Anatomy and Physiology Online hw lab assessment

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Which of the following is missing in a short reflex?

CNS component

Which of the following is NOT part of the pathway for the sense of smell?

Frontal sinus

Which of the following is involved in the gustatory perception of amino acids?

Umami receptors

To which of the following muscles is the indicated tendon attached?

Superior oblique

Which of the following is NOT a structure within the visual axis?

Suspensory ligaments

Which of the following is found in the optic disc?

Axons of ganglion cells

Along which of the following will nerve impulses from the far left visual field travel?

Right lateral geniculate nucleus

What would result from inflammation and blockage in the area indicated by the arrow?

Fluid accumulation in the tympanic cavity

What is the function of the area in the ear indicated by the arrow?

Generates nerve impulses when the head rotates

Which of the following projects away from the vestibular nucleus of the brainstem?

Vestibulospinal tract

Which of the following is NOT involved in hearing high-frequency sounds?

Inferior colliculi

Which of the cell types shown helps determine capillary permeability?


Name the glial cell at F.

Schwann cell

Which of the cell types shown is most associated with the production and flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?


Which of the neuroglial cell types shown form myelin sheaths within the CNS?


Which of the neuroglial cell types shown are found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?


Destruction of which of the neuroglial cell types leads to the disease multiple sclerosis (MS)?


What is the structure at A?


Which of these materials or structures would be found in greatest amounts or numbers at E?

vesicles containing neurotransmitter

What structural classification describes this neuron?


Which areas of this neuron would be classified as receptive regions?

both A and B

In which area of the neuron is an action potential initially generated?


Which of the following membrane regions would have significant numbers of voltage-gated ion channels?

C and D

What is the designation of the area at D?

primary visual cortex

Region A includes which of the following?

Region A includes which of the following?

The groove indicated by C is the __________.

central sulcus

Which of the following is the best description of the function of region B?

Region B includes neurons whose axons carry motor commands from the cerebrum.

The cortical regions indicated by E are involved in what functions?

the production and interpretation of language

The letter A in the figure indicates which of the following structures?


The neural fibers connecting structure A to the cerebral cortex can be described by which of the following?

third-order sensory neurons

What structure(s) is/are indicated by B?

corpus callosum

Classify a fiber tract that communicates between the left prefrontal lobe and the left parietal lobe.


What CNS-associated structure is illustrated in this figure?

choroid plexus

Suppose a patient produced more fluid in the structure shown in the figure than could be distributed throughout the ventricles and extracellular fluid. What condition would result?


Where is the illustrated structure located?

in each ventricle

Which type of glial cells are shown in this figure?

ependymal cells

The fiber tracts indicated by the letter C will terminate in the __________.


Which of the following describes the nerve fibers indicated by the letter A?

first-order sensory neurons

Where are the cell bodies of the sensory neurons at A located?

in the dorsal root ganglion

What function is most closely associated with the spinal cord tract indicated by the letter C?

coordination of skeletal muscle movements

The fiber tracts indicated by the letter D will terminate in the __________.


The pathways indicated in the figure pass from the cerebral cortex through the __________ before entering the cerebral peduncles of the midbrain.

internal capsule

Most of the descending fibers indicated in this figure cross over (decussate) to the opposite side of the body in which of the following?

medulla oblongata

The descending fibers in the figure provide for which of the following functions?

voluntary control of skeletal muscle

Which of the receptor types might function as a nociceptor?


Which of these receptor types functions as an exteroceptor?

All of the listed responses are correct.

Which of the receptor types pictured functions exclusively as a proprioceptor?


Which of the receptor types contributes to the sense of touch by responding to light pressure?


Classify the neuron at A.

afferent sensory neuron

What is the specific function of the structure labeled F?

determination of muscle length

What reaction would occur if the muscle labeled E were suddenly pulled longer?

the contraction of muscle E

The synapse between which of the following two neurons is a part of a monosynaptic reflex arc?

A and B

What is the type of reflex represented by the pathway that includes A, D, and C?

reciprocal inhibition

The letter E would represent which of the following muscles during the knee-jerk reflex?

rectus femoris

Which is the true statement about the synapses in the spinal cord in the stretch reflex?

Interneurons make inhibitory synapses with neurons that prevent contraction of the antagonist muscle.

A patient sustains a ventral horn injury to the lumbar region of the spine. This injury has damaged the cell bodies of several afferent nerves within the region. Predict how the patient’s patellar reflex might be affected.

The patient’s patellar reflex would be absent or weak

Which pathways compose the autonomic nervous system?

B and C

Which of the following best describes the effect on the heart of neurotransmitters released from the postganglionic neurons of B and C?

B would increase heart rate, while C would decrease it.

The circular structures shown within pathways B and C represent which of the following?


Which of the following releases the neurotransmitter norepinephrine?

terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron

The synapse in pathway B has several possible locations. Which of the following is NOT a possible location?

the spinal cord

Where are ganglia of the parasympathetic division located?

in or near effector organs

Outflow of the sympathetic division occurs from which regions of the CNS?

thoracic and lumbar

Which organ receives major input from the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, division?


Which of the letters in the figure indicates the vagus nerve?


The group of fibers indicated by E represents which of the following?

white rami communicantes

Which of the following statements is true of the group of fibers indicated by the letter D?

D indicates fibers that bypass collateral ganglia and terminate within the adrenal gland.

Identify the muscle that is controlled by the abducens nerve (CN VI).


Identify the muscle responsible for depressing the eye and turning it laterally.


Name the muscle at D.

inferior rectus

Which layer of the eye is indicated by letter A?


Identify the choroid.


Identify the layer that contains both a single-celled pigmented layer and a neural layer.


Identify the type of neuronal cell that detects bright light and provides high-resolution color vision.


Identify the type of neuron that would be secreting neurotransmitter in the light.

A and B

Identify the neuron that is last in the transmission pathway of light information, given the cells shown in this image.


What term refers to the eye’s moving medially to track items close at hand?


During close vision, what actions must the eye take to bring an object into focus?

contract the ciliary body

This image best illustrates an eyeball that is __________.


Identify the structure that forms cranial nerve I.


Which cells in this pathway are ciliated?


Which of these is NOT found in the olfactory epithelium?

olfactory tracts

Which of these lettered structures serve as the taste cells?


Name the types of papillae that contain taste buds.

fungiform, foliate, and vallate

What is the purpose of the cell at letter B?

to replace gustatory cells that are damaged

Which region of the ear houses perilymph and endolymph?


Which letter indicates structures involved in detection of BOTH hearing and equilibrium?


A middle ear infection (otitis media) would be located in which region?


Damage to which of these structures can result in sensorineural deafness?


Otosclerosis, which can result in conduction deafness, affects which of these structures?


What are the names of the bones at A, in order from left to right?

malleus, incus, stapes

What part of the inner ear houses the receptor organ of hearing, the spiral organ (organ of Corti)?


Which part of the inner ear houses receptors for rotational (angular) movement of the head?


Name the enlarged swelling at the end of A that is a sensory structure.


Name the structure represented by (1).

tympanic membrane

Identify the function of (2) in this image.

They conduct sound waves and amplify the vibrations within the middle ear.

The axon hillock connects the axon with the __________.

cell body (soma)

Which of these is not a neuron structural category?


Most CNS neurons fall into which structural category?


What is this structure of the neural cell?


What is this structure of the neural cell?


Which cell is indicated by the arrow?


Which cell is indicated by the arrow?


Which is the largest and most abundant type of neuroglia?


Neuroglia perform all of these functions except __________.

release neurotransmitters

Which of these types of neuroglia are abundant in peripheral ganglia?

satellite cells

Which cell is indicated by the arrow?


What is the function associated with the indicated neural activity?

the production of graded potentials in the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic cell

What is the function associated with the indicated neural activity?

a stimulus that temporarily causes a localized change in the resting potential

What is the function associated with the indicated neural activity?

the moment-to-moment variation of the transmembrane potential in all living cells

Which nerve plexus innervates the pectoral girdle and upper limbs?

brachial plexus

Which of these cervical plexus nerves innervates the diaphragm?

phrenic nerve

Which nerve does NOT belong to the sacral plexus?

obturator nerve

What area of the body does the obturator nerve serve?

skin over the medial surface of the leg

The __________ gray horns contain sensory nuclei.


A typical spinal nerve has a __________ ramus consisting of unmyelinated axons that innervate smooth muscles.


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