerve plexus located between the two layers of the muscularis externa is the __________ and its function is __________. a) submucosal nerve plexus / stimulates secretion by the glands in the mucosa and induces the muscularis mucosae to contract b) myenteric nerve plexus / controlling peristalsis and segmentation c) parasympathetic nerve complex / stimulates secretion by the glands in the mucosa and increases peristalsis d) sympathetic nerve complex / inhibits secretions by the glands in the mucosa and halts peristalsis

calcium

Similar to the contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscle, the release of__________ into the sarcoplasm stimulates smooth muscle cells to contract.

They divide continuously to replace the mucus-secreting cells of the epithelial liningls of the stomach every 3â€"7 days.

What is the function of the undifferentiated stem cells located in the gastric glands throughout the stomach? a) They secrete gastrin, which signals parietal cells to secrete HCl when food enters the stomach. b) They secrete gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), which is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12. c) They divide continuously to replace the mucus-secreting cells of the epithelial liningls of the stomach every 3â€"7 days. d) They secrete pancreatic polypeptide, which signals the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes. e) They induce smooth muscle contractions for mechanical digestion of foodstuffs in the stomach.

There are three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa.

Which of these statements accurately describes important differences in the histology of the stomach compared to other regions of the digestive tract? a) There are three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa. b) The outer layer is the serosa (visceral peritoneum). c) There are three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis mucosa. d) The outer layer is called adventitia.

premolars

________ are teeth specialized for grinding food

salivary

all _______ glands are compound tubuloalveolar glands

parietal cells

_____ produce the stomach’s hydrochloric acid

microvilli

__________ , located on the surface of simple columnar epithelium in the small intestine, increase the surface area for absorption, and contain enzymes that complete the final stages of digestion.

No / 2I – 1C – 2P – 3M

As part of a forensic investigation, you found a mandible in the woods. The mandible had the formula 3I – 1C – 4P – 3M. Is the specimen from a human? What is the dental formula for the mandible of an adult human? a) No / 2I – 1C – 2P – 3M b) Yes / 3I – 1C – 4P – 3M c) No / 2I – 1C – 2M d) No / None of these formulas are consistent with the mandible of an adult human.

by surgically cutting the frenulum

How is the condition ankyloglossia corrected? a)Vitamin B12 b) by surgically cutting the frenulum c) by interferon injection d) by administering pancreatic enzymes with meals e) by daily flossing

diverticulosis

__________ is a condition consisting of small outward herniations of the mucosa through the colon wall.

small intestine

The longest region of the alimentary canal is the__________ .

adventitia

The most external (superficial) layer of the esophagus is (the)__________

preganglionic sympathetic fibers

Which type of nerve fibers are NOT found in smooth muscle? a) preganglionic parasympathetic fibers b) postganglionic parasympathetic fibers c) postganglionic sympathetic fibers d) preganglionic sympathetic fibers

glossopharyngeal nerve

Which cranial nerve innervates the parotid salivary gland? facial nerve hypoglossal nerve trigeminal nerve glossopharyngeal nerve

digested fats

Which food molecules are absorbed from the small intestine lumen into the lacteal, the lymphatic capillary located within the villus? digested carbohydrates digested fats water digested proteins

adventitia

Retroperitoneal organs have a serosa facing the peritoneal cavity and a(n) ________ on the posterior side embedded in the abdominal wall. mesothelium caveolae adventitia vasa vasorum muscularis externa

caveolae

Infoldings of the sarcolemma of smooth muscle fibers. caveolae vasa vasorum adventitia mesothelium muscularis externa

hepatic flexure

Junction of the transverse and ascending colon. haustra hepatic flexure ileocecal valve cecum splenic flexure

ileocecal valve

Smooth muscle constriction between the ileum and cecum. hepatic flexure haustra ileocecal valve splenic flexure cecum

muscularis externa

Layer of the GI tract responsible for peristalsis and segmentation. submucosa muscularis mucosae serosa lamina propria muscularis externa

hepatopancreatic ampulla

Bulblike union of the main pancreatic duct and bile duct. a) accessory pancreatic duct b) porta hepatis c) cystic duct d) hepatopancreatic ampulla e) hepatic duct

teniae coli

Three strips of longitudinal muscles of the muscularis of the colon causing it to pucker into sacs. haustra pyloric sphincter ileocecal junction muscularis mucosae teniae coli

muscularis externa

Which layer of the digestive tract is responsible for the peristaltic waves that propel materials from one portion to another? mucosa submucosa muscularis externa serosa

chief cell; pepsinogen

Which of the following choices correctly pairs a type of cell in the stomach with its secretion? a) parietal cell; pepsinogen b) chief cell; pepsinogen c) enteroendocrine; hydrochloric acid d) parietal cell; mucus

it is the main site of nutrient absorption

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the large intestine? a) It is the main site of nutrient absorption. b) It contains an abundant bacterial flora. c) It absorbs much of the water and salts remaining in the wastes. d) It includes the ascending, transverse, and descending colon.

large intestine

The digestive organ primarily responsible for the absorption of water is the ileum. duodenum. large intestine. anus.

lingual frenulum is short

To say someone is "tongue-tied" means that the a) tongue muscles are weak. b) lips are exceptionally immobile. c) salivary glands produce little lubricant. d) lingual frenulum is short.

enzymes that begin the digestion of proteins

Which of the following is not contained in saliva? a) bactericidal enzymes b) bicarbonate buffer c) enzymes that begin the digestion of proteins d) enzymes that initiate the digestion of carbohydrates

20

How many deciduous teeth are there? a) 18 b) 32 c) 20 d) It varies from person to person.

lamina propria

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is primarily located within the serosa. lamina propria. muscularis mucosa. submucosa.

It controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juices into the alimentary canal.

What is the function of the hepatopancreatic sphincter? a) As it contracts, it squeezes pancreatic secretions into the duodenum. b) It inhibits defecation in the upper alimentary canal while the anal sphincters do the same in the lower regions. c) It prevents the movement of bile into the gallbladder. d) It controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juices into the alimentary canal.

lateral to the upper molars

Secretions of the parotid gland empty a) anterior to the frenulum of the tongue. b) lateral to the upper molars. c) through 10 ducts on the floor of the oral cavity. d) between the lingual tonsil and epiglottis.

Secretions of parietal cells kill bacteria in the stomach.

Why are bacteria abundant in the large intestines but not in the stomach? a) Secretions of parietal cells kill bacteria in the stomach. b) Food enters the stomach first and does not spend much time there. c) The stomach wall contains so much lymphoid tissue that it destroys all bacteria there. d) The intestine is much warmer and moister, encouraging bacterial growth.

churns food into a paste by mechanical means.

The stomach a) stores food for later use in the form of fat. b) dehydrates food materials before passing them to the small intestine. c) churns food into a paste by mechanical means. d) absorbs most of the nutrients in food.

parotid

The largest salivary gland is the sublingual. intrinsic. submandibular. parotid.

parietal cells

Which of the following cells produce intrinsic factor? parietal cells chief cells mucous neck cells enteroendocrine cells

Breakdown products of fats enter its lacteals.

Which of the following applies to the small intestine? a) It is where carbohydrates and fats but not proteins are digested. b) It is where foodstuffs first encounter protein-splitting enzymes. c) Its walls secrete most of the digestive enzymes that are active in its lumen. d) Breakdown products of fats enter its lacteals.

mouth

All of the following structures have all four tissue layers in their walls except the mouth. stomach. sigmoid colon. esophagus.

transverse colon

The portion of the large intestine closest to the liver is the descending colon. transverse colon. rectum. cecum.

duodenal glands

The duodenum contains these structures whose products neutralize the acidic chyme. duodenal glands intestinal glands Peyer’s patches gastric glands

It is more movable than the ileum or jejunum, which are retroperitoneal.

Which of the following statements about the duodenum is false? a) It receives chyme from the stomach. b) It is shorter than either the ileum or jejunum. c) It is more movable than the ileum or jejunum, which are retroperitoneal. d) It is the site of action of liver and pancreas secretions

muscularis mucosae

Which of the following layers is present in the mucosa of the stomach and intestines, but not in the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx? lamina propria muscularis mucosae lumen lining epithelium

sublingual

The "mostly mucous" extrinsic salivary gland is the ________ gland. sublingual intrinsic parotid submandibular

circular folds in the small intestine

Which of the following are the only mucosal folds that do not flatten out at all when the organ stretches? a) mucosal folds in the gallbladder b) rugae in the stomach c) longitudinal folds in the esophagus d) circular folds in the small intestine

has longitudinal folds called columns

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the rectum? a) has transverse folds called rectal valves b) is secondarily retroperitoneal c) lacks tenia coli d) has longitudinal folds called columns

It divides regions of somatic and visceral innervation.

Which of the following is true of the pectinate line of the anal canal? a) It lies just below the level of the rectal valves. b) It divides regions of somatic and visceral innervation. c) All hemorrhoids occur there. d) It is also called the anal columns.

They are scattered throughout the lining of the rectum

Which of the following is not a characteristic of enteroendocrine cells? a) They secrete hormones that help signal the events of digestion. b) They never secrete their product into the lumen of the digestive canal. c) They are scattered throughout the lining epithelium of the stomach and intestines. d) They are scattered throughout the lining of the rectum

transverse and descending colon

The splenic flexure is the boundary between the a) transverse and ascending colon. b) descending colon and sigmoid colon. c) spleen and stomach. d) transverse and descending colon

deep within the intestinal glands

In the stomach, the undifferentiated epithelial stem cells lie near the junction between the gastric pits and gastric glands. In the intestine, the corresponding stem cells occur a) deep within the intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkühn). b) where the intestinal crypts meet the villi. c) in the duodenal (Brunner’s) glands. d) on the tips of the villi.

It lifts the anal canal superiorly around the feces.

Which of the following is a role of the levator ani muscle in defecation? a) It has no role in defecation, only in inhibiting defecation (it is the external sphincter muscle). b) It pushes down on the feces. c) Its stretch and proprioception properties initiate the defecation reflex. d) It lifts the anal canal superiorly around the feces.

biting off pieces of food versus grinding.

In mastication, the relative roles of an incisor versus a molar are a) piercing versus tearing. b) chewing versus holding food in the mouth. c) only incisors function in mastication. d) biting off pieces of food versus grinding.

periodontal ligament

Disease of which structure is the most common cause of tooth loss in adults? periodontal ligament crown enamel dentin

pharynx and anal canal

Most of the gastrointestinal tract is innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the nervous system. Which parts are innervated by the somatic nervous system? a) pharynx and anal canal b) pyloric, ileocecal, and internal anal sphincters c) small and large intestines d) esophagus and stomach

intrinsic factor and HCl

The parietal cells in the stomach produce pepsin. mucin. intrinsic factor and HCl. secretin.

ileum

The terminal portion of the small intestine is the duodenum. jejunum. pyloric sphincter. ileum.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.

The correct sequence of layers in the wall of the alimentary canal, from internal to external, is a) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa. b) mucosa, muscularis, serosa, submucosa. c) serosa, muscularis, mucosa, submucosa. d) submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis

submucosa

The layer of the digestive tube that contains abundant elastin plus blood vessels, lymphoid nodules, and deep glands is the muscularis. serosa. adventitia. submucosa.

It is longer than the small intestine.

Which of the following statements about the large intestine is false? a) It has haustra. b) It has no villi. c) It is longer than the small intestine. d) It exhibits external muscular bands called taeniae coli.

true

The vermiform appendix is suspended from the cecum true false

false

The terms taste bud and papillae are synonymous. True False

true

From the lumen outward, the layers of the gastrointestinal tract are mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa. True False

false

The most superficial layer of the esophagus is the serosa. True False

false

Smooth muscle fibers differ from skeletal muscle in that they do not contain contractile myofilaments. True False

false

Stretching of the anal sphincter initiates the defecation reflex. True False

false

Villi are cytoplasmic projections on the surface of intestinal absorptive cells. True False

true

Chief cells of the gastric glands secrete pepsinogen. True False

true

The small intestines contain bacteria that synthesize some essential vitamins. True False

Impacted teeth cause pressure and pain and usually are removed.

Which of the following statements about an impacted tooth is correct? a) Wisdom teeth usually do not impact because they form after the permanent teeth. b) An impacted tooth is one that is decayed and must be removed. c) An impacted tooth results from poor bone formation or osteoporosis. d) Impacted teeth cause pressure and pain and usually are removed.

The resulting periodontitis is not reversible.

Gum disease is an important condition associated with poor dental care. Understanding the process of gum disease is important for maintaining healthy teeth throughout life. Identify the incorrect statement regarding gum disease. a) Plaque can become calcified over time, forming a bacteria filled calculus that leads to inflammation of the gums. b) Plaque is an accumulation of substances around the necks of the teeth, which occurs after the ingestion of foods. c) The resulting periodontitis is not reversible. d) Periodontitis often results in the loss of teeth and is the reason many people wear dentures.

The inflammation of the parotid gland resulting from spread of viruses among individuals.

What is the definition of mumps? a) The inflammation of the parotid gland resulting from spread of viruses among individuals. b) It is the spread of bacteria from one person to another, via saliva. c) The inflammation of the submandibular gland by infectious spread of bacteria. d) The painful swelling and inflammation of the parotid gland by viruses that are usually not infectious to other persons.

Joe was experiencing gastroesophageal reflux and the acidic contents of his stomach were inflaming the wall of the lower esophagus.

Joe Mackenzie complained of a painful sensation in his chest. His doctor prescribed antacids and a drip to reduce secretion of stomach acids. Why? a) Joe has a history of an inguinal hernia and this allows the superior part of the stomach to protrude into the thorax leading to painful inflammation of the esophagus. b) Joe was having a mild heart attack and the antacids help to increase blood blow to cardiac tissue. c) Joe has a weakened cardiac sphincter and regurgitation of the contents of the left ventricle stimulates acid production in the stomach. d) Joe was experiencing gastroesophageal reflux and the acidic contents of his stomach were inflaming the wall of the lower esophagus.

All of the listed responses are correct

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. Which of the following statements regarding the appendix is correct? a) Appendicitis usually results from a blockage that traps infectious bacteria in its lumen, and that can result in swelling and rupture over time. b) A ruptured appendix can spill bacteria and feces into the surrounding abdominal cavity leading to inflammation of the peritoneum. c) The symptoms of appendicitis are pain in the umbilical region, followed by loss of appetite, fever, nausea, vomiting, and eventual spread of pain to the lower right quadrant. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

all of the listed responses are correct

Diverticulosis is a condition where increased pressure on the wall of the colon during contractions can result in the formation of small sacs, which are small outward herniations of mucosa through the colon wall. Which of the following statements is correct? a) In serious cases of diverticulitis, the affected region of the colon is removed by survey and antibiotics are given to fight the peritonitis. b) In some patients, the diverticula can become infected and perforate, leaking feces into the peritoneal cavity. This condition is called diverticulitis. c) The diverticula are generally produced in response to low colon volume and greater contractions of the circular muscle as a result of a diet lacking fiber. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line in the anal canal.

What causes hemorrhoids? a) External hemorrhoids are located below the pectinate line in the rectum. b) Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line in the anal canal. c) Hemorrhoids are swollen arteries in the anal canal that rupture and bleed. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

Glycosomes contain stored glycogen.

What is the importance of hepatocytes containing numerous glycosomes? a) Glycosomes synthesize a number of plasma proteins. b) Glycosomes contain stored glycogen. c) Glycosomes store fats for rapid energy mobilization if needed. d) They help detoxify alcohol and other poisons.

They produce, store, and secrete about 22 different types of pancreatic enzymes.

What is the function of the serous acinar cells in the pancreas? a) They produce, store, and secrete about 22 different types of pancreatic enzymes. b) They secrete glucagon. c) They secrete insulin. d) They secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

mucosa, smooth muscle, and connective tissue covered by a serosa

Name the three histological layers of the wall of the gallbladder. a) mucosa, smooth muscle, and connective tissue covered by a serosa b) goblet cells, columnar cells, and lamina propria c) mucosa, exocrine glands, and endocrine cells d) goblet cells, absorptive cells, and enteroendocrine cells

well-developed smooth ER

The presence of __________ in hepatocytes helps produce bile salts and detoxifies bloodborne poisons. a) large and abundant Golgi apparatus b) large numbers of mitochondria c) well-developed smooth ER d) abundant peroxisomes and glycosomes e) abundant rough ER

Kupffer

__________ cells in the walls of liver sinusoids that destroy bacteria and other foreign particles. These cells also destroy worn-out blood cells.

a portal triad

The microscopic collection of tubules comprised of a branch of the hepatic artery, a branch of the hepatic portal vein, and a small branch of a bile duct is __________. pancreatic acini a pancreatic islet a portal triad the hepatopancreatic ampulla the porta hepatis

oxygen-poor and nutrient-rich blood drained from the digestive tract

Which statement best describes the composition of the blood in the portal vein? a) oxygen-poor and nutrient-rich blood drained from the digestive tract b) oxygen-rich blood supplying the hepatocytes c) oxygen-poor, toxin-free blood exiting the liver sinusoids and draining toward the inferior vena cava d) oxygen-poor blood with a low concentration of urea drained from the kidneys

common bile duct

The union of the cystic and common hepatic ducts. main pancreatic duct bile canaliculi hepatopancreatic ampulla accessory pancreatic duct common bile duct

storage of bile

What is the function of the gallbladder? secretion of gastrin production of cholesterol secretion of bile storage of bile

hilum

The pancreas contains all of the following regions except a head. tail. hilum. body.

producing digestive enzymes

Which of the following is not a function of hepatocytes? a) picking up and processing nutrients from the portal blood b) detoxifying poisons c) producing digestive enzymes d) storing some vitamins

lipids

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the bile-secreting liver were severely damaged? proteins lipids carbohydrates nucleic acids

is fused with the diaphragm

The bare area of the liver a) is covered with visceral peritoneum. b) is on the liver’s inferior and anterior surface. c) contains the ligamentum teres. d) is fused with the diaphragm.

in the curvature formed by the duodenum

If we say the pancreas is shaped like a tadpole, then the tadpole’s head lies a) against the hilum of the spleen. b) inside the mesentery proper. c) posterior to the fundus of the stomach. d) in the curvature formed by the duodenum

hepatic macrophages

Some bacteria from the intestinal microbiota work their way into the intestinal wall and start to spread through the circulation. Many of these bacteria are stopped by MALT, while many more are destroyed by a) the walling-off action of the greater omentum. b) hepatic macrophages. c) megakaryocytes. d) hepatocytes.

duodenum

In most cases, the accessory pancreatic duct drains into the common hepatic duct. jejunum. duodenum. common bile duct.

hepatic veins

Which of the following structures neither enters nor leaves the porta hepatis? a) hepatic ducts b) hepatic veins c) branches of hepatic artery d) branches of hepatic portal vein

true

Hepatic portal blood is mixed with blood from the hepatic artery in the liver. True False

false

A gallstone lodged in the cystic duct may also cause blockage of the pancreas. True False

false

The sinusoids of the liver lobule receive blood from the portal arteriole and deliver blood to the portal venule. True False

Cirrhosis leads to liver malfunction because poisoned hepatocytes are replaced by connective tissue.

Cirrhosis is a progressive inflammation of the liver. How does this occur? a) Cirrhosis leads to hepatitis. b) Cirrhosis leads to liver malfunction because poisoned hepatocytes are replaced by connective tissue. c) Cirrhosis is caused by alcohol ingestion; the alcohol kills the splenic cells. d) Decreased blood flow through the liver leads to cirrhosis.

all of the listed responses are correct

Which of the following statements about gallstones is correct? a) Gallstones are easily diagnosed with ultrasound imaging and treated by administering drugs to dissolve the stones or cholecystectomy. b) Blockage of the cystic duct by gallstones can lead to agonizing pain during peristaltic contractions of the duct. c) Too much cholesterol or too few bile salts can lead to the formation of gallstones. d) All of the listed responses are correct.

Pancreatitis is caused by blockage of the pancreatic duct by gallstones or alcohol inducted precipitation of protein.

Pancreatitis is a painful condition. What causes this condition? a) Pancreatitis is caused by blockage of the pancreatic duct by gallstones or alcohol inducted precipitation of protein. b) Usually the accessory duct will alleviate the problem and subsequent treatment is not necessary. c) The blockage results in loss of pancreatic enzymes resulting in bacteria infiltration and thus inflammation. d) Pancreatitis usually leads to the development of carcinoma of the pancreas.

chronic burning sensation in the epigastric region 1-3 hours after a meal

What is/are (a) major symptom(s) of peptic ulcer? a) shallow inflammation of the mucosa of the large intestine b) flulike symptoms and jaundice c) chronic burning sensation in the epigastric region 1-3 hours after a meal d) cramping, vomiting, and failure to pass gas or feces

Crohn’s disease produces deeper erosions of the mucosa and occurs throughout the intestines, whereas ulcerative colitis occurs mostly in the rectum.

What is the distinction between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis? a) Crohn’s disease produces deeper erosions of the mucosa and occurs throughout the intestines, whereas ulcerative colitis occurs mostly in the rectum. b) Although both diseases are caused by inflammation, Crohn’s disease occurs only in the small intestine, whereas ulcerative colitis occurs only in the large intestine. c) Crohn’s disease results in diverticula, caused by insufficient dietary fiber, whereas ulcerative colitis is caused by the bacterium H. pylori. d) Crohn’s disease is caused by the bacterium H. pylori, whereas ulcerative colitis results from the failure of acid to be neutralized before it reaches the colon.

vitelline

The__________ duct divides the embryonic gut into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut regions.

allantois

The caudal part of the early hindgut joints a tube-like outpocketing called the__________ .

ectoderm

The epithelial lining of the mouth derives from endoderm. ectoderm. mesoderm. neural crest.

foregut

The liver and pancreas form as part of the embryonic the hindgut and midgut. midgut. hindgut. foregut

splanchnic mesoderm

The lamina propria and submucosa of the stomach both derive from which embryonic layer? ectoderm somatic mesoderm intermediate mesoderm splanchnic mesoderm

endoderm

The lining epithelium of the developing digestive tract (pharynx through anal canal) comes from neural crest. ectoderm. mesoderm. endoderm.

Abnormal rotation of the intestine, a condition called volvulus.

Many things can go wrong during development. That is what we mean by "the miracle of life" — the fact that millions of cells form and grow into specific organs and organs systems that work together to provide normal homeostasis for the species. With respect to development of the digestive tract, there are several common developmental abnormalities. What are they? a) Failure of the testicles to descend. b) Abnormal rotation of the intestine, a condition called volvulus. c) Failure of the the baby teeth to exfoliate. d) Incomplete formation of the diaphragm and subsequent hiatal hernias.

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