Adolescence and Adulthood

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Period of biological development when a person begins to develop adult traits and characteristics.


The hormone responsible for the development of female characteristics.


The hormone responsible for the development of male characteristics.


A female hormone important for the regulation of ovulation and menstruation.


The first menstrual period, usually occurring during puberty.


Growth stage between childhood and adulthood marked by drastic physical, mental, emotional, and psychological changes.

Explain why teens may wish to spend time with friends rather than parents during adolescence.

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Teens often have a stronger desire to spend the majority of their time around other teens because they share similar interests. Teens develop a better sense of belonging when they feel like they are a part of a group or when they hang around other teens. Additionally, some teens prefer their friends to their parents because they feel like their parents pressure them too much or do not understand them.

Many teens get their first job during adolescence, which __________.

teaches workplace skills and etiquette

Why might adolescence be a stressful time for many teenagers?

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Adolescence can be stressful because adolescents go through physical, mental, and emotional changes. It can also be stressful because teens are held to higher expectations and have more responsibilities, which can include chores and grades.

As teens move through adolescence, __________.

freedom increases, but so does responsibility

What are some of the common physical changes for boys and girls during puberty?

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: During puberty, boys and girls are both apt to experience growth of pubic and underarm hair, drastic growth spurts, body odor, facial acne, and changes in muscle strength.

Compare and contrast the early adolescence period to the late adolescence period.

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: In the early adolescent period, many teens tend to think only of themselves with little regard for others’ points of view. When the late adolescent period is reached, they are more likely to consider others, be more logical in decision making, and understand the consequences of their actions.

What are some factors that influence emotional changes throughout adolescence?

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Some of the factors that influence emotional changes during adolescence include, among others, changes in self-perception, changes in the way teens are treated, increased sensitivity to criticism, increased desire for independence, and an increased need to belong. Puberty can cause feelings of awkwardness and insecurity.

How might expectations or rules at a job differ from those at your home?

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: The rules at a job are generally more absolute, which means that you can get fired from your position for breaking the rules. While the rules at home may be strict, you usually will not be "fired" from your house. Depending on the job, you may or may not have more responsibility at work. You are also guaranteed a paycheck from your job, whereas you may or may not get an allowance for the work you do at home.

Adolescence covers the stage of personal development and growth between childhood and adulthood.


Which of the following is NOT a common feeling during adolescence?

sense of security and calmness

Boys and girls experience different changes to their bodies during adolescence.


Puberty in boys only consists of physical changes.


Which of the following are the primary hormones in girls during puberty?

estrogen and progesterone

As teens move through adolescence, surrounding adults usually have higher expectations of them.


Girls are usually completely physically mature by the time they are __________ years old.

15 to 17

Even through all the changes of adolescence, it’s very likely that your elementary school friends will be your adult friends.


Adolescence is the time between birth and the onset of puberty.


Connections with friends can become more important than family relationships during adolescence.


Which of the following is NOT a physical change that girls go through during adolescence?

rapid brain development

Sexual awareness is usually not a significant issue during adolescence.



An individual who has reached full growth and maturity.


A legal commitment that two people make to each other; it is a promise to love each other for life.


An adult responsible for caring for and raising children; this includes providing for their physical and emotional health.

Many teen parents experience which of the following?

decreased finances

Teachers have the biggest influence on a child’s emotional health.


What are some of the issues a couple should focus on during their period of engagement?

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Before getting married, a couple should have a serious discussion about how finances will be managed, what each person’s role is, how duties will be divided around the house, where they will live, joint values and beliefs, and parenting and community involvement.

Parenting responsibilities can be even more difficult for teens.


Compile a list of responsibilities that parents take on when raising a child.

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Parents must meet the emotional needs of their children, such as showing them love and respect. Parents also have a financial responsibility to their children and need to provide food, clothing, housing, and education. It is also a parent’s responsibility to keep a child safe from harm.

Engagement is the time when the primary focus should be on planning the wedding.


Challenges for married teens include additional financial responsibilities and possible limitations on income.


Compare and contrast young adulthood with middle adulthood.

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: A person in the young adulthood stage is between the ages of 21 and 35. Young adulthood is a time when growth rate slows and people reach peak physical health. People in this stage generally make more responsible choices, have a better sense of identity, and experience less conflict. This is also the stage in one’s life when one selects a job or career path, enters a committed relationship, gets married, and starts a family. A person in the middle adulthood stage is between the ages of 35 and 65. This stage of life is characterized by a period of security, satisfaction, and maturity. People in this stage often experience diminished muscle tone and strength, and women go through menopause. Also, people in middle adulthood may pursue new challenges and reflect on their mortality. Major life events that occur in this stage may include focusing on career and family, experiencing a midlife crisis or the empty nest syndrome, and acquiring new illnesses.

Describe some of the conflicts that often occur between parents and teenagers.

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: As teens get older, they want to take charge of their own lives and make their own decisions. Parents, on the other hand, want to set boundaries and have some control over what their teen does in an effort to keep them safe. These different wants and desires can lead to conflicts between parents and teens.

What are the characteristics of older adulthood?

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: People in the older adulthood stage are 65 years old or older. This stage is usually a period in which an adult is wiser and more knowledgeable. Older adults are also generally more mature and more emotionally stable. Older adulthood is often characterized by a reduced ability to fight off illness resulting in an increase of health problems. Individuals in this stage may also experience mental problems like depression, anxiety, or loneliness.

An individual in middle adulthood often begins to experience which of the following changes?

beginning to reflect on personal mortality, beginning to evaluate life’s purpose, beginning to pursue new challenges

Which of the following is considered a stressor in a marriage?

having financial trouble

One of the mental changes young adults experience is a better sense of identity.


Successful marriages have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:

good debating skills

Major events of young adulthood can include all of the following EXCEPT:

planning retirement

Premarital counseling is often provided by a licensed therapist.


Pregnancy responsibilities include all the following EXCEPT:

exercising excessively

One of the characteristics of middle adulthood is peak physical health.


In general, being more emotionally stable and mature is a characteristic of which stage of adulthood?

older adulthood

Which of the following methods is NOT effective when it comes to resolving conflicts?

taking things personally


When an individual can no longer have access to something he or she cares about.


Deep sorrow that is caused by loss.


Refusal to believe the facts of a circumstance.

Emotional and physical stress are often caused by __________.


Exercise and diet are excellent methods for coping with your feelings after a significant loss.


Provide two examples of loss that are common to many people.

The various types of loss include death, divorce, disability, moving, and relationship breakups.

Explain the importance of the grieving process after experiencing loss.

The feelings and stress caused by a loss will impact your life and must be handled appropriately. It’s important to allow yourself the time to process these feelings so you can heal and move forward in life.

Which of the following is TRUE about the stages of grieving?

Progressing through these stages will help to deal with loss in a healthy manner.

Describe the benefits of ceremonies in the grieving process.

Ceremonies are formal procedures that help us to process and accept loss in our lives. These ceremonies can also help us to move forward from the loss, though they certainly don’t eliminate all the sorrow, anxiety, and stress caused by the loss.

Defend the position that interacting with other people is beneficial when grieving for a loss.

Everyone has different methods for dealing with a loss in their lives. However, many individuals cope more effectively with loss if they take advantage of using a support system during these times. Even if you wouldn’t like to talk through your feelings in detail, knowing that others care about you and your feelings is of great benefit.

Ceremonies help individuals cope with loss as they facilitate the grieving process.


Summarize how the bargaining stage is related to loss.

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Bargaining is the stage of the grieving process in which you wish that you could trade something else for the loss. For example, you may wish that you would have died instead of someone else or promise to change something about yourself to bring them back.

Describe the relationship between loss and stress.

Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Loss is when something or someone in our lives is no longer available to us. Many times, these losses cause both physical and emotional stress, which must be managed.

What does it mean to recognize your grief triggers?

identifying which situations and activities are likely to arouse grief

Positive support mechanisms after a loss include __________.

religious rituals, family and friends

Depression is a stage of grieving in which __________.

one may feel hopelessness and despair, it’s normal to feel deep sorrow for the loss, it’s important to talk with others about your feelings

Types of loss include all of the following EXCEPT:


Drugs and alcohol are positive tools for coping with loss.


When experiencing loss in your life, you are likely to experience grief, but not stress.


Feeling guilty is normal when experiencing grief.


After passing through the acceptance stage of grieving, __________.

it’s easier to accept the loss and go forward in life

How can you positively manage the stress caused by loss?

connecting with others

It’s perfectly natural for loss to be followed by __________.


The final stage of the grieving process is anger, which provides an outlet to vent emotions.


Both boys and girls experience a period of rapid change during puberty.


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