Anatomy 25

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The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal


What hormone promotes active tubular secretion of potassium ions into, along with sodium reabsorption from, filtrate in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting ducts?


1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
3. nephron
4. urethra
5. ureter
6. collecting duct.

3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

What region of the male urethra runs through the urogenital diaphragm, extending about 2 centimeters from the prostate to the beginning of the penis?

intermediate part of the urethra (membranous urethra)

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?


The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.

Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.


Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?

to regulate body fluid by controlling excretion from sweat glands

The area at C will eventually drain urine into the __________.


Calculate the net filtration pressure if blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusually high, around 68 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).


What area of the nephron is responsible for the reabsorption of most of the water from the filtrate as well as most nutrients?

proximal consulted tubule

What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?

glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule

An excessive urine output is called anuria.


The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct


Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.


What defines the trigone of the urinary bladder?

the ureter entrances and the opening to the urethra

In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?

Renal Cortex

Which of these should NOT normally appear in urine?


The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.


Which of the following best describes the function of the urethra?

transport of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

The nephrons and collecting ducts are the structures responsible for urine formation.


Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

Select the correct statement about the ureters.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.


Which part of the renal tubule is lined with cuboidal epithelial cells bordered by dense microvilli?

proximal convoluted tubule

External chemicals that enhance urinary output are called __________.


Hydronephrosis may be caused by all EXCEPT which of the following?

renal failure

The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to water.


Which of the following is NOT one of the things that must happen for micturition to occur?

The extrusor muscle must relax.

Both the male and female urethras serve both the urinary and the reproductive systems.


Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

Which urinary structure serves as the transporter for urine toward the bladder?


The __________ is a skeletal muscle under conscious control that allows urine to leave the bladder.

external urethral sphincter

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.

inhibits the release of ADH

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

Which of the following is NOT a major urine formation process?


Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its effects to promote water reabsorption?

collecting duct

Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs

Proximal convoluted tubule.

Site of filtrate formation.

: Glomerulus.

Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.

Peritubular capillaries.

Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Collecting duct.

The frequency of cystitis in men is lower than in women because ______.

the male urethra is longer than the female urethra

Which of the following is the most likely to cause pyelonephritis?

infection of the urinary bladder

Which vessels supply the cortical tissue of the kidney with blood?

cortical radiate arteries

The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.


Which statement does NOT accurately describe the renal gross anatomy?

The left kidney is lower in position because of crowding by the liver.

Which arteries branch off the arcuate arteries?

cortical radiate arteries

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?


In what part of the renal tubule does parathyroid hormone (PTH) promote the reabsorption of calcium ions?

distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

Having a kinked ureter is called renal p


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