Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 8

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Which term describes movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body?


Which term describes extension of the ankle joint and elevates the heel (as when you stand on tiptoe)?

plantar flexion

Which term describes a special type of angular movement which is similar to drawing a large circle on a chalkboard?


Which term describes the opposite movement of elevation?


The synarthrosis that binds the two parietal bones together is a ___________.


Which of these is a type of joint?

All of these are types of joints.

Which of these joints is a synarthrosis?

parietal – parietal

The hip joint is a __________.


The coxal bones join anteriorly at a __________.


A synovial joint is also called a __________.


Joints can be classified structurally as

All of the answers are correct.

The synarthrosis that binds the teeth to the bony sockets is a


An immovable joint is a(n)


A synovial joint is an example of a(n)


A ligamentous connection such as an interosseous ligament is termed a


A slightly movable joint is a(n)


A suture is an example of a(n)


An epiphyseal line is an example of a


Joints in which the bones are closely fitted are

strong joints with restricted movement

Dense connective tissue is to a suture as a periodontal ligament is to a(n


An example of a synchondrosis is the articulation of the

ribs with the sternum.

Joints in which adjacent bones are joined by a strong interosseous ligament are


A freely movable joint is a(n)


The intervertebral disc joint is called a


A joint where bones fuse together with bone tissue is called a


Which of these is one of the four major types of synarthrotic joints?

All of the answers are correct.

Syndesmosis is to ligament as symphysis is to

fibrous cartilage.

Which of the following occurs when the articular cartilage is damaged?

All of the answers are correct

Which of the following is not a function of synovial fluid?

increases osmotic pressure within joint

Bursae are found in all of the following areas, except

around blood vessels.

Which of these is not a property of articular cartilage?

covered by perichondrium

The surface of articular cartilage is

both slick and smooth.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of articular cartilage?

It secretes synovial fluid.

Which of these is not considered to be an accessory synovial structure?

synovial membrane

Degenerative changes in a joint can be the result of all of the following, except


Mike falls off his skateboard and sprains his ankle. Which of the following most likely occurs with this type of accident?

A ligament is stretched and collagen fibers in the ligament are damaged

Which of the following is not a property of synovial joints?

covered by a serous membrane

The knuckle joint is classified as a ________ joint.


The joint between the forearm bones and the wrist is a

condylar joint.

Ankle extension is also called

plantar flexion.

The joint between the carpals is a/an ________ joint.


A movement away from the midline of the body is termed


To pinch with a thumb and finger involves a movement called


A common injury to the ankle occurs by excessive turning of the sole inward, termed


The ankle joint is an example of a(n) ________ joint.


Which of the following movements is a good example of flexion?

moving the hand toward the shoulder

A twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole of the foot outward is known as


The joints that connect the four fingers with the metacarpal bones are

condylar joints.

The joint between the trapezium and metacarpal bone of the thumb is an example of a(n) ________ joint.


Monaxial joints are known as ________ joints.


Which type of joint is found between the carpal bones?


Which of the following types of joints is monaxial, but capable of only rotation?


Curling into the "fetal position" ________ the intervertebral joints.


The movements known as dorsiflexion and plantar flexion involve moving the


The elbow joint is an example of a(n) ________ joint.


In a triaxial articulation

movement can occur in all three axes.

An extension past the anatomical position is known as


All of the following are structural classifications of synovial joints, except


Which of the following joints is an example of a ball-and-socket joint?


All of the following movements occur at the intervertebral joints, except


Which ligament connects the clavicle and the acromion?


The radiocarpal joint is a(n) ________ joint.


The intercarpal articulations are ________ joints.


Which foot movement enables the ballerina to stand on her toes?

plantar flexion

Which of the following movements is a good example of supination?

turning the hand palm upward

Lifting a stone with the tip of foot is


Which of the following movements is a good example of hyperextension?

extreme bending of the head backwards

Which of the following movements is a good example of abduction?

spreading the fingers

Which of the following movements is a good example of depression?

opening the mouth

Nodding your head "yes" is an example of

flexion and extension.

Which of the following movements would you associate with chewing food?


Which structure acts as a cushion and consists of fibrous cartilage?


A herniated intervertebral disc is caused by

protrusion of the nucleus pulposus.

A herniated disc occurs when the

nucleus pulposus breaks through the anulus fibrosus.

The elbow joint is extremely stable because

the ulna and humerus interlock.

Muscles that extend the elbow attach to the


Contraction of the muscle that is attached to the radial tuberosity results in

flexion of the forearm.

The joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body is the ________ joint.


All of the following statements are true, except one. Identify the exception.

The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint.

The "rotator cuff" of the shoulder functions to

reinforce the joint capsule and limit the range of movements.

Which of the following ligaments assist in stabilization of the shoulder joint?

coracoacromial and coracoclavicular ligaments

The largest and strongest articulation at the elbow is the

humero-ulnar joint.

Which of the following athletes are at greatest risk of developing a rotator cuff injury?

baseball pitchers

The ligament that provides support to the front of the knee joint is the ________ ligament.


Which of the following ligaments is not associated with the hip joint?

anterior cruciate ligament

The ligaments that limit the anterior-posterior movement of the femur and maintain the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles are the ________ ligaments.


In the knee joint, the medial and lateral menisci

act as cushions and conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces.

The structures that assist the bursae in reducing friction between the patella and other tissues are the

fat pads.

The normal movement of the knee joint during walking involves

both flexion and extension.

The back of the knee joint is reinforced by ________ ligaments.


The medial surface of the knee joint is reinforced by the ________ ligament.

tibial collateral

Complete dislocation of the knee is rare because

the knee contains seven major ligaments.

The joints that are subjected to the greatest load are found in the


Factors that increase the stability of the hip joint include

All of the answers are correct.

The most common athletic knee injury produces damage to the

medial meniscus.

Articular cartilage is found within a __________.

synovial joint

The fluid that accumulates within a swollen joint was produced by the __________,

synovial membrane

Bursae may be found ___________.

Bursae may be found in all of these locations.

This movement, indicated by the arrow, is known as _________.


This movement, indicated by the arrow, is known as _________.


This movement is known as ________.

lateral flexion

This movement indicated by the arrow is known as _________.


Excessive turning of the sole of the foot outward is called __________.


The opposite of supination is __________.


The opposite of dorsiflexion is __________.

plantar flexion

The joint with greatest range of motion is the __________.


The elbow joint is an example of a __________ joint.


Which of the following movements best illustrates abduction?

spreading the fingers

Which structure of the intervertebral articulation gives the disc its resiliency and ability to absorb shock?

nucleus pulposus

What is the name of a tough outer layer of fibrocartilage?

anulus fibrosus

The articular processes of vertebrae form __________ joints.


Vertebrae form __________ joints connected by intervertebral discs.


The __________ articulates with the __________ like a ball-and-socket.


The __________ joint is a monaxial articulation at the elbow.


Which of these statements about the hip joint is false?

It has a biaxial design.

The knee is reinforced laterally by the ________ ligament.

fibular collateral

Lifting the leg forward is called __________.


Which of the following occurs as part of osteoarthritis?

All of these conditions occur in osteoarthritis.

With advancing years, the coccygeal vertebrae join in a __________.


Which of these more commonly occurs with advancing age?


Receptors in the joint capsule provide information directly to the __________ system.


Which organ system interacts most extensively with the skeletal system?

muscular system

Which of these body systems interacts extensively with the skeletal system?

All of these body systems interact extensively with the skeletal system.

As one of four major knee ligaments, the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is critical to knee stability. Patients with a slightly injured ACL may complain that their knee "wants to give-out from under them." Which of the following is a rehabilitation procedure that would most likely benefit this type of patient?

muscle strengthening exercises

Why it is easier for a fall or blow to cause a dislocated shoulder injury than for a comparable fall or blow to cause a dislocated hip injury?

shallower joint socket

The Focus Figure of Synovial Joints has examined a number of types of movement and the joints in which they are located. Review the types you have studied, and select a true statement or characteristic of uniaxial movement in a representative joint.

A person curls his or her fingers, and the phalanges flex at the interphalangeal joints.

Which of the following is NOT a functional classification for joints?


Which of the following represents a structural classification for joints that are separated by a joint cavity?


Which of the following refers to a joint that is slightly movable?


All three joints in the figure are classified as __________.

fibrous joints

Which of the following best describes all of the joints in this figure?

They are immovable.

Which of the following is true regarding the structure indicated by the arrow in Figure A?

It becomes ossified late in adult development.

The arrows in B and C point to structures that can both be described as __________.


Which of the following is NOT an example of a fibrous joint?

a symphysis

Using the structural classification, what type of joint is a suture?

fibrous joint

What element of intervertebral disc fibrocartilage gives it its ability to resist stretching?

collagen fibers

Which of these terms best categorizes the joints in the figure?

cartilaginous joints

What material is found in C and D that is not found in A and B?


Which of the joints will eventually develop into a synostosis?


Which of the following best describes the joint labeled B in the figure?


A joint held together by fibrocartilage would be classified as a __________ joint.


Which of the following are correctly paired?

synchondrosis; a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones

Which of the following terms describes the range of movement of the illustrated joint?


Which of the following best describes the surface of the structure at D?

loose connective tissue

Structures C and D collectively form which of the following?

articular capsule

Which structure in the figure is the primary area of degeneration in osteoarthritis?


Which joint in the figure is capable of multiaxial movement?


What joint’s actions may take place at the elbow from its current position?

flex and pronate

Which joint moves only by a uniaxial movement around its own axis?


Which of the following is a hinge joint?


The thumb joint indicated by D mediates which of the following special movements?


Which of the following is NOT a distinguishing feature of a synovial joint?

hyaline cartilage connecting the two bones of the joint

The most important factor in joint stability is the depth of the articular surface.


Which of the following statements is correct?

If a joint can exhibit extension, abduction, and rotation, then it is triaxial.

Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability?

the amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity

Which of the following is one difference between bursae and tendon sheaths?

Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.

Which of the following are correctly paired?

multiaxial movement; movement in all three planes and around all three axes

When you bring any of your fingers in contact with your thumb, this movement is called __________.


Synovial joints are classified into six main categories based on __________.

shape of articular surfaces

Which of the following is a feature of synovial joints?

bone ends covered with hyaline cartilage

What factor would account for a strong synovial joint?

the deepest articular surface

Which type of movement does NOT occur at the shoulder joint?


Which movement decreases the angle between articulating bones?


Which type of movement is unique to the forearm?


If a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not properly repaired, the consequences could include the inability to prevent ________.

forward sliding of the tibia on the femur

To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone’s ________.

articular tubercle

Which of the following is true about the shoulder joint?

The glenohumeral joint is more mobile, making it less stable.

Despite having an actual articulation with the humerus, the hinge-like action at the elbow is NOT dependent on the radius.


Which of the following ligaments prevents the tibia from sliding forward in the knee joint?

anterior cruciate ligament

Which joint allows a side-to-side movement called lateral excursion?

the temporomandibular joint

The main reason the hip joint is stable is because of the __________.

deep socket of the joint and strong capsular ligaments

Which statement about the knee is INCORRECT?

The deep cups created by the tibial condyles help to stabilize the joint.

Which joint has sacrificed stability to provide great freedom of movement?


Sprains indicate damage to what joint component?


Which of the following are correctly matched?

osteoarthritis; chronic degenerative joint disease

Which inflammatory joint disease is caused by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer?

Lyme disease

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