adult development

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life structure

Life structure is the combination of statuses, roles, activities, goals, values, beliefs, and life circumstances that characterize an individual

early adulthood

Early adulthood is the first era of adulthood, spanning ages 17 through 39

middle adulthood

Middle adulthood is the second era of adulthood, spanning the ages of 40 through 59.

late adulthood

Late adulthood is the third and last era of adulthood, spanning ages 65 and over

novice phases

Novice phase is a term proposed by Daniel Levinson and his colleagues for the first three stages of the early adulthood era.


A mentor is someone who fosters an individual’s development by believing in the person, sharing the person’s dreams, and helping the person achieve those dreams

Also known as the novice phase

early adulthood

Levinson placed the greatest weight on the five periods of adulthood. What are these five periods?

The early adult transition, entering the adult world, the age 30 transition, the settling down period, and the midlife transition

What is the major difference between men and women when they are entering adulthood

For many women, the emphasis is less on career and more on marriage

middle adulthood

ages 40-59

Name the three basic eras of adulthood and name the distinct periods that are within each one.

Early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Each era begins with a transitional period followed by alternating stable and transitional periods

Daniel Levinson found that men and women

all of the above

The bridge between adolescence and adulthood, leaving home and full-time work for the first time is associated with which transition period?

early adult transition

The age 30 transition can be a difficult period because

divorces are common. shift in the direction for future developments. make a place for themselves in the adult world.

The midlife transition is characterized by

self-examination. a midlife crisis.

The mentor is usually a peer of the individual that acts as a role model and helps the individual get started in adult life


The first stage of the middle adulthood era, called the midlife transition, serves as the bridge between early and middle adulthood


The whole phase of early adulthood is also known as the novice phase


A life structure is

a combination of statuses, roles, and activities. a combination of activities, goals, and values. a combination of beliefs and life circumstances that characterize an individual.

Phase III of female development reveals that

women seek employment once again. women develop a commitment to their careers while their husbands are doubting their own careers

There are ____ phases in the adult female development


labor force

The term labor force refers to all individuals 16 and older who are employed in paid positions or who are seeking paid employment


A profession is a high-status occupation that requires specialized skills obtained through formal education


Unemployment is a situation that occurs when people do not have jobs but are actively seeking employment

unemployment rate

the unemployment rate is a percentage of the civilian labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment

According to opinion polls and social-science research, more than half of workers in the United States are satisfied with their jobs


What are the jobs most commonly held by American workers, and which gender holds these jobs?

The most commonly held jobs are managerial and professional specialty jobs and more men hold these type of jobs than females

The majority of women in the workforce work in technical, sales, and administrative support


The majority of Americans hold service occupations jobs


Which of the following has not been a major change in the workforce within the last century?

greater emphasis on farming and manufacturing jobs

Jobs today are more physically demanding than they were in the early 1900s.


Job satisfaction

varies according to income and age

What type of work was done by a majority of the labor force in the 1900s?


Changes in the American labor force since 1970 reveal all of the following EXCEPT

over one half of the labor force has a college degree

Unemployment rate varies according to such factors as

cultural background, age, gender, and race

Minorities in the workforce

have increased in recent years.

One of the most noted changes in the workforce between 2000 and 2010 is the increase in women pursuing professional careers such as those in the medical and legal field


A vast majority of workers today have a college degree


Control over job responsibilities has a positive correlation to job satisfaction



Gerontology is the scientific study of the processes and phenomena of aging

social gerontology

Social gerontology is a subfield of gerontology that studies the nonphysical aspects of aging.


Young-old refers to people aged 65 to 74

middle- old

Middle-old refers to people aged 75 to 84.


Old-old refers to people aged 85 and older


The shift from being an independent adult to being dependent on others for physical or financial assistance.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is an organic condition that results in the progressive destruction of brain cells

Why are the young-old, middle-old, and old-old topics of interest for gerontologists?

They are interested in the physical and mental decline and death of these age groups. This shift is related to health and physical well being

"Individuals who are going through this process may need a period of adjustment because they feel like they don’t have a place to go anymore."


The following are subjects of interest to gerontologists

young-old. middle-old. old-old

Florida and Montana are the only states the elderly relocate to


Elderly people fear dependency because

they lose their independence. it necessitates new role behaviors. their status in society changes.

Alzheimer’s disease:

marks mental decline or dementia. results in the progressive deterioration of brain cells.

Individuals 65 and over are placed into three groups which are called the

young-old, middle-old, and old-old.

Dependency is the shift from being an independent adult to being dependent on others for physical and/or financial assistance.


Among the topics studied by gerontologists for the young-old, ages 65-74, adjustment to retirement is one of the most important developmental issues.


Research indicates that work-role loss affects a much smaller number of retired people than generally is assumed


Research indicates all of the following EXCEPT:

people who were happy or fulfilled in their work rarely find retirement satisfying

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