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All of the following are functions of water, EXCEPT

providing energy for the nervous system

Carbohydrates are the only source of energy for brain cells.


Your body uses protein to

build and maintain body tissue.

Which of the following statements is TRUE about fats in food?

Fats are the principal form of stored energy in the body.

Oxygen in the body is metabolized to produce unstable molecules called ________, which can damage cell DNA.

free radicals

Suzie is having lunch at a fast-food restaurant. She is trying to make healthier dietary choices. Which of the following
is the healthiest menu option for Suzie?

grilled fish on whole wheat roll with no sauce

In 2010, the USDA introduced _____, a visual icon that illustrates the five food groups and is intended as a reminder to
Americans about maintaining balanced diets.


The FDA endorses content claims on FOPs (front-of-package labels).


Vegetarian diets may offer protection against heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, digestive disorders, obesity,
and some forms of cancer.


Packaged-food labels are regulated by the FDA, while labeling of meat and poultry products is regulated by the USDA.


Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is an umbrella term to describe nutritional guidelines that promote optimal health.


_____ is the main provider of energy for the brain and nervous system.


The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein is _____ percent of daily energy intake.


Which of the following food products is highest in unsaturated fats?

vegetable oils

To translate DRIs and the Dietary Guidelines into healthy food choices, the USDA publishes


Both MyPlate and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans differ significantly from current eating patterns in the United States.


Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding food allergies?

Allergic reactions to food can be life-threatening.

Dietary experts consider energy drinks to be

harmful if consumed in excess.

Which of the following is a fruit or vegetable that carries little pesticide residue?


Among the most common symptoms of food poisoning are

nausea, vomiting, and fever.

Which of the following statements is TRUE of organic foods?

They may place consumers at higher risk of contracting foodborne illnesses.

Which of the following is NOT one of the three most common pathogens that cause food infection?

Listeria ivanovii

What is the number-one cause of food poisoning outbreaks in the U.S.?

eggs containing salmonella enteritis

The FDA has concluded that all genetically modified food products require special safety testing.


Asparagus, avocados, and bananas carry little pesticide residue, whether grown conventionally or organically.


Mixing hard alcohol with energy drinks can disguise the intoxication effects of the alcohol.


Neighborhoods and communities that have limited access to affordable and nutritious food are called

food deserts.

The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range is the amount of a nutrient one can consume without risk of developing a chronic disease.


Which of the following is NOT a macronutrient?


When Kristi, a vegetarian, combines foods such as beans and rice to consume the right amino acids, she is practicing

mutual supplementation.

The fatty acids now considered most hazardous to health are the

trans fatty acids.

To translate DRIs and the Dietary Guidelines into healthy food choices, the USDA also publishes MyPyramid, a graphic nutritional tool that can be customized depending on your calorie needs.


Which of the following is NOT one of the eight foods most responsible for food allergies?


Approximately how many Americans die every year from foodborne illness?


Which of the following statements about E. coli is true?

Some infections can be fatal to humans.

The graph in the text defines the poverty line in the United States at just about $30,000 per year.


Of the following, which is the demographic cited by the text as having the highest percentage of households living with very low food insecurity?

no children under age 18

The amount of nutrients needed by half of the people in any one age group is known as the

Estimated Average Requirement.

The average daily amount of any one nutrient an individual needs to protect against nutritional deficiency is called the

Recommended Dietary Allowance.

Intake ranges that provide adequate nutrition and that are associated with reduced risk of chronic disease are called the

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range.

The set of scientifically based recommendations designed to promote health and reduce the risk for many chronic
diseases through diet and physical activity is known as the

Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

My Plate is used on food labels and indicates how a particular food contributes to the recommended daily intake of
major nutrients in a 2,000-calorie diet.


Consumers have no way of knowing where a bunch of grapes for sale in the grocery store was grown and harvested.


Which of the following statements about sodium intake is TRUE?

According to CDC findings, two of three adults are at risk for sodium sensitivity

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding food allergies?

Food allergies cause life-threatening reactions in many people.

Eggs, peanuts, and milk are three of the eight foods that account for 90 percent of food allergies.


Most food reactions are caused by food allergies rather than food intolerances.


When does the most significant drop in physical activity typically occur in people’s lives?

later high school years and freshman year of college

Common barriers to an active lifestyle cited by adults include all of the following, EXCEPT

social pressures.

Which of the following statements about changing one’s lifestyle to be more active is FALSE?

The termination stage comes when an individual becomes unable to do the behavior.

A network of people who can join you in your activities can make the difference between a sedentary and an active lifestyle.


Many communities are passing public policies and laws that encourage physical activity.


Which of the following is classified as a moderate-intensity activity?


Regular physical activity commonly produces

longer lifespans.

When you measure whether you can speak in complete sentences without breathing hard as you exercise, you are using the

breathing test.

Pilates, one of the most popular training exercises taught in health clubs today, is most strongly associated with which type of exercise training?


Olympic and elite athletes often practice _____ stretching, which is not recommended for most people because it makes an individual vulnerable to muscle pulls and tears.


Walking five miles (about 10,000 steps) expends about 500 calories, depending upon walking speed and body size.


To minimize your exposure to air pollutants, the best time to exercise is

early morning.

The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that people with disabilities should be careful to avoid excess physical activity.


In the Transtheoretical Model, during the action stage, what is the key component?

goal setting

If you lack the willpower to stay physically active, you will NOT be helped by seeking the support of others.


Which of the following statements regarding warm-ups and cool-downs is FALSE?

Taking a hot shower immediately after a main exercise program effectively aids in cool-down and blood-flow return to the heart.

Which of the following is NOT one of the symptoms parents, coaches, and physicians should look for to determine if
a child may have heart-defect problems?

frequent labored breathing

Krista is a softball catcher in Texas. Which of the following is NOT one of the key strategies Krista would use to
prevent excessive increases in body temperature and heat disorders?


Fainting or coronary abnormalities may occur following exercise as blood pools in the extremities.


To minimize the impact of air pollution on the lungs, exercise late in the afternoon after morning traffic is over.


he American College of Sports Medicine recommends that adults do moderate-intensity exercise for at least
150 minutes per week.


Moderate-to-intensive levels of physical activity have been shown to

All of the answers are correct.

What is "green exercise"?

exercising outdoors in natural settings

Which of the following statements about physical activity is FALSE?

Short-term exercise training significantly improves cognitive functioning.

Aerobic fitness may prevent or slow down the loss of cognitive functions associated with advancing age.


You can turn light activity into moderate activity by increasing the


After a person has walked for a couple of weeks, he or she should focus on taking quicker steps and swinging arms.


Biking is the most popular physical activity in North America.


Women who do moderate or vigorous physical activity at least four hours a week reduce their risk of premature death.


Walking 10,000 steps is equivalent to energy expenditures between 300 to 400 calories per day, depending on body
size and walking speed.


The four components of cardiorespiratory training do NOT include


Which of the following statements about the frequency of cardiorespiratory training is FALSE?

In general, it is necessary to exercise at least five times a week to obtain adaptation changes in the cardiorespiratory system.

In general, you must exercise at least _____ a week to experience improvements in cardiorespiratory functioning.


Which of the following statements about flexibility and flexibility training is FALSE?

Stretch before your other exercise in order to see greatest improvement in flexibility.

he ACSM recommends that people exercise at a THR between 25 and 40 percent of their maximum heart rate.


According to Health and Human Services (HHS) physical activity guidelines, exercise sessions of only 10 minutes do not count toward a person’s weekly accumulation of physical activity.


What is the most popular physical activity in North America?


Which of the following types of fitness is most concerned with the speed at which you can perform an action?

skill-related fitness

_____ is generally defined as an inability to continue exercising at a desired level of intensity.


Individuals with a(n) _____ body type gain muscle more easily than other body types.


Which of the following statements regarding flexibility programs is FALSE?

You will experience the greatest improvement in flexibility if you do your stretching exercises before aerobic exercise.

Core-strength training is also called functional strength training.


Warm-up and cool-down activities should last for _____ minutes.


New exercise guidelines recommend that children under age 5 exercise at least one hour per day.


For most Americans, the most significant drop in physical activity typically occurs when they are at about the age of


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