Anatomy and Physiology Final Exam

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The study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts is called:

Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

Which of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex?

The lungs are lateral to the heart

In describing the relationship of the lungs to the heart:

anterior; posterior

In anatomical position, the face and palms are on the blank body surface and the buttocks and shoulder blades are on the blank body surface.


A cut made lenghtwise that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts is what section?

superior and inferior

A transverse plane divides the body into what segments?

A sagittal section is a cut made along the horizontal plane.

Which of the following is NOT true of a sagittal place?

The maintenance of a stable internal enviroment

Homeostasis is a term that refers to:

The body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward.

Anatomical Position is:

heart, lungs, and stomach

Which of the following organs are found in the ventral body cavity?

The patellar region is distal to the femoral region

In describing the relationship between the patellar region and femoral regions:


The semi-fluid internal medium of a cell that is found between the nucleus and the cell membrane is called:

It determines which substances enter and leave the cell, serves as a boundary between the cell and its enviroment, and contains receptor sites which determine how the cell interacts with its enviroment. (ALL OF THE CHOICES ARE CORRECT)

The function of the plasma membrane is:


Which structure contains the majority of genetic material within the cell?


Which of the following is the primary source of ATP production?


The process whereby small molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is:

greater concentration of solute than the cytoplasm

A hypertonic solution contains:

Gains water

A cell in a hypotonic solution:

A concentration gradient

Which of the following is required for diffusion to occur?

Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscle.

Which of the following are the four primary body tissues?


The tissue that generally has good blood supply and an extensive extracellular matrix is:

giving support, allowing movement and transport of materials.

Functions of connective tissue include:

protect, secrete, excrete, and absorb

Functions of epithelial tissue include:

recieve and conduct electrochemical impulses.

The function of nerve tissue is to…

Simple squamos

Name the epithelial tissue that is found in the capillaries and alveoli:


Name the connective tissue that is found in the nose, ear, and intervertebral disks:

Skeletal muscle

Muscle tissue that is voluntarily controlled and found attached to bone is:

hair, nails, skin, sweat and oil glands.

The integumentary system is a body system composed of:

Vitamin D activation, protection, thermoregulation

Which of the following are functions of skin?

Stratum corneum

The most superficial stratum of the epidermis is the:


Sebaceous glands secrete:

axial and appendicular.

The two divisions of the skeletal system include:

deliver blood

Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?

dense tissue that looks smooth and homogenous; small needlelike pieces of bone with lots of open spaces.

Compact bone is characterized by? whereas spongy bone is characterized by?

long, short, flat, sesamoid and irregular.

The classes of bones according to shape include:

wrist bones- short bones

Which of the following groups in the human body, categorized according to shape is correct?

the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage.

The axial skeleton contains:

osteon; central canal

One unit of bone is called ? and has a center canal called the ?

cardiac and smooth mucle

Muscular tissue that is involuntarily:

Skeletal muscle ONLY

The muscle tissue that consists of single, very cyndrical, multinucleate cells with striations are:


Which of the following is NOT a function of the muscular system?

the contractile unit of skeletal muscle

A sacromere is:

fascicle, fiber, myofibril, myofilament

Which of the following groups of terms is placed in order from largest to smallest?

Actin Filaments

During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:

A Neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine is:


The body movement that moves the limb toward the midline is:


The muscle that raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead is:

biceps brachii

The muscle that flexes the elbow is:

hamstring group

The primary muscle of knee flexion is:

Consists of cell body, dendrites, and axons.

Which of the following is NOT true about neuroglia cells:


Which of the following glia cells produce myelin?


Which of the following are glia cells that brace and anchor neurons to nutrient lines?

Dendrites carry information away from the cell body

Which of the following is NOT true concerning neurons?


The part of the brain that regulates breathing and heart rate is the:

cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum.

The four major regions of the brain include:

visual area

The occipital lobe of the cerebrum houses the:

pons, medulla, and reticular formation.

The brain stem includes which of the following structures?

regulates heart rate, respiratory rate, and vomitting

The medulla oblongata:

The spinal cord extends from the medulla to the 1st or 2nd lumbar vertebra.

Which of the following statements is TRUE reguarding the spinal cord?

directly into body fluids such as blood.

Endocrine glands secrete hormones:

its target cells

The action of a hormone is directed at:

growth hormone and lutenizing hormone

The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secretes:

in the anterior throat

The thyroid gland is located:


The pancreas is a gland that secretes:

growth hormone

The hormone that stimulates cells to increase in size and divide more frequently is:


The hormone that facilitates transport of glucose across cell membranes is:


Blood is classified as what type of tissue?

sticky, red color, slightly alkaline pH, volume in human body 5-6 liters, temp 38 degrees C

Which of the following are physical characteristics of blood?

nutrients, hormones, and proteins

which of the following are components of plasma?


The protein found in RBC’s that is responsible for carrying oxygen is:

they are packed with organelles

Which of the following does NOT describe erythrocytes:

Fighting infections

What is the function of WBC’s?

which two antigens, type A or type B, a person inherits.

ABO blood groups are based on:

Type AB

When blood typing, if the sample of blood agglutinates with anti-A and anti-B, what type of blood is it?


The heart is enclosed by a double sac of membrane known as the:

are located superiorly and are the receiving chambers of the heart.

The atria of the heart:

pulmonary artery

Which vessel receives blood during right ventricular systole?

coronary arteries

The myocardium receives blood from the:

lymphatic vessels and nodes, thymus, spleen, tonsils

The lymphatic system is comprised of what structures:

subclavian veins

Lymph rejoins the blood and becomes part of the plasma in the

transporting oxygen and nutrients to tissue.

All of the following are functions of the lymphatic system EXCEPT:

It acts as a large lymph node and filters foreign particles and damaged red blood cells from blood.

What is the function of the spleen?

Innate defenses refers to those defenses that guard against pathogens; adaptive defenses are those that respond to specific foreign pathogens.

What is the difference between innate (nonspecific) defenses and adaptive defenses against infection?

skin and mucous membranes.

The body’s first line of defense is:

exchange of gases between lungs and blood.

What are the primary functions of the respiratory system?


Where does gas exchange occur?

atmospheric pressure

What is the driving force for inspiration?

elastic recoil of lungs and thoracic wall.

The force responsible for normal expiration comes mainly from

bound to hemoglobin

How is most oxygen transported in the blood?

as a bicarbonate ion

How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?

J-shaped smooth muscle organ; located on the left side of the abdominal cavity.

Which of the following describes the stomach?

mechanical breakdown of food

Which of the following are functions of the stomach?

activate pepsinogen into pepsin

What is the role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?


The digestive enzyme pepsin begins the digestion of

small intestine

What is the body’s major digestive organ?

completes chemical digestion of all food categories and absorbs nutrients into bloodstream

What are the functions of the small intestines?

Dry out the food residue by absorbing water and eliminate these residues.

What are the main functions of the large intestine?

produce enzymes that breakdown all categories of digestible foods.

What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?

store and releases bile

The function of the gallbladder is to:

emulsification of fats

Which of the following is the function of bile?

produce bile for fat digestion

What is the main digestive function of the liver?

produces hormones that aid in digestion

Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the kidney?


Which of the following terms describes the location of the kidneys?

extremely high

Blood pressure in the glomerulus is:


The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus is called:

glomerulus and renal tubule

The nephrons of the kidney have what two main structures:


Which of the following is NOT one of the substances typically reabsorbed by the tubules:


All of the following are NOT found in urine except:

anterior to the pubis symphysis

Which of the following does NOT describe the bladder:


The male gonad are:

seminiferous tubules

The actual "sperm-producing factories" of the male reproductive system are the:

testes and the interstitial cells

Testosterone is produced by the:

temporarily stores sperm

What is the function of the epididymis?

epididymal fluid

Which of the following is NOT a component of semen?

activate sperm and neutralize urine

Secretions from the prostate gland:

contracts and relaxes to keep temperature of testes below body temperature

What is the function of the scrotum?


The primitive stem cell of spermatogenesis is called:

23 chromosomes

Spermatids and ova have:

fallopian tube

Fertilization usually occurs in the:


The layer of the uterus that sloughs off on a monthly basis is the:


The hormone responsible for ovulation is:

they have the same number of chromosomes

Human ova and sperm are similar in that:

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