ACE personal training certification

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Define intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Intrinsic is exercising for the pure joy of working out. Extrinsic is exercising for any other reason.

Give an example of intrinsic and extrinsic feedback

Intrinsic: Client adjusts his own workout based on his perception of difficulty Extrinsic: Trainer gives performance feedback

Define situational and contextual motivation

Situational: How the client feels during exercise Contextual: How the client feels, sees, thinks about exercise

Name 5 strategies for dealing with negative social influencers

Avoid, deal with person after workout, explain to the person how the negativity affects your workout, anticipate responding to the nsi, get that person involved with your struggle

Name 3 types of high risk relapsers

People with poor time management skills, lack of social support, busy schedules

5 personal attributes influencing exercise participation and adherence

Demographic: Age, education, income, gender Health status: sick people or people with heart disease diabetes ect exercise less Activity history: past exercise participation Psychological traits: self motivated Knowledge attitudes and beliefs: health perception

2 Environmental factors that influence exercise participation and adherence

Access to facilities: Location Time: Lack of time is the most common excuse for not exercising

Social interactions that influence exercise participation and adherence

If a spouse or a friend is on board the client will be more likely to stick with the program

2 Physical activity factors that influence exercise participation and adherence

Intensity of program: drop pout rate is 2x higher with vigorous activity Injury: program drop out is directly related to injury.

4 stages of the client trainer relationship (RIPA)

Rapport: 1st impression of trainer. client evaluates Apperance, environment, interaction, posture, communication ect. Investigation: Trainer evaluates client using health and fitness data, medical history, exercise history ect. Planning: Give and take. Client and trainer work together to set SMART goals, generate and discuss alternatives, formulate a plan, and evaluate the exercise program. Action: Start working out. Usually a combination of exercises for the client to do with the trainer and at home.

Define motivational interviewing.

A way of speaking with people that motivates them to change their behavior. Usually this is used when clients are not ready to commit to an exercise program.

Describe how voice quality, eye contact, facial expression, hand gestures, and body positions should looks and what kind of communication are they?

They are non-verbal communication. Eye contact: Direct but friendly. Voice quality: confident but not too loud Facial expression: genuine emotion Hand gestures: flexed, not fidgeting Body position: open Aggressive= hands on hips

4 Styles of communication

Preaching: lecture type = bad Educating: informational Counseling: working together to find and solve problems Directing: during exercise directing works

Give an example of each interviewing technique: Minimal encourager, paraphrasing, reflecting, probing, clarifying, informing, confronting, questioning, deflecting.

Minimal encourager: "Explain what you mean by.." Paraphrasing: "I understand your ideal wright is.." Reflecting: "it sounds like.." Restate the main points Probing: Ask additional questions to gather more info Clarifying: Verifying what the client is saying Confronting: Using mild to strong feedback Questioning: Open ended questions to information given Deflecting: Changing the focus to another person if it relates

Define SMART goals.
When do you make SMART goals?

Specific: Clear on what client wants accomplished Measurable: How will the client measure progress Attainable: Can be done with the limits and within time frame Relevant: Relevant to the interests of the client Time: Specific time frame/ time line You make smart goals during the planning stage.

Name and describe the 3 stages of learning (CAA)

Cognitive: Clients try to understand a new skill Use tell, show, do technique Associative: Begin to master the basics and re ready for more specific feedback that will help them refine the motor skill Autonomous: Clients are preforming skill naturally, trainer is doing less teaching and more monitoring.

Define product goals and process goals

Product goals: Outcome. Something achieved (weight loss, increase in strength ect.) Process goals: Action. Something a client does (# of workouts per week ect)

Define the health belief model and name the 3 stages

The health belief model states that people will engage in a healthy behavior based on the perceived threat they feel regarding a health problem. Perceived seriousness: How serious they think contracting an illness is basically how scared they are of health illnesses Perceived susceptibility: How at risk they think they are for getting an illness. Cue to action: an event or symptom that wakes them up and motivates them to change. The more scared, at risk or bad the situation is the more likely they are to workout

Define self efficacy and name 6 sources of it

Self efficacy is the belief in ones self to be able to succeed Sources: Past performance experience: strongly influence feelings Vicarious experiences: Clients knowledge of success stories ect Verbal persuasion: Feedback/ statements form others Physiological state appraisals: clients judgments about abilities Emotional state appraisals: mood and feelings Imaginal experiences: perceived notion of what exercise will be like.

Define the 5 stages of change in the transtheoretical model of behavioral change (stages-of-changes-model)

1. Precontemplation: sedentary, not considering an exercise program, do not see activity as important or relevant to them 2. Contemplation: sedentary, starting to consider exercise important, and have begun to see the negative consequences of being inactive, they are still not ready to make a change. 3.Preperation: some sporadic light activity, mentally and physically preparing to adopt and exercise program and are ready to lead an active lifestyle, but are inconsistent 4.Action: client engages in regular physical activity but are have been doing so for less then 6 months 5. Maintenance: regular activity for longer then 6 months

For each stage of change describe a goal for the process of change to the next stage.

Precontemplation: Goal is to make inactivity relevant issue and to make them start thinking about becoming active. Contemplation: Goal is to get involved in some type of activity Preparation: Goal is to get to regular physical activity participation Action: Goal to maintain regular physical activity Maintenance: Goal is to prevent relapse and continue activity

Describe decisional balance

The number of pros and cons related to exercise. Precontemplators and contemplators perceive more cons: Cons: sweating, sore muscles, time, cost, bordem

Describe positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement

Positive: When positive stimulus is given for good behavior Negative: removal or avoidance of negative stimulus for bad behavior Example: A client is late for a session and you don’t say anything, they are likely to be late again because they think its okay.

What aspects are involved with the investigation stage of the client trainer relationship?

Health and exercise history Readiness to change behavior Personality style Assessments

Describe downfalls and benefits of the PAR-Q

Benefits: quick easy and noninvasive Downfalls: limited by lack of detail and may overlook major risks

**Cardiovascular disease Risk factors (8)- State the factor and the value at which the factor warrants +1 point
1 Negative risk factor and value

AGE: male >_45 female>_55 (+1) FAMILY HISTORY: father- sudden death before 55 (+1) mother-sudden death before 65 CIG. SMOKING: Yes (+1) SEDENTARY: not doing 30 min per session, 3x per week (+1) OBESITY: BMI>_ 30 or girth 40 in (men) 35 in (women) (+1) HYPERTENSION: SBP>_140 DBP>_90 mmHg (+1) DISLIPIDEMIA: LDL(cholesterol) >_130 HDL<_40 (+1) PREDIABETES: glucose>_100 HDL cholesterol: >_60 (-1)

How many points/symptoms classify someone as low risk, moderate risk, and high risk

Low: <2 points Moderate: >_2 points High: Known cardiovascular disease or symptoms

Describe what an informed consent form entails and limitations

Informs the client about the risks associated with the activity. Not a liability waiver and doesn’t provide legal immunity.

Describe what an agreement and release of liability waiver entails and limitations

Used to release the trainer from liability for injuries, clients give up their right to file suit. Doesn’t protect trainer from being sued for negligence

Describe what a Health history questionnaire entails (name at least 5 types of information collected).

What is meant by lifestyle information?

Collects detailed medical and health information -Past and present exercise information -Medications/ supplements -Recent or current illness or injuries including acute/ chronic pain -Surgery/ injury history -Family medical history -Lifestyle information (nutrition, stress, work, sleep)

Describe what a medical release form entails

Provides trainer with medical information, physical activity limitations, and guidelines given by physician.

Define atherosclerosis

process in which fat builds up on the walls of the arteries causing them to thicken and when this happens in the arteries to the heart you get CAD.

Define angina

Pressure or tightness, usually in the chest but can be in the arm shoulder or jaw

Name 3 common respiratory problems

Bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

What injuries should be screens for (most common) in the musculoskeletal system?

Sprains(ligaments) strains(muscles/tendons) herniated disk bursitis( swelling or inflammation of the bursa) Tendinitis Arthritis

Describe an overuse injury (how it happens and examples)

Poor training techniques and overusing. Runners knee, tennis elbow, swimmer shoulder Iliotibial band syndrome (pain along the outside of the thigh and knee)

Name 2 metabolic diseases that may interfere with exercise

diabetes and thyroid condition.

Effects of each on RHR, exercising HR, MHR
Beta blockers
diet pills containing amphetamines
and Nicotine

Beta blockers: Down, Down, Down Diuretics: No change, No change, No change Antihistamines: No change, no change, no change Antidepressants: No change or up, no change, no change diet pills containing amphetamines: up, up, no change caffeine: no change or up, no change or up, no change and Nicotine: no change or up, no change or up, no change

What two arteries can be used to take heart rate

Coronary: neck Radial: Wrist

How many bpm in a typical:
Slow RHR
Normal RHR
Fast RHR

Slow: <60 bpm Normal: 60-100 bpm Fast: >100 bpm

Blood pressures SBP and DBP:
Hpertension Stage 1 &amp; 2

Normal: SBP<120 DBP<80 Prehypertension: SBP 120-139 DBP 80-89 Hypertension Stage 1: SBP 140-159 DBP 90-99 Stage 2: SBP >_160 DBP <_100

Describe the Borg scale for RPE

Scale from 6-20 where the number (+0) corresponds to HR. 6=nothing 13= somewhat hard 15= hard 19= very very hard

Describe the category ratio scale

0-10 3= moderate 5=strong 7=very strong 10= very very strong

Define flexion and extention

Flexion: Decreasing the angle between two bones Extension: Increasing the angle between two bones usually extension is bringing the area back to normal or straightening it

Show what flexion and extension of the vertebral column (trunk/core) looks like

Standing straight flexion is hinging forward at the hips Extension is bringing the body back straight

Show what flexion and extension of the shoulder joint looks like

Flexion: Bringing the arm straight out in front of the body Extension: Bringing the arm back to the body

Show what flexion and extension of the elbow joint looks like

Flexion: Bringing the hand up to the shoulder (bicep curl) Extension: Bringing the hand back down to the side

Show what flexion and extension of the wrist looks like

Flexion: palm to underside of the wrist Extention: Top of the hand to the top of the wrist

Show what flexion of the knee joint looks like

Flexion: Standing straight (on one leg) the foot lifts toward butt Extension: The foot comes back down to normal standing position

Show what flexion and extension of the hip joint looks like

Flexion: swinging the leg forward out in front of the body Extension: swinging the leg backward behind the body

Describe plantar flexion and dorsiflexion

Plantarflexion: foot points down Dorsiflexion: foot points up

Describe lateral flexion

Standing straight and leaning to one side or the other with upper body only

Describe the three planes of motion

Saggital: Cuts the body down the middle into left and right sides Frontal: Cuts the body in half to back and front sides Transverse: Cuts the body at the waist into upper and lower

What movements can be done in the Saggital plane?

Flexion, extension, Dorsiflexion, Plantarflexion

What movements can be done in the frontal plane?

Abduction, adduction, elevation, depression, inversion, eversion

What movements can be done in the transverse plane?

Rotation, pronation/ supination (rotating the hand and wrist)

Major muscles that act at the shoulder girdle (STRLP)

Serratus anterior Trapezius Rhomboids Levetor scapulae Pectoralis minor

Describe where the serratus anterior is and what its primary functions are

It connects the shoulder blade to the rib cage Primary functions: abduction and upward rotation of the scapula

Describe where the trapezius is and what its primary functions are

Spans from the bottom of the scull to the shoulder back in and down the spine to the bottom of the back. Upper: Upward rotation and elevation of the scapula Middle: Upward rotation and adduction of the scapula Lower: Depression of the scapula

Describe where the Rhomboids are and what its primary functions are

Connect the spine to the spine to the shoulder blade Primary function: Adduction, downward rotation, and elevation of the scapula

Describe where the levetor scapulea is and what its primary functions are

Runs down the neck to the shoulder blade Primary function: to elevate the scapula

Describe where the pectoralis minor is and what its primary functions are

Internal muscle that connects the tip of the shoulder blade to the front of the rib cage Primary functions: depression, downward rotation, and abduction of the scapula

What are the prime movers in the adduction of the scapula?

Rhomboid major/minor and trapezius

What are the prime movers in the abduction of the scapula?

Pectoralis minor and serratus anterior

Major muscles that act at the shoulder (DTRLP)

Deltiod Teres major Rotator cuff Lattisumus dorsi Pectorlais major

Describe where the Deltoid is and what its primary functions are

Shoulder cap Primary function: Abduction internal/external rotation of the shoulder

Describe where the teres major is and what its primary functions are

Armpit muscle Primary functions: Extension and adduction of the shoulder

Describe where the Rotator cuff is and what its primary functions are

SITS: Suprsinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis Right next to/ behind deltiod Primary Functions: Abduction, external/internal rotation

Describe where the lattisimus dorsi is and what its primary functions are

Stretches all the way from the armpit to the hip and into the sternum Primary Functions: Extension, Adduction, horizontal abduction

Describe where the Pectoralis major is and what its primary functions are

Boob muscle Primary Functions: Flexion, extention, and adduction of the shoulder

What are the prime movers for adduction at the shoulder?

Pectoralis major and lattisimus dorsi

Give an example of an exercise that works the pectoralis major and one that works the lattisimus dorsi

Pec major: Pushups, pull ups, bench press Lat. Dorsi: Chin ups, lat pull down *any exercise that involves pulling the arms downagainst resistance

Major muscles that act on the elbow and forearm BBBT

Biceps Brachii Bronchialis Brachioradialis Triceps Brachii

Describe the Biceps Brachii and its primary function

Bicep (above elbow inside arm) Flexsion at the elbow

Describe where the Brachilalis is and what its primary functions are

Small muscle inside elbow under bicep above Brachioradialis Flexion of the elbow

Describe where the Brachioradialis is and what its primary functions are

Inside forearm Flexion at the elbow

Describe where the Tricep is and what its primary functions are

Behind bicep Extension at the elbow

Major muscles that act at the trunk (RETIE)

Rectus abdominis Erector spinea Transverse abdominis Internal oblique External oblique

Describe where the Rectus abdominis is and what its primary functions are

Six pack muscles Flexion of the trunk and lateral flexion of the trunk

Describe where the Erector spinae is and what its primary functions are

Down the spine Extension of the trunk and lateral flexion of the trunk

Describe where the transverse abdominis is and what its primary functions are

Deep inside muscle of the abdomen Stabalizes and compresses abdomen

Describe where the Internal oblique is and what its primary functions are

Under the exteranl oblique Rotates the trunk

Describe where the External oblique is and what its primary functions are

Outermost layer of the abdomen wall (on theside) Rotation of the trunk

Muscles that act at the hip joint RGGIBS

Rectus femoris Gluteous maximus Gluteous medius and minimus IT band (illiotibial) Biceps femoris Sartorious

Describe where the Rectus femoris is and what its primary functions are

Long Quadricep muscle Flexion

Describe where the Gluteous maximus is and what its primary functions are

Biggest butt muscle Extension and external rotation

Describe where the Gluteous medius and minimus are and what its primary functions are

Medius is above maximus and minimus is deep inside They both do abduction

Describe where the Bicep femoris is and what its primary functions are

Hamstring muscle Extension

Describe where the Sartorious is and what its primary functions are

Longest muscle in the body crosses both the hip and knee Flexion of the knee and external rotation of the hip

What is the primary mover for leg extension at the knee?

rectus femoris

Describe where the Anterior tibilais is and what its primary functions are

The front of the lower leg (shin) Dorsiflexion at the ankle

Describe where the Gastrocenemius and soleus are and what its primary functions are

Behind the lower leg (Calf muscle) Plantarflexion at the ankle

Decribe the difference between the centeral nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

CNS is covered by bone for the spinal cord and brain the peripheral nervous system is for the extremities

Describe the difference between the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton

Axial: Head neck and trunk bones Appendicular: Extremities

Describe the difference between arteries and veins

Arteries carry blood away from the heart Veins carry blood to the heart

What is fasciae?

Connective tissue that provides lubrication for muscle fibers and allows muscles to change shape. Responsible for 41% of the total resistance experienced during a joint movement

Describe Lordosis

Increased anterior lumbar curve The bottom of the back is curved too far inward

Describe Kyphosis

Increased posterior thoracic curve The upper back in curved to far outward And an increased anterior lumbar curve

Describe flat back

Decreased anterior lumbar curve and the neck sits to far outward *opposite of lordosis

Decribe sway back

Decreased anterior lumbar curve and increased posterior thoracic curve *Combo of flat back and kyphosis

Describe scoliosis

Lateral spinal curvature

What muscles are tight and what muscles are lengthened with Lordosis

Tight: Hip Flexors, lumbar extensors, and lattisimus dorsi Lengthened: Hip extensors & external obliques

What muscles are tight and what muscles are lengthened with Kyphosis

*Same as lordosis for lower but for the upper body deviation: Tight: Anterior chest and shoulders and neck extensors Lengthened: Upper back extensors, scapular stabilizers, Neck flexors

What muscles are tight and what muscles are lengthened with Flat back

Tight: Rectus abdominis, upper back extensors, Neck extensors, Lengthened: Iliacus/psoas major (hip), internal oblique, lumbar extensors, Neck flexors

What muscles are tight and what muscles are lengthened with Sway back

Tight: Hamstrings, posterior obliques, lumbar extensors, neck extensors Lengthened: Iliacus/pasoas major, internal oblique, lumbar extensors, neck flexors

What muscles are commonly tight and which are usually lengethened (when talking about lordosis, kyphosis, sway and flat back)

Tight: Neck extensors Lenghtened: Neck flexors and obliques

What kind of factors are these when it comes to posture:
Repetitive movements
Awkward positions
Side dominance
Lack of joint mobility/stability
Imbalanced strength training programs

Correctible factors Uncorrectible factors= Congenital conditions (scoliosis) structural deviations, truma

What muscles are tight and what muscles are lengthened with a downward and forward tilted pelvis (anterior tilt)

Tight: Hip flexors and erector spinae Lenghtened: Hamstrings and rectus abdominis

What muscles are tight and what muscles are lengthened with a upward and backward tilted pelvis (posterior tilt)

Tight: Hamstrings and rectus abdominis Lengthened: Hip flexors and erector spinae opposite of anterior tilt

If the shoulders are not level what muscles are tight

Upper trapezius, levetor scapulae, and rhomboids

If the shoulders are forward and rounded what muscles are tight

Serratus anterior, upper trapezius

If the palms face backward instead of to the side this is medially rotating the humerous, what muscles are usually tight

Pect major, Lat dorsi, subscapularis

What Kyphosis and depressed chest what muscles are tight

Pec major, shoulder adductors, rectus abdominis, internal oblique

Describe the Thomas Test and what is tight if:
A. The the back of the lowered thigh does not touch the table and the knee does not flex 80 degrees
B. The back of the lowered thigh does touch the table but the knee does not flex 80 degrees
C. The back of the lowered thigh does not touch the table but the knee flexes 80 degrees

Client lays on back on a table and grabs hamstrings with both hands pulling the knee into the chest A. Tight: hip flecors B. Iliopsoas C. Rectus femoris (not allowing the knee to bend)

Describe the passive straight leg test and what determines if the hamstrings are tight

Client lays fully on a table while the trainer pulls leg up into the air If the leg cannot raise 80 degrees the hamstrings are tight

Describe the stork stand balance test and what Excellent average and fair values are (male and female)

Client stands on one foot and rests the other foot on the outside calf. Male: Ex.:>50 seconds, Avg:31-40 Fair: 20-30 Female: Ex. >30 sec Avg: 16-24 Fair: 10-15

Describe the difference between muscular strength and endurance

Strength: Max force a muscle can produce during a single contraction Endurance: exert force against resistance over a period of time

Define body composition

Amount of lean body mass to fat body mass

Where do you take skinfold measurements in men and in women

Mean: Chest, Quad, Near belly button on abs Women: Tricep, Quad, Hip

What is the equation for BMI

Weight/ height (squared)

How do you get from lb to kg

lb Divide by 2.2

how do you get from in to cm

in multiply by 2.54

How do you get from cm to meters

cm divided by 100

What is a normal BMI, Over weight, and obese

Normal: 18.5-24.9 (19-25) Overweight: 25-29.9 (25-30) Obese >_30

Equation for max heart rate


Decribe VO2max and give equation

The max amount of oxygen that a person can use in 1 minuet (mL/kg/min) Carbon dioxide produced/ oxygen consumed

Define tidal volume

The volume of air inhaled and exhaled per breath

Define minuet ventilation Ve

volume of air breathed per minuet

Define stroke volume

Amount of blood pumped per heart beat

Describe VT1 and VT2 and how you can tell when the client has reached them

VT1 is when the person is breathing faster in an effort to blow off the extra CO2; when a client finds it mildly uncomfortable to talk VT2 is when blowing off the extra CO2 is no longer adequate; when a client cannot talk

Describe Respiratory exchange ratio RER

The amount of carbon dioxide produced relative to the amount of oxygen consumed

What is the equation for calculating 1RM

1RM= weight lifted*1.255

What is the equation for power

Work/Time Work=force*distance

Define absolute strength and relative strength

Absolute: Greatest amount of weight that can be lifted 1 time (1RM) Relative strength: max force someone can exert in relation to their body weight

What is the formula for relative strength

Absolute strength * Body weight

Name 3 muscular endurance tests

Push up, curl up, body weight squat

Name 3 musular strength (1RM) tests

Bench, Leg press, Barbell squat

Classify each as either an acute or chronic adaptation to exercise:
Increased respiratory capacity
Decreased blood pressure in moderatley hypertensive individuals
Increased cardiac output
Lowered Resting heart rate
Increased aerobic capcity
Increased systolic blood pressure
Increased pulminary ventilation
Improved body composition
Depletion of phosphogens and accumulation of lactate
Decreased blood flow to viseral organs

Increased respiratory capacity CA Decreased blood pressure in moderatley hypertensive individuals CA Increased cardiac output AR Lowered Resting heart rate CA Increased aerobic capcity CA Increased systolic blood pressure AR Increased pulminary ventilation AR Improved body composition CA Depletion of phosphogens and accumulation of lactate AR Decreased blood flow to viseral organs AR

Describe the difference between aerobic and anerobic activities

Aerobic activites can be done for a long period of time meaning they are not very intense Anerobic activities require a quick powerful movement or force and cannot be sustained for very long

What changes to SBP and DBP are expected as intensity increases

SBP remains unchanged or decreases slightly, DBP increases

Define the law of inertia

A body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion

Define the law of acceleration (equation)

Force= mass * acceleration

Define the law of reaction

every applied force has an equal and opposite reaction

What is the difference between an agonist and an antagonist

Agonist: Prime mover Antagonist: opposite muscles that have the potential to oppose the action

What are synergist muscles

assist the agonist in the desired action

What is co-contraction

When the agonist and antagonist muscles work together to stabilize

Define Isometric action

when no visible movement occurs and the resistance matches the tension (ex. when a body builder strikes a pose)

Describe the difference between concentric and eccentric actions

Concentric: muscle shortens and over comes a resistive force Eccentric: muscle lengthens or returning to normal length from a shortened position

What are the prime movers for hip flexion (hip flexors)

Iliopsoas, rectus femoris, sartorius, and tensor facae latae

What are the primary hip extensors

Hamstrings and gluteous maximus Extend the hip against gravity, used during walking ect

What are the primary hip abductors

Gluteous medius and minimus

What are the primary hip adductors

adductor mangus, longus, and brevis

What is the prime mover for knee extension (knee extensors)

The quadricep femoris

What is the prime mover for knee flexion (knee flexors)

Hamstring muscle (which includes bicep femoris)

What are the primary trunk flexors

The abs: external/internal oblique and transverse abdominis

What are the primary trunk extensors

Erector spinae group

Define A/C joint, S/C joint, and G/H joint

A/C: basically the clavicle ending S/C: sternoclavicular is the sternum (under neck) G/H: Ball and socket joint of the shoulder

Which muscles produce direct movement on the G/H joint

Pec major, deltiod, rotator cuff, lat dorsi, and teres major

What are the differences in postural balance and walking gait of overweight people

The COG in overweight individuals is off and they are at a greater risk for falling The cost of walking in overweight individuals is higher then skinny people. They spend more calories and may take more steps.

Describe the difference between open chain and closed chain exercises

Open chain is where the feet are not on the ground (seated leg raise) Closed chain are when the feet touch the ground (squat)

The postural deviation most commonly associated with weak abdominal muscles and hip extensor muscles coupled with tight hip flexors and back extensors is:


State weather each needs stability or mobility:
Glenohumeral, Knee, Foot, Thoracic spine, Ankle, Scapulohumeral, lumbar spine, Hip

Glenohumeral (ST) Knee(ST) Foot (MB) Thoracic spine (MB) Ankle(MB) Scapulohumeral (ST) lumbar spine (ST) Hip (MB)

Describe the pain compensation cycle (7 stages)

Muscle imbalance leads to Altered length tension relationship OR altered force couple relationship which leads to altered joint mechanics which leads to altered nueromuscular control which leads to postural misalignments which leads to excessive musculoskeletal loading which leads to pain, injury, and futher complication, and back to muscle imbalance

Describe length tension and force couple relationships

Length tension: muscles shrotening Force couple: muscles never work in isolation they work together usually by providing opposing, directional, or contralateral pulls at joints.

Name the two phases in functional programming for stability and mobility

Phase 1: Stability and mobility training Phase 2: Movement training

What are the three steps in phase 1 of functional programming stability and mobility (what must be stable first, and what do you progress to from there and what is the last part to be addressed)

Stability of the lumbar region Mobility of thoracic spine and hips Stability of scapulothoracic (shoulder) region

Define these stretches:

Myofascial: Foam roller for 30-60 sec Static: Taken to the point of tension, held for 15-60 seconds and repeated 4 times at minimum Dynamic: Taking the joints thru their range of motion while continuously moving. Often beneficial when warming up for sport Ballistic: Dynamic stretching but with rhythmic bobbing or bouncing high force short duration PNF: Hold isometric contraction for 6 seconds followed by a passive stretch (trainer does it) for 10-30 seconds

Describe when GTO is activated, what is does, and what its primary function is

GTO is activated after 7-10 seconds of static stretching, it takes over causing the muscle spindle to relax, the muscle tension is removed and the msucle can be stretched further allowing collegen to remold the muscle. GTO’s primary function is to protect the muscle against too much force so it will fatigue the muscle to protect it.

Describe when the muscle spindle is activated, what it does, and what its primary function is

Activated when a static stretch is initially performed, it increases muscle tension when a stretch is performed and protects the muscle from being over stretched

(Phase 1 in stability and mobility programming) the first step is core function, what is the focus in this step?

Focus on core activation exercises and isolated stabilization under minimal spinal loading

(Phase 1 in stability and mobility programming) the second step is static balance, what is emphasized in this step?

Seated and standing stabilization over a fixed base of support

(Phase 1 in stability and mobility programming) the third step is dynamic balance, what is emphasized in this step?

whole body stabilization over a dynamic base of support

Name the emphasis of the movement phase (phase 2) of stability and mobility programming

5 Activities of daily living Bend and lift (squat) One leg(lunge) Pushing Pulling Rotational movements

Describe each of these benefits of resistance training:
Physical capacity
Physical appearance
Metabolic function
Injury/disease prevention

Physical capacity: the ability to perform work or exercise Physical appearance: lean body weight to body fat Metabolic function: muscles burn more calories while at rest (RMR= resting metabolic rate; calories burned while at rest) Injury/disease prevention: increased BMD (body mass density) reduces the risk for osteoporosis.

When completing a needs assessment during resistance training programming what individual evaluations need to be considered

Current conditioning level Training history History of injury or fear of injury Tolerance for discomfort

How much rest is needed before training the same muscle groups for high intesity/ vigorous strength tarining

3 days (72 hours)

What are the general training frequency guidelines for beginners, intermediate, and advanced

Beginners: 2-3 sessions per week Intermediate: 3-4 sessions per week Advanced: 4-7 sessions per week

Give an example of the grouping of exercises by: performing primary exercises followed by assisted exercises

Primary: moving several joints against resistance in one direction (squats, chest press, shoulder press ect.) Assisted: movements around 1 joint (leg extentions, flys, lateral raise)

Give an example of the grouping of exercises by: alternating pushing and pulling movements

Doing bench press and then chin ups

Give an example of the grouping of exercises by: alternating upper and lower extremity exercises

Curls and then leg press

What are supersets/compound sets

exercises done in a sequence with no rest between them

What is the load volume calculation

Volume=SetsrepsExercise weight load (and sum the total for each muscle group)

What are the general guidelines for training volume (sets and reps) for general muscle fitness,

General muscle fitness: Sets:1-2 Reps:8-15 Muscular endurance: Sets: 2-3 Reps: >12 Muscular hypertrophy: Sets 3-6 Reps: 6-12 Muscular strength: Sets: 2-6 Reps: <6 Power: Sets 3-5 Reps: 3-5

What are the general guidelines for training intensity (%) for general muscle fitness

General muscle fitness: varies Muscular endurance: 60-70% Muscular hypertrophy: 70-80% Muscular strength: 80-90% Power: 90% 1-RM

What are the general guidelines for rest intervals for general muscle fitness, endurance, hypertrophy, strength, and power

General muscle fitness: 30-90 sec Muscular endurance: <30 sec Muscular hypertrophy: 30-90 sec Muscular strength: 2-5 minuets Power: 2-5 minuets

Describe the double progressive strength training protocol and at what values things change

Increase reps and then increase resistance and lower reps Increase reps when 15 reps can be done perfectly (specific to goals, strength would be max 6 reps ect) When 15 reps can be done the resistance increase 5% and the reps are lowered to by about 3

Define specificity and overload

Specificity means to train the muscles that work in the activity you are trying to improve (ex. if you want to run better train legs) Over load means to add more resistance and reduce reps when a high number of reps can be done perfectly. Resistance increases by 5%

Define Reversibility and diminishing returns

Reversibility means that if strength training is stopped the body will lose muscle gained (at about half the rate that it was gained) Adults not training lose 3 pounds of muscle every 6 years Diminishing returns refers to a plateau hit when resistance training meets its genetic potential. Try switching up exercises

Describe what and how long macro, meso, and micro cycles are

Macro cycles are the biggest long term goal (prox 1 year) Meso are the macro broken down into specific goals (3-6 months) Micro cycles are small individual detailed versions (2-4 weeks)

What happens during a linear periodization and during an undulating periodization

Linear: reps & weight stay the same within each micro cycle but change from one micro cycle to the next Microcycle 1: MWF 12 reps of 140 lbs Micro cycle 2: MWF 8 reps of 150 lbs Undulating: Reps and weight change during each micro cycle but stay the same from week to week (microcycle to microcycle) Micro cycle 1: M is diffent then W is diffent then F Micro cycle 2: Same as the microcycle 1

What are the 4 phases of Program design for resistance training

1: Stability and mobility 2: Movement 3: Load training 4: Performance training

What protocol is used during load training (program design for resistance training) *hint its an acronym

FIRST Frequency, intensity, reps, sets, type

What is the FIRST for a muscular strength goal

F: Wait 72 hours before training the same muscle group I: 70-90% 1RM R: 4-6 S: <_3 T: Dumbell, barbell, anything using resistance equipment

What is the FIRST for a muscular endurance goal

F: 3 days/week I: 60-70% 1RM R: 12-16 S: 2-3 T: Med ball, band, free weights ect

What is the FIRST for a muscular hypertrophy goal

F: Wait 72 hours before training the same muscle group I: 70-80% 1RM R: 6-12 S: 3-6 T: Free weights, machines ect. *combo of endurance and strength so it is in the middle of both

What is the FIRST for youth

F: 2-3 non consecutive days I: moderate R: 6-15 S: 1-3 T: upper and lower body combo

What is the FIRST for old people

F: 2 days/week I: 60-75% 1RM R: 10-15 S: 1-3 T: variety

What is the equation for power

Power= Work/Time Work= force* distance

Describe what plyometric exercises are and when you would use them

They are quick powerful movements that improve the production of muscular force and power. You use this technique during the performance training phse of programming for resistance exercise (phase 4)

What is the amortization phase

period of time between the eccentric and concentric actions should be kept to a minimum to produce the greatest amount of muscular force

What are some examples of lower body plyometric exercise (resistance training phase 4)

Jumps in place (both feet take off and land) Single jumps(jumping up high or forward) Hop(taking off and landing with same foot) Bound (taking off and landing with opposite foot) Depth jump(jumping off a box)

What are some examples of upper body plyometric exercise (resistance training phase 4)

Pushups, medball pushup, horizontal chest pass, verticle chest pass (laying down)

What is the FIRST for improving speed, agility, and re activity (resistance training phase 4)

F: 1-3 non consecutive days per week I: 15-30 sec= <70 % (glycolytic system) <10 sec= >90% (phosphagen system) 10-60 sec= 75-90% (both systems) REST: 2-3 minutes S: 1-3 T: various speed and agaility drills (high knees, butt kicks, forward jumps, back pedal, lateral shuffels ect )

What are 2 things to consider when training small groups of people

Homogeneous: The people in the group should be the same skill level and have similar goals Personal attention: If someone needs more attention then the others they should be in a private session.

What does the B-alanine supplement supposedly do?

B-alanine: may delay muscle fatigue Glutamine: increase strength speed recovery prevent over training Creatine: Build muscle mass

What are the 3 macro nutrients?

Proteins, carbohydrates, fats

How many calories are in one gram of protein, carb, and fat

Protein: 4 calories/gram Carb: 4 calories/gram Fat: 9 calories/gram

What is the digestion process

Swallow food–> esophagus–>stomach–>energy is extracted–> small intestine–> carbs proteins and fats are absorbed thru the walls of the small intestine

How do you calculate the number of of calories per container of food

calories per serving * number of servings per container

How do you calculate number of calories from carbs, proteins, and fats per serving.

Grams per serving * # of calories per gram For example: 13 g carbs per serving * 4 calories per gram= 52 cal 3 g protein per serving * 4 calories per gram= 12 cal 3 g fat per serving * 9 calories per gram = 27 calories

How do you calculate % of total calories from each macro

Calories from macro/ total calories *100 For example: 52 cal from carbs (per serving) / 90 cal total (per serving)= .57 . 57 *100 = 57% carbs That serving is 57% carbs

What percent of calories should come from:

Carbs: 45-65% Fats: 20-35% Proteins:10-35%

What is the recommended fluid intake before, during, and after exercise?

Before: 17-20 oz of water During (every 10-20 min): 7-10 oz water After: 16-24 oz for every pound lost

What is the breathing called when you draw air into the lungs and what is it called when you breathe out&gt;

Inspiration and expiration

Perform ? minuets of moderate intensity exercise per week or ? minuets of vigorous intensity exercise per week .
How long (duration) and how many days should an obses individual exercise at a moderate intensity?

150 and 75 50-60 minuets per day 5-7 dyas per week for a total of 300 minuets

For moderate aerobic exercise (40-60 % of Heart Rate reserve) how many days per week should one exercise

>5 days per week

Define Heart rate reserve (HRR)

The difference between max heart rate (MHR) and resting heart rate (RHR) –> MHR-RHR=HRR Rflects the hearts ability to increase the rate of beating and cardiac output above resting level to max intensity

For vigorous aerobic exercise (&gt;60% of Heart Rate reserve) how many days per week should one exercise

>3 days per week

What are 6 tests or ways you can moniter exercise intensity

Heart rate (%MHR or HRR) RPE Vo2 or METs Caloric expenditure Talk test/ VT1 Blood lactate VT2

What is the formula for the karvonen meathod for finding target heart rate (it involves RHR and MHR)

MHR-RHR= HRR HRR* Intensity % + RHR = Target heart rate

Define VO2Max

The max amount of oxygen a person can use in one minuets (per kg of body weight)

Describe METs

It is assumed that people use 3.5 mL/kg/min of oxygen at rest. MET’s is a way for people to tell how much oxygen they are taking in based on how hard they think they are working. 5 MET’s is working 5 times harder then resting. You can multiply that times 3.5 to tell aprox how much oxygen your using.

How many METs are these tasks usually:
Light (walking 2mph , making food, fishing)
Moderate (Walking 3 mph, mowing lawn, tennis)
Vigorous (jogging, shoveling, bball, soccor, bike)

< 3 METs 3-6 METs >6 METs

Define minuet ventilation (Ve)

The VOLUME of air moved thru the body in one minuet. The harder you work the less oxygen you take in

Describe the 3 zones and a clients ability to talk in each (with regard to VT1 and VT2)

Zone 1: 0-VT1 Low to moderate exercise client can talk fine Zone 2: VT1-VT2 moderate to vigorous exercise client not sure if they can talk comfortably Zone 3: VT2 Vigorous to very vigorous def cannot talk comfortably

How many kcals per week are recommended to be expended for weight loss


What are the 4 phases in the ACE IFT cardiorespiratory training program:

Phase 1: Aerobic base training Phase 2: Aerobic efficiency training Phase 3: Anerobic-endurance training Phase 4: Anerobic-power training

In comparing the RPE 0-10 test with Bors 6-20 test what are the corresponding borg values to:
3-4 (moderate/somewhat hard)
5-6 (Hard)
7-10 (Very hard)

12-13 14-16 17-20

What kind of exercise is focused on in phase 1 of the IFT model for cardiorespiratory programming?

steady state exercise in zone 1 RPE 3-4

When is the client ready to move from phase 1 (of IFT model for cardiorespiratory programming) to phase 2?

When they can sustain steady state cardio for 20-30 minuets in zone 1

What is the focus in phase 2 (of the IFT model for cardiorespiratory programming)?

Increasing duration of exercise and introducing intervals to improve aerobic efficiency, fitness, and health.

What test is used during phase 2 (of the IFT model for cardiorespiratory programming)

The submaxial talk test for VT1.

To improve aerobic efficiency the trainer should increase intensity to what (during phase 2 of the IFT model for cardiorespiratory programming)

Low zone 2 intervals just above VT1. RPE 5 Late increase to normal zone 2 levels and after that progress to less rest breaks. Finally increase to upper zone 2 levels (RPE 6)

What is the focus of phse 3 (of the IFT model for cardiorespiratory programming) and what test should be performed during this phase?

Purpose: designing a program to help clients who have endurance performance goals and/or are performing 7 or more hours of cardio per week. The VT2 threshold test using a HR monitor should be given.

Who/ what type of clients should train in phase 4 (of the IFT model for cardiorespiratory programming)

Clients who have a very specific goal for increasing speed for short bursts at near maximal efforts during endurance or athletic competitons.

What is the focus of phase 4 of cardiorespiratory programming

Focus is on improving power to improve phophogen enegry pathways and buffer large accumulations of blood lactate in order to improve speed for short bursts at near miximal effort

CRH and ACTH are hormones that do what?

bond brain and body together

What is the feldenkrais method (yoga)

Awareness thru movement (ATM):Verbally directed; group work and functional integration (F): nonverbal manual contact; individual

Inana, karma, mantra, tantra, raja, and hatha are forms of what?


What contemporary mind body exercise program teaches the transformation of nueromuscular habits by helping people focus on sensory exeriances

Alexandar technique

Styles of tai chi and definiton

108 flowing graceful movements Chen, yang, chang, wu, sun

What type of yoga is this: Self healing exercise and meditation that includes healing postures movement visualization breath work and meditation


What happens to the muscle fibers when there is a muscle strain

Microscopic tears of the muscle fiber resulting from working beyond the muscles capacity. 3 grades of strains

Describe a hamstring strain and its risk factors

severe stretch or rapid forceful contractions (example: sprinting) Risk factors: poor flexibility, improper warm up, muscle imbalance

When do ligament strains often occur and where are they most common

Often occur with trauma common with ankle, knee, shoulder, finger

What is an ACL strain and an MCL strain

ACL: injury of the knee; decelerating and pivoting MCL: Impact to the outer knee rapid deceleration no twisting

Name 3 common overuse conditions

Tendinitis, bursitis, and fascia

Describe tendinitis: where is it common and what is it usually due to:

inflammation of the thendon is common in the shoulders, elbows, knees, and ankles. Usually due to people beginning new activities too quickly.

Describe bursitis

inlammation of the bursa sac due to acute trauma repetitive stress muscle imbalance or muscle tightness on top of the bursa. commonly afftes the shoulders hips and knees

Describe fasciitis

imflammation of the connective tissue called fascia commonly occurs in the bottom back of the foot

The most common reported injury to the knee is injuring Menisci, what does Menisci do?

Acts as shock absorbers

Describe chondromalacia

It is a softening or wearing away of the cartilage under the patella (knee cap)

Describe the two types of low impact fractures and how they each usually happen

Stress fracture: repeated microtrauma to a baone and it usually happens with long distance runners, track athletes, ect. Minor fracture: a short fall on a level surface

Describe the three phases of the healing process
and how long each pases typically lasts
Inflammatory, fibroblastic/proliferation, maturation/remodeling

1. Inflammatory: Immobilize injured area. Increased blood flow to bring oxygen. Lasts up to 6 days. 2. Fibroblastic/proliferation: Fills the wound with collogen which will form the scar. within 2-3 weeks the wound can stand normal pressure. Lasts from day 3 to day 21. 3. Maturation/remodeling: rebuilding bone restrenghting tissue. Can last for 2 years.

These are signs of what?
Pain, redness, swelling, warmth, loss of function


What does RICE stand for?

Restrict activity: until seen by a doctor Ice: every hour for 10-20 minuets until swelling goes down Compression: compression wrap on area to minimize swelling Elevation: of ankle 6-10 in above the heart

What is lateral epicondylitis commonly called

Tennis elbow. Over use injury of the wrist extensor muscle tendons near their origin. Form of elbow tendinitis

Describe carpal tunnel syndrome

repetitive wrist and finger flexion resulting in narrowing of the carpal tunnel due to inflammation of the carpal tunnel Usually starts out gradually with pain or weakness and gradually gets worse becoming loss of grip strength

Describe greater trochanteric bursitis

Painful inflammation of the leg down the hip to the knee. Client may walk with a limp due to pain and weakness

Describe IT band syndrome

Repetitive overuse condition that occurs when the distal portion of the IT band rubs against the lateral femur. Most common amoung runners, volleball, weight lifters

What is patellofemoral pain syndrom (PFPS) referred to as

Runners knee It is basically anterior knee pain.

What is infrapatellar tendinitis referred to as

Jumpers knee overuse syndrome characterized by inflammation of the patellar tendon. Common in sports like basketball and volleball that involve jumping

Describe shin splints.
What is Medial tibial stress syndrom (MTSS)?

Shin splints: leg pain Two types: MTSS: posterior shin splints Anterior shin splints

Describe a lateral ankle sprain

Most common. Basically when you roll your ankle (outward). Client will often lack mobility in the side to side stepping regions

How soon can a trainer see a client after a grade 1 sprain?
A grade 2 sprain?
A grade 3 sprain?

1-2 weeks 4-8 weeks 12-16 weeks

Describe achilles tendinitis

Common in athletes. Usually sharp morning pain that increases with more vigorous activity

Describe plantar fasciitis

Heel pain, noticeable with initial steps after a period of inactivity and gets better with more activity

What is the differenace between an acute rotator cuff injury and a chronic rotator cuff injury and what age group does each affect?

Acute: trauma (falling ect) people under 30 years old Chronic: overuse, pain , weakness, degenerative. people over 40

Describe what is done during the primary assessment of an emergency

ABS’s: Airway breathing circulation severe bleeding If conscious request permission to help If unconcious call 911, check if breathing (head lift chin tilt), check for pulse, and if not breathing/ no pulse do cpr

Describe what is done during the secondary assessment of an emergency

Address issues that are not immediatley life threatening, Vital signs are taken (blood pressure, temperature skin color ect)

What condition causes excessive electrical activity in the brain ?


Define hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and which is most common in a gym setting

Hpyer: High Hypo: low blood sugar Hypoglycemia is more common in the gym

What is the condition in which the blood is not adequately distributed in the body and tissues don’t receive oxygen, also called hypoperfusion


What part of the spine is most mobile and delicate

Cervical spine (neck injury) Do not move victim head must be immobilized

Describe heat cramps

Spasms affecting the arms legs and abs due to a loss of fluids and electrolites

Define syncope

Temporary loss of consciousness due to a lack of blood flow to the brain (fainting)

Average breathing rate for an adult (breaths per minuet)


Define perfusion

blood flow and oxygen delivery to body tissues

EMS take an average of how many minuets to arrive

7-10 mins Need to do CPR if they arent there. Only 27% of out of hospital people get cpr

Describe Ventricular Fibrillation

Spasmodic quivering of the heart that is too fast to allow the heart chambers to adequately fill and empty so little to no blood is pushed out to the body or lungs

What is a sinoatrial node

Hearts pace maker

Describe why angina pectoris happens and what the symptoms are

Plaque builds up in the arteries and prevents proper blood flow to the heart chest pain (angina pectoris) happens. Described as chest pain or pressure feeling like heart burn that usually travels to the left arm (heart is on left side)

Differance between ischemic stroke and hemmoragic stroke

Ishemic is a blocked blood velssle in the brain Hemmoragic is a ruptured blood vessle

Type 1 diabetes is also called what?

Insulin dependent diabetes.

Describe the differances between heat exhaustion and heat stroke

they are essentially opposites: Exhaustion: weak rapid pulse, cold clammy skin, pale, temp<104 Stroke: Strong rapid pulse, hot dry bright red skin, temp>104, change in mental status, labored breathing.

Define disarthria

difficulty speaking

What is orthostatic hypotension

Drop in blood pressure from laying/sitting down to standing up

Most common type of general seizure is:

Grand mal: starts with an aura that lets the person know they are baout to have a seizure, when it starts the victim loses conciousness and starts to convulse

What should you do when someone has a seziure

Clear the area so the victim wont hit their head and place a towel under head so the victim doesnt get hurt

Describe each:

Abbrasion: scraping Incision: clean cut to the skin (sharp edge) Laceration: jagged tear of the skin Avulsion: severe laceration with skin torn off Puncture: penetraition of the skin by on object

What is the general primary treatment for soft tissue injuries (muscle liagemnts ect)


Define meninges

3 layers of skin beneth the surface of the skull

Describe the differance between contriburatory negigence cases and comparative negigence cases

Contriburatory: prevent a plantiff in a law suit who has played some role in the injury from recovering any money. Comparative: Plantiff will get a perecnt of the overall award minus his percentage of involvement (70% at fault he gets 30% of the money)

Describe an agreement to participate

Protects pt from a client claiming to be unaware of the potential risks of physical activity

Describe an informed consent waiver

used by a pt to demonstrate that a client aknowledges that he or she has been specifically informed about the risks asscoiated with the activity. Communicated potential benefits and dangers of the program

What are 4 approaches to managing idetified risks

Avoidance: Remove the danger by eliminating the activity transfer: remove the risks thru waivers and insurance Reduction: remove part of an activity Retention: if the pros outweigh the cons the risk is worth taking

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