Abnormal Psychology- Chapter 4, 5, &8

Fear differs from anxiety in that:

fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more general.

The MOST common mental disorders in the United States are the:

anxiety disorders

Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?

panic disorder

Every once in a while, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on
suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of a(n):

a panic attack

Leila always feels threatened and anxious—imagining something awful is about to
happen. But she is able to work and care for her family, although not as well as she would
like. Leila is probably experiencing:

a generalized anxiety disorder

People with one anxiety disorder are most likely to:

experience another anxiety disorder, too.

A person who is restless, keyed-up, and on edge for no apparent reason is experiencing:

free-floating anxiety

Someone interested in the effects of culture, poverty, and race on the risk for generalized
anxiety disorders, probably represents the ______ perspective.

sociocultural

"Who wouldn't be afraid all the time? We have bombs, overpopulation, AIDS, and
violent crime everywhere. It is difficult to get a good job unless you understand all that
complicated computer junk." This complaint is consistent with a ______ explanation of
generalized anxiety disorder

socio cultural

Generalized anxiety disorder is more common:

in African Americans than white Americans

One limitation of the sociocultural approach to understanding generalized anxiety
disorders is that it cannot explain:

why everyone who experiences danger doesn't experience generalized anxiety

According to Freud, children who are prevented from expressing id impulses like
making mud pies, playing war, and exploring their genitals are at risk for developing:

neurotic anxiety

Which theoretical position explains the origin of anxiety disorders as caused by the
development of defense mechanisms for ego protection?

Carl Rogers' client-centered theory

According to Freud, children who are severely and repeatedly punished for expressing
their id impulses may develop:

Moral Anxiety

According to Freud, a generalized anxiety disorder is most likely to result when:

growing up

"Phobic and generalized anxiety disorders arise when people stop looking at themselves
honestly and with acceptance, and instead deny and distort their true thoughts, emotions,
and behavior." This explanation for anxiety disorders would most likely be offered by:

humanistic theorists

If you criticized everything you did, looking for flaws, and never could measure up to
your personal standards, you would be exhibiting what Carl Rogers called:

conditions of worth

Which theory states that people develop generalized anxiety disorders because they
failed to receive unconditional positive regard as children and evaluate themselves with
conditions of worth?

Humanistic perspective

Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies have in common:

Their lack of strong support from controlled studies

How strong is the evidence supporting the usefulness of client-centered therapy for
those with generalized anxiety disorder?

not very strong: case reports of client-centered therapy's usefulness are not strongly supported by controlled studies

If I believe that it is a dire necessity for me to be loved or approved of by everyone and
that it is catastrophic if things are not the way I want them, I am displaying:

irrational assumptions

A person who believes that it is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way he
or she would like them to be is displaying a:

maladaptive assumptions

A person who believes that one should be thoroughly competent, adequate, and
achieving in all possible aspects is displaying a:

basic irrational assumptions

Cognitive therapists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is induced by:

maladaptive assumptions

Research on the cognitive explanation for the development of generalized anxiety shows
that people with generalized anxiety symptoms:

excessively worry

The most fitting motto for someone with generalized anxiety disorder is:

"Better safe than sorry."

If you live in a city, own your home and pay taxes, you are least likely to experience
which of the following events next year?

being diagnosed with cancer

Which of the following is an example of a metaworry?

Worrying about worrying

According to "intolerance of uncertainty theory," those with generalized anxiety
disorder are:

likely to overestimate the chances that any negative event will occur.

In terms of cognitive theories explaining generalized anxiety disorder, a good deal of
research supports:

both metacognitive theory and intolerance of uncertainty theory.

Of the following, the best description of the "avoidance theory of generalized anxiety
disorder" is:

Worrying serves to reduce bodily arousal

If your therapist gave you homework that required you to challenge your maladaptive
assumptions and replace them with healthier ones, the therapist would be using:

rational-emotive therapy

The therapy for generalized anxiety disorder developed by Albert Ellis is called

rational-emotive therapy

"Your worries? They're only thoughts. Don't try to stop them, but recognize that they're
thoughts, and don't let them upset you so much." This quote most likely would come
from someone using which form of therapy for generalized anxiety disorder?

mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy:

receives support in therapy applications for a wide range of disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder

Mindfulness therapy teaches people to accept their worries and live in the present
moment, which is MOST consistent with which theoretical approach?

Cognitive

Until recently, the evidence that generalized anxiety disorder is related to biological
factors came largely from:

family pedigree studies

Evidence in support of the biological understanding of generalized anxiety is supported
by the finding that:

benzodizapines provide relief from anxiety

Benzodiazepines are believed to be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder
because they mimic the effect of ______ at certain receptor sites in the brain.

gamma-aminobutyric acid

GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter believed to be involved in reducing the
excitability of neurons in the brain, has been implicated in the etiology of:

generalized anxiety disorder

GABA is related to:

generalized anxiety disorder

If you wanted a drug to improve the functioning of GABA, you would choose:

benzodiazepines

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?

...

All of the following are biological treatments for generalized anxiety EXCEPT:

Rational emotive therapy

Which of the following medications works primarily by enhancing GABA?

benzodiazepines

Which of the following is a nondrug biological treatment for anxiety that is in general
use today?

relaxation therapy

Devon is being treated for anxiety. He is connected to an instrument that records muscle
tension. His job is to try to reduce the muscle tension. This is an example of:

biofeedback training

According to current research, using relaxation training to treat generalized anxiety
disorder is:

better than nothing, and about as effective as meditation.

A friend asks you whether to try relaxation training or biofeedback to reduce anxiety.
Based on present research, your BEST answer is:

relaxation training

An intense, persistent, and irrational fear that is accompanied by a compelling desire to
avoid the object of the fear, to the point of interfering with the life of the person is
called:

specific phobia

How do phobias and common fear differ?

a phobia is more intense and persistent and the desire to avoid the object or situation is greater.

Which of the following is true about specific phobias?

Each year about 9% of people in the United States have symptoms of a phobia.

Of the following, those LEAST likely to experience specific phobias are:

white American males

A friend of yours lives in a large city and has a specific phobia about snakes. Research
shows that your friend is MOST likely to be a:

...

A male friend of yours has been diagnosed with agoraphobia and is receiving treatment. This is:

very uncommon; most people diagnosed with agoraphobia are females and do not receive treatment

A woman you know constantly avoids crowded streets and buildings, and is very reluctant to leave home, even with a friend. Recently, she has experienced extreme, sudden fear every time she enters a crowded street or building. Most likely, this woman would be diagnosed with:

Panic disorder and agoraphobia

Which theoretical position explains the origin of phobias as due to classical conditioning?

behaviorist perspective

When he was 5 years old, Samir was almost struck by lightning while walking through a forest during a rainstorm. Today, he is extremely afraid of trees. A behaviorist would say that Samir has acquired this fear by:

Classical conditioning

While walking through a forest during a rainstorm, 5-year-old Samir was almost struck by lightning. Today, as an adult, he is extremely afraid of trees. What is the conditioned stimulus in the example?

The trees

Davon watched his father run away from a snake in fear. Now he is afraid of snakes. This apparent acquisition of fear of snakes is an example of:

modeling

The process when a learned fear to one stimulus is also elicited by similar stimuli is known as:

stimulus generalization

Little Karen was bitten by a tan pony she was riding at a carnival. The incident left her hurt and frightened. The next month she was visiting her uncle, who had a tan Great Dane (dog). It frightened her even though she had never had a bad experience with a dog. Fear of this dog is an example of:

stimulus generalization

When I was a young child and watching TV with my mother, a mouse ran by. My mother screamed, scaring me. Subsequently, I have been afraid of mice. In this example, my mother's scream is the:

unconditioned stimulus

When I was a young child and watching TV with my mother, a mouse ran by. My mother screamed, scaring me. Subsequently, I have been afraid of mice. In this example, the mouse is the:

conditioned stimulus

Research has supported all of the following behavioral assumptions EXCEPT:

phobias are always acquired through classical conditioning in humans

Apparently, people develop phobias more readily to such objects as spiders and conditions like the dark than they do to such objects as computers and radios. This observation supports the idea of:

preparedness

If the idea of "preparedness" is accurate, then:

some phobias should be acquired more easily than others

The MAJOR behavioral approaches to treating specific phobias such as flooding and modeling are more generally called:

desensitization, flooding, and modeling

Someone who believes that among our ancestors, those who feared animals, darkness, and heights were more likely to survive long enough to reproduce, represents the ______ explanation of the development of phobias.

evolutionary

You are suffering from arachnophobia. Your therapist first has you go through relaxation training, then has you construct a fear hierarchy, and finally, has you go through a phase of graded pairings of spiders and relaxation responses. This approach is called:

in vivo desensitization

Pairing the thought of feared objects and relaxation training is part of:

covert desensitization

The first step in systematic desensitization treatment is:

relaxation training

A phobic person is taken to a snake-handling convention in order to actually confront snakes as part of desensitization training. This is an example of the:

flooding

A person with a phobia is taught to imagine the feared items as part of desensitization training. This is an example of the:

systematic desensitization

Your fear of spiders is debilitating because you are studying to become an entomologist, which means, as part of your training, you have to study spiders. To treat this phobia, your therapist puts you in a room with spiders, even asking you to handle them. This technique might be used in:

flooding

If you were afraid of dogs and your therapist treated you by interacting with dogs while you watched, you would be receiving:

vicarious conditioning

One procedure used to treat phobic disorders involves having the therapist confront the feared object or situation while the fearful client observes. This is called:

vicarious conditioning

In modeling, the client:

...

Harry is terrified of the snakes that his 8-year-old son brings home. During his therapy, his therapist demonstrated how to handle them. This is a form of therapy based on:

modeling

A person with a phobia is exposed to computer graphics that simulate real-world situations. This is an example of the:

virtual reality

A person being treated for agoraphobia is gradually learning to leave home and to enter crowded public places. Additionally, the therapist hopes that "outside world" experiences will become more rewarding for the person. The treatment described BEST reflects what theoretical orientation?

behavioral

Assume that someone you know was treated recently for agoraphobia using behavioral therapies such as a form of exposure therapy. Based on your research, your best guess is that this person:

would improve immediately and would maintain improvement a couple of years later

Which one of the following is the BEST example of a general symptom of social anxiety?

apprehension about being evaluated by others

Steve is afraid of eating in public, expecting to be judged negatively and to feel humiliated. As a result, he always makes up excuses when asked out to eat. His diagnosis would MOST likely be:

a social phobia

Which of the following is an example of a specific social anxiety?

fear of public speaking

Jan is very fearful of speaking in public and will do everything she can to avoid that behavior. If her fear is judged to be phobic, the MOST accurate diagnosis would be:

narrow social phobia

More women than men experience all of the following disorders EXCEPT:

obsessive compulsive disorder

An emphasis on the beliefs and expectations that lead someone with social anxiety disorder to overestimate how badly a social interaction went is characteristic of:

Cognitive Theorists

A person recently was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. If this is all the information you have, your BEST guess is that the person is in:

high school, and more likely than average to have a close relative with social anxiety disorder

Research by cognitive theorists on the topic of social anxiety disorder has shown support for the prevalence of all of the following among those with this diagnosis, EXCEPT for:

underestimating how badly the social event went

A friend asks you, "You're taking an abnormal psychology course; what's the BEST treatment for social anxiety disorder?" Your BEST research-based answer is:

the best psychotherapy eliminates symptoms as fast and longer than the drug therapy

A friend asks you, "I've been diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, and my therapist wants me to use drug therapy, not psychological therapy. What do you think?" Based on current research, your BEST answer would be:

"Some therapists think psychological therapy should always be used, even with drug therapy; there's less chance of relapse"

A psychotherapist models appropriate social skills for a client with social anxiety disorder, then uses modeling for another client with a phobia for spiders. What the therapist is doing is:

common; modeling is often used in the treatment of these kinds of disorders.

Imagine that you are being treated for social anxiety disorder. Your therapist watches you act out a social scene, points out what you did correctly and incorrectly, and praises you for what you did well. Which behavioral technique did your therapist NOT use?

modeling

Rosa's heart was racing (from the 4 cups of coffee she had just finished), but she thought she might be having a heart attack. Her fear seemed to be increasing without end. This might be the beginning of a:

panic attack

You notice someone who is sweating, experiencing shortness of breath, choking, feeling dizzy, and is afraid of dying. If what is happening is not a heart attack but an indicator of an anxiety disorder, the person is MOST likely experiencing a:

panic attack

A person who experiences unpredictable panic attacks combined with dysfunctional behavior and thoughts is MOST likely experiencing:

panic disorder

A person experiencing a panic disorder is MOST likely also to have which of the following:

Fear of leaving home

The phobia MOST often associated with panic disorder is:

agoraphobia

The drug treatment that is MOST effective in treating panic disorders is like that used to treat:

depression

Panic disorder appears to be related to abnormal activity of which neurotransmitter?

norepinephrine

Antidepressant drugs are frequently effective in treating panic attacks. This may mean that the disorder is related to levels of the neurotransmitter:

norepinephrine

Imagine that someone yells "Fire!" in a crowded theater, and audience members begin to try to leave the building. Some "panic" and begin pushing their way blindly through the crowd of other people to an exit. This form of "panic" is:

common, and similar to the panic those with panic disorder experience

Which of the following convinces researchers that panic disorder is biologically different from generalized anxiety disorder?

differences in the brain circuitry in the two disorders

The proportion of panic-attack sufferers who are helped at least somewhat by antidepressant drugs is about:

80%

Antidepressants and alprazolam (Xanax) have been found to be successful in treating:

panic attacks

What type of drug is alprazolam (Xanax)?

benxodiazepine

Which one of the following statements about the use of antidepressants, such as Xanax, to treat a panic disorder is MOST accurate?

For the drugs to be effective, one has to keep taking them, even when symptoms are lessened.

The cognitive explanation for panic disorders is that people who have them:

misinterpret the physiological events that are occurring within their bodies

According to cognitive theorists, people experiencing anxiety sensitivity:

interpret their bodily sensations as potentially harmful

People who experience a positive event, get excited, breath harder, have an increase in their heart rate, and then interpret the symptoms as a heart attack, are experiencing what cognitive theorists call:

anxiety sensitivity

Jose and Ted both get racing hearts once in a while. When it happens to Ted, he panics and thinks he is going to die. Gradually, he has developed these panic attacks if he even thinks that his heart is beating strongly. When Jose's heart starts beating strongly, he looks to his current activity to understand what is producing the sensations (hard work). Ted apparently has a high degree of:

anxiety sensitivity

Imagine that researchers investigating panic disorder gave you a drug that caused you to hyperventilate and your heart to beat rapidly. You would have been given a(n):

biological challenge test

Which of the following therapies is an effective long-term, nonpharmacological treatment for panic attacks that involves teaching patients to interpret their physical sensations accurately?

Cognitive

Which of the following is true about drug and cognitive treatments for panic disorder?
A) Drug treatments are significantly more effective, especially early in the disorder.
B) Cognitive treatment is more effective over time, even if the person continues to
take medication.
C) Both drug treatments and cognitive treatments are effective.
D) Neither drug treatments nor cognitive treatments show much promise.

Both drug treatments and cognitive treatments are effective

When someone checks the stove 10 times to make sure it is turned off before leaving in the morning, that person is exhibiting a(n):

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Religious rituals and superstitious behavior (such as not stepping on cracks) would be considered a compulsive behavior:

when they are time-consuming, interfere with daily function, and cause distress

People who experience obsessions show:

Thoughts that are intrusive and foreign to them

What do obsessions and compulsions have in common?

they both try to alleviate anxiety

Which of the following reflects the MOST common obsessive thought?

if i touch that door knob it will be dirty and contaminated

Sam can't leave for work without going back into his house and making sure that he has taken all of his writing materials. He does this several times before he allows himself to start the car and drive to work. He is frequently late for work because he is so unsure about remembering everything. Sam is displaying:

a checking compulsion

Those who are anxious unless their books are perfectly lined up on their desks and who must eat the food on their plates in a balanced order are exhibiting a:

balancing compulsion

A professor who puts on rubber gloves before grading papers and religiously avoids any contact with the hands of students is exhibiting a(n):

touching compulsion

A psychodynamic theorist finds that a client is experiencing a battle between anxiety-provoking id impulses and anxiety-reducing ego defense mechanisms. She thinks that this usually unconscious conflict is being played out in an open and obvious manner. She is sure this underlying conflict explains her client's:

obsessive-compulsive disorder

According to the psychodynamic perspective, if a woman keeps engaging in immoral sexual behavior and repeatedly scrubs her face and hands in response to her thoughts about her behavior:

the immoral images represent id impulses

According to Freud, obsessive-compulsive disorders have their origin in the ______ stage of development:

anal

Psychodynamic therapies as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorders:

appear to work better when used in short-term rather than traditional ways

Behaviorists believe that compulsive behavior:

is reinforced because engaging in it reduces anxiety

According to behaviorists, why do patients engage in compulsive behaviors?

those behaviors reduce anxiety and are thus reinforced

A person with obsessive-compulsive disorder who was told that everyone was required to wear shoes at all times in the house and not to vacuum for a week, would be experiencing what therapy procedure?

Exposure and response prevention

The therapy Eliot is receiving emphasizes dealing with his compulsions, but not his obsessions. In addition, he does "homework" in the form of self-help procedures between therapy sessions. MOST likely, Eliot is receiving which kind of therapy?

behavioral

"Everyone has intrusive and unwanted thoughts. Most people ignore them. But some people blame themselves and expect terrible consequences, so they act in ways they hope will neutralize the thoughts." The type of theorist most likely to agree with this quote would be a:

cognitive theorist

According to cognitive theorists, compulsive acts serve to ______ obsessive thoughts.

neutralize

A friend of yours says, "I'll try to see only the positive side of things and then everything will be OK!" From a cognitive perspective, your friend is:

neutralizing

Cognitive theorists have found that people who develop obsessive-compulsive disorder also:

believe their thoughts are capable of causing hart to themselves and others

Which one of these descriptors would be LEAST likely to describe someone experiencing obsessive-compulsive disorder, according to the cognitive perspective?

Let the good times roll. Don't worry about tomorrow

Antidepressants that are effective in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder serve to:

increase serotonin actively in the brain

For an antidepressant to be effective against obsessive-compulsive disorder, it must:

increase serotonin activity

A neurologist who was working with a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder would be suspicious of abnormality in what region of the brain?

caudate nuclei

Which of the following brain areas have been implicated in obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

the orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate nuclei

If you were taking an antidepressant that increases levels of serotonin and improved brain function for symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, you could expect that:

it would lead to short term relief but relapse wold occur if you stopped medication

The most current research we have suggests that reductions in activity levels in the caudate nuclei among people with obsessive-compulsive disorder result from:

both medications and cognitive-behavioral therapies

A clinician who is not up-to-date uses the term "excessive behaviors" to describe a category of disorder. According to the DSM-5, that category is now called:

obsessive-compulsive-related disorders

If you really wanted to impress your friends, you would refer to "hair-pulling disorder" by the scientific name:

trichotillomania

Someone with skin-picking disorder would be LEAST likely to pick skin in which area of the body?

abdomen

My office is a mess; graded tests are in piles on my desk, overflowing bookshelves line the walls, and research materials from years ago occupy boxes on the floor. If I am experiencing a diagnosable disorder, it would MOST likely be in what category?

obsessive-compulsive-related disorders

Which of the following is not usually true of body dysmorphic disorder?

most disorder specific behaviors would not be considered normal for a teenager

Which of the following behavior patterns is NOT listed in the DSM-5 as an
obsessive-compulsive-related disorder?

most disorder-specific behaviors would be considered "normal" for a teenager

Your abnormal psychology instructor asks in class, "What kinds of treatments are commonly used to treat obsessive-compulsive-related disorders?" Confidently (and accurately), you reply:

exposure therapies and antidepressant drugs

Someone you know who has body dysmorphic disorder is considering plastic surgery. Based on available research, what is your BEST advice?

exposure therapy and antidepressant drugs

Someone you know has "tanorexia," and constantly tries to achieve a darker complexion through sun and tanning booth exposure. The MOST accurate diagnosis for this person is:

no diagnosis; "tanorexia" is not yet considered a DSM disorder

People who have a biological vulnerability for anxiety, which is then triggered by social and psychological factors, may develop anxiety disorders, according to the:

diathesis-stress model

A comprehensive approach that involves several techniques in treating anxiety disorders is called:

a stress management program

Poor health is BEST described as a:

stressor

A person who copes well with a happy event in life is showing a positive:

stress response

Having to walk the dog several times a day when it is raining is an example of a:

stressor

Looking for rainbows while walking the dog in the rain is an example of a:

stress response

In the face of fear, someone is unable to concentrate and develops a distorted and irrational view of the world. This person is showing which of the following fear responses?

cognitive

A student who fears being called on in class, and in fact panics at the thought of public speaking, is experiencing a(n) ______ response to stress.

emotional

A student who turns pale and feels nauseated when called on to speak in class is experiencing a(n) ______ response to stress.

physical

The statement, "This is awful, but I guess I can deal with it like I do everything else," MOST impacts one's:

stress response

What do acute and posttraumatic stress disorder have in common with dissociative disorders?

symptoms

In terms of their DSM diagnostic categorization, which of the following pairs belong together?

acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

The part of the body that releases hormones into the bloodstream is the ______ system.

endocrine

In response to a threat, we perspire, breathe more quickly, get goose bumps, and feel nauseated. These responses are controlled by the:

sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following accurately describes the sympathetic nervous system pathway of the stress response?

The hypothalamus excites the sympathetic nervous system, which then excites body organs to release hormones that serve as neurotransmitters, causing even more arousal.

The gland that produces a hormone that is involved in the reaction to fearful and stressful situations is the:

adrenal

Imagine that you just had a "close call" while driving, but now you feel your body returning to normal. Which part of your nervous system is controlling this return to normalcy?

parasympathetic nervous system

The group of hormones that appears to be most involved in arousal and fear reaction are the:

corticosteroids

Which of the following accurately describes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway of the stress response?

The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary that produces a stress hormone that causes the adrenal gland to release corticosteroids

A teammate of a basketball player says, "Congratulations on making those game-winning free throws. Weren't you bothered by the fans waving their arms behind the basket?" The basketball player replies, "Thanks. I felt a little nervous, but to tell the truth, I didn't even notice the fans." Most likely, the player who made the foul shots has:

low trait anxiety, but high situational anxiety.

I am generally a calm, relaxed person. If you are generally a tense, excitable person, we differ in:

trait anxiety

For me, crossing a bridge is terrifying. If you hardly notice crossing a bridge, we differ in:

State anxiety

Some people are stimulated by exciting, potentially dangerous activities that terrify others. These varying reactions represent differences in:

state anxiety

Norepinephrine is to ______ as corticosteroid is to ______.

sympathetic pathway; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway

If a deer jumps out in front of you while you are driving, which part of the stress response is active?

Sympathetic nervous system

If I have a severe fear of flying, we know that I have a high level of:

we can't tell; it might be trait or state anxiety or both

A person who witnessed a horrible accident and then became unusually anxious and depressed for 3 weeks is probably experiencing:

acute stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorders:

last longer than a month

A pattern of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and flashbacks that begins shortly after a horrible event and persists for less than a month is called:

acute stress disorder

One distinction that DSM-5 makes between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder is based on:

how long the anxiety symptoms last

Dorian was only 10 miles away when Mt. St. Helens exploded with one of the largest blasts in history. There was ash and lava everywhere, and he was terrified and sure he was going to die.. When rescue teams found him a week later, he was cold, hungry, and scared. More than a year later he still has nightmares and wakes up in a cold sweat. This description BEST fits a(n):

posttraumatic stress disorder

Salina was terrified during the San Francisco earthquake of 1989 (who wouldn't be!). For a couple of weeks after, she did not sleep well or feel comfortable inside a building. However, gradually the fears diminished, and they disappeared within a month. Her reaction to the earthquake would MOST likely be diagnosed as a(n):

acute stress disorder

Almost every night, Cara wakes up terrified and screaming for the boys to get off her. Two years later she still can't get the gang rape out of her mind. The fear, anxiety, and depression are ruining her life. This is an example of a(n):

posttraumatic stress reaction

A pattern of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and flashbacks that persists for years after a horrible event is called:

posttraumatic stress disorder

Which of the following is the BEST example of "reduced responsiveness" as it relates to posttraumatic stress disorder?

feeling detached or estranged from other and loss of interest in activities

Which of the following does NOT characterize stress disorders?

a compulsive need to engage in activities that remind one of the event

Which of the following is typical of posttraumatic stress disorder?

increased arousal, anxiety, and guilt

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who is upset by what she or he had to do to survive and perhaps even feels unworthy of surviving is:

experiencing increased anger, anxiety, and guilt

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who is having "flashbacks" is:

re-experiencing the traumatic event

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who refuses to talk about it is:

experiencing avoidance

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who has symptoms of derealization is:

experiencing reduced responsiveness

When was acute stress disorder as a result of combat (called "shell shock") first recognized?

after World War 1

Those who are MOST likely to experience a psychological stress disorder are:

female, or low income individuals

Years after the U.S. Civil War was over, many veterans diagnosed with "melancholia" or "soldier's heart" still experienced vivid flashbacks of their combat experiences, as well as nightmares and guilt about what they had done. Today, their MOST likely diagnosis would be:

posttraumatic stress disorder

Based on recent research, it can be concluded that the impact of repeated combat deployments:

significantly increases one's risk of developing PT

A friend says, "If we could just eliminate combat traumas, we could eliminate a great deal of posttraumatic stress disorder." Of the following choices, your MOST accurate answer would be:

Yes, although civilian trauma causes many more cases of PTSD than combat trauma does.

Which of the following is the MOST common experience for a veteran of the Iraq/Afghanistan wars?

seeing friends seriously wounded or killed

How concerned should we be about victims of sexual assault and terror? Is there a very great risk that they will experience PTSD?

Yes the risk is great; over a third of sexual assault victims and about half of terror victims experience PTSD

Which one of the following statements about rape is MOST accurate?

Most rape victims are young

In which of the following racial groups is a woman's risk of being raped the greatest, relative to the group's percentage of the population?

African Americans

Which one of the following statements about the long-term effects of rape on women is MOST accurate?

Rape impacts a woman's psychological and physical health

What proportion of women are the victims of rape at some point during their lifetime?

1/6

Surveys suggest that about what percent of female rape victims in the United States are teenagers, or younger?

over 60%

What percentage of rape victims qualified for diagnosis of acute stress disorder in Rothbaum, et. al.'s (1992) study?

94%

These days, many people experience disasters secondhand through the media.. Studies show that watching coverage of disasters:

increases the likelihood of watchers developing stress disorders.

Those MOST likely to experience substantial stress symptoms after the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001:

live near the attack site

A torture victim who is subjected to threats of death, mock executions, and degradation is experiencing what type of torture?

live near the attack site

Investigators have shown that traumatic events are related to abnormal activity of the neurotransmitter:

norepinephrine

Current research suggests that those who experience severe stress:

have abnormal levels of norepinephrine and cortisol following the trauma

A person's levels of cortisol and norepinephrine are in the normal range. MOST likely, that person is experiencing:

no stress disorder

The torturers on the TV show Homeland who made Brady think he had killed and buried his fellow soldier were engaging in what kind of torture?

psychological

What do we know about the inheritance of PTSD?

Women who have high cortisol levels tend to have children with high cortisol levels

Based on current research, what is the BEST conclusion about the cause of acute and posttraumatic stress disorders? Is nature or nurture more responsible for these disorders?

it's probably an interaction. both nature and nurture are important

Based on current research, what is the relationship between personality and stress disorders?

Personality characteristics are related to both the development of stress disorders and recovery from them

The MOST common diagnosis for making insurance claims is:

adjustment disorder

About 30 percent of those receiving outpatient therapy are diagnosed with an adjustment disorder. Some experts say adjustment disorders are:

overdiagnosed, because they are easy to apply to many problems and are less stigmatizing than other diagnoses

Someone you know has just been diagnosed with an adjustment disorder. You can be reasonably sure that this person's disorder is:

not in the normal range of functioning, but less severe than acute distress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

The MOST likely people to develop stress disorders are:

anxious, and think they cannot control negative things that happen to them

Research suggests that which of the following would be MOST likely NOT to develop a stress disorder following trauma?

someone who believes that vents are generally under his or her control

The people MOST likely to develop stress disorders lived their childhood in:

poverty, and had parents who divorced when they were younger than 10 years old

After Marie's plane crashed, her mother came to stay with her. Her friends visited often, and went to lunch and dinner with her occasionally. This situation, which probably contributed to Marie's coping ability after the accident, relates to ______ as a factor in her response to the stress.

social support

Several studies have demonstrated that Hispanic American combat veterans and police officers have higher rates of PTSD than other veterans or officers. Research into the causes of this difference have MOST often focused on possible:

cultural belief system and social support causes.

Kelly was in a passenger plane that had engine trouble. She watched as all four engines stopped, one at a time. Then the plane exploded and she was thrown free 5,000 feet in the air. It was a miracle that she survived, though severely injured, because she landed in a thick pine forest covered with 10 feet or more of snow. When she regained consciousness several weeks later, she had a stress reaction that lasted for years, and she could never fly again. The factor that probably contributed most to her extreme posttraumatic stress reaction was:

the severity of the trauma

A friend says to you, "I know someone who is a combat veteran who was just diagnosed with PTSD. Do you think therapy will help this person?" Which of the following is the BEST answer you can give based on current research?

Probably- about two thirds of those receiving therapy for PTSD eventually show improvement

A combat veteran receiving the best treatment for a stress disorder would be likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT:

antipsychotic medication

A combat veteran undergoing "eye movement desensitization and reprocessing" is experiencing which general form of therapy?

exposure therapy

"The therapist wants me to imagine scenes where I was in combat and imagine them like I was there. I don't want to do that. How can this possibly help me?" Which of the following is the BEST answer you can give to a combat veteran who says this?

Your therapist is suggesting an effective form of exposure called 'flooding.'

A returning combat veteran with a stress disorder would MOST likely be in ______, to help change dysfunctional attitudes and styles of interpretation that resulted from the trauma.

cognitive therapy

Combat veterans in a therapy group express a great deal of guilt and rage. MOST likely, the veterans are in a(n):

rap group

A flash flood hits a small Appalachian community. Those providing critical incident stress debriefing intervention would:

provide short-term counseling services

Ideally, critical incident stress debriefing occurs:

immediately, and is short term.

If someone asked you about the effectiveness of psychological debriefing following a disaster, based on research, you would be MOST correct in saying that:

there is limited evidence that debriefing works

Based on research studies, which of the following statements about the effectiveness of psychological debriefing following a disaster would be MOST accurate?

Debriefing doesn't work too well, it might even make victims worse.

A person experiencing multiple personalities would MOST accurately be diagnosed with dissociative:

identity disorder

If you had lost your sense of identity, which of the following would MOST likely be disrupted?

your memory

Dissociative disorders:

involve major changes in memory

Which diagnosis includes a breakdown in sense of self, a significant alteration in memory or identity, and even a separation of one part of the identity from another part?

dissociative disorder

A feeling of detachment from oneself could be diagnosed as PTSD or depersonalization disorder. How would one decide which diagnosis is BEST?

by considering which symptoms predominated

People who are unable to recall important information about themselves, especially of an upsetting nature, are MOST likely experiencing:

dissociative amnesia

In the most common type of dissociative amnesia, a person loses memory for:

all events beginning with the trauma but within a limited period of time

After a major earthquake, television coverage showed survivors shuffling confusedly through the ruined buildings. If such victims later could not remember the days immediately after the earthquake, the victims would be suffering from what type of amnesia?

localized

Mary Ann experiences a mugging and robbery in which her prized poodle is kidnapped. Eventually the dog is found and returned. However, she is unable to recall events immediately following the attack, up until the safe return of the dog. This is a classic example of:

localized amnesia

Gwendolyn is held up at knifepoint and her young son is kidnapped. Eventually, her son is found and returned. However, she is unable to recall events that occurred since the attack, although she remembers some new experiences; worse still, she finds that she is forgetting events that occurred even before the attack. This is a classic example of:

generalized amnesia

Carlotta is attacked in the street and her young daughter is kidnapped. Eventually, the police find her daughter and she is returned to her mother. However, Carlotta is unable to recall events that have occurred since the attack. She is even unable to retain new information; she remembers what happened before the attack but cannot remember new and ongoing experiences. This is a classic example of:

continuous amnesia

Ever since the auto accident, during which Pat was miraculously unhurt, Pat has not been the same. Pat forgets appointments, friends' names, and even things done in the last few days. Pat's amnesia is termed:

continuous

Combat veterans are MOST likely to report symptoms of:

localized amnesia

A person, years after committing a serious crime, is found living under a false identity over 1,000 miles from where the person used to live. The person's memory of the crime, and of other earlier events, is intact. MOST likely this is a case of:

no mental disorder

Which of the following is NOT an example of memory recovery techniques used by therapists?

drug induced memory

A personality change that often accompanies dissociative fugues is that people become:

more outgoing

Dissociative fugues usually:

...

Of the following alternatives, which is the BEST way of differentiating between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue?

those with dissociative fugue travel

An individual who had suffered from dissociative fugue likely would have experienced all of the following EXCEPT:

a recurrence of the problem months or years later

Of the following disorders, the one for which an individual would LEAST likely need therapy to avoid a recurrence and to recover lost memories is:

dissociative fugue

client who is talking calmly and rationally, all of a sudden begins whining and complaining like a spoiled child. If that client has a diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder, the client just experienced:

switching

A person with dissociative identity disorder has just experienced "switching." Which of the following MOST likely has happened?

the person has changed from one subpersonality to another

One who suffers from dissociative identity disorder is MOST likely to be a:

woman who was physically abused as a child

Alexis has multiple personality disorder. When one of her personalities, Jodi, is asked about another one, Tom, she claims ignorance. Tom has never heard of Jodi either. This would be called a:

mutually amnesic relationship

When all of the subpersonalities in a person with dissociative identity disorder are aware of one another, it is termed a:

mutually cognizant pattern

Raymond has multiple personality disorder. All of his subpersonalities talk about and tattle on each other. This is called a:

mutually cognizant pattern

In case of multiple personality, "Pat" is aware of the existence of "Jerry" and "Chris," but "Jerry" and "Chris," are not aware of the existence of the other personalities. This form of subpersonality relationship is called:

one-way amnesic

Juanita has dissociative personality disorder. Big Tony and Smart Alice are two personalities who are aware of all of the others. None of her other personalities are aware of each other. This would be called a:

one-way amnestic relationship

Jason has dissociative identity disorder. Fat Freddy and Carmen are two personalities who are aware of all of the others, but do not interact with them. Fat Freddy and Carmen would be described as:

co-conscious.

Modern studies suggest that the average number of subpersonalities in cases of multiple personality in women is about:

15, and is lower for men

An individual who formerly knew how to speak a foreign language and play a musical instrument, can no longer remember how to as a result of a dissociative disorder. The dissociative disorder MOST likely is:

dissociative identity

The BEST example of the subpersonalities in dissociative identity disorder differing in their vital statistics occurs when:

one personality is a woman and the other is a man

That some subpersonalities might be able to drive and others might not, demonstrates the different ______ of multiple personalities.

abilities and preferences

Research on evoked potential with people with dissociative identity disorder has revealed that:

different subpersonalities have shown different brain response patterns

If a researcher believes that dissociative identity disorders are iatrogenic, that researcher believes that dissociative identity disorders:

cannot be measured using standard personality test

One very interesting study investigated the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder, and the physiological responses of the "subpersonalities" of those instructed to fake dissociative identity disorder. The study showed that the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder:

differed from one another, but the sub personalities of those faking dissociative identity disorder did not

How do results from evoked potential studies support the idea of the existence of multiple personalities?

Different subpersonalities have been found to show different brain wave patterns

In the United States, the number of diagnosed cases per year of dissociative identity disorder:

has increased

To what can we attribute much of the dramatic rise in the number of reported cases of dissociative identity disorder in recent years?

A growing belief by clinicians that this is an authentic disorder

A psychodynamic theorist would use repression as the chief explanation for all dissociative disorders EXCEPT:

A psychodynamic theorist would use repression as the chief explanation for dissociative identity disorder, dissociative fugue, and dissociative amnesia

Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative amnesias and fugues result from:

repression

"An abused child's thoughts occasionally drift to other, less anxiety-arousing topics; this anxiety reduction thus serves to strengthen 'other' thoughts, while weakening the thoughts about abuse." A psychologist with which theoretical background would be MOST likely to offer this quotation as an explanation for the development of dissociative disorders?

behavioral

In addition to failing to explain why some people who experience severe trauma do not develop dissociative disorders, behavioral theorists also have the MOST difficulty explaining how:

temporary escape from painful memories grows into a complex disorder

Which of the following hypotheses used to explain dissociative disorders is shared by psychodynamic and behavioral theorists?

they serve to help someone escape something unpleasant

The chief sources of data used to support the theories of psychodynamic and behavioral clinicians are:

case studies

Kevin studies his history notes and textbook while he is drinking beer. According to some theorists, Kevin would later do better on his history exam if he also had alcohol in his system while taking the exam. These theorists would be basing their claim on:

state-dependent learning

Laurent has three subpersonalities. Jackie emerges when Laurent is in an awkward social situation, Grace surfaces during sporting events, and Carlos appears when Laurent is angry. The therapist believes that the mood and conditions under which each subpersonality appears are critical to understanding this disorder, demonstrating a belief in:

state dependent learning

If you studied for this exam while you were unusually happy, you will probably do BEST taking it while you are:

unusually happy

If the state-dependent learning explanation of dissociative disorders is correct, a person may not remember stressful events because he or she is:

at a different arousal level after the stress is over.

Just after doing well in an intramural basketball game—something which left me very happy, and in a high state of excitement—I sat down and studied for my abnormal psychology test. Research shows I would perform best on that test if, at the time of the test, I was:

happy and excited

Which of the following has been proposed as a possible cause of dissociative disorders?

Self-hypnosis

What characteristic is MOST common to both self-hypnosis and dissociative identity disorder?

the ability to escape threatening events

What conclusion does research on hypnosis and hypnotic amnesia support?

Dissociative disorders are similar to behaviors seen in hypnotic amnesia

A child in an extremely abusive family situation often seems to become deaf to the verbal abuse, and insensitive to the physical abuse, as if the child simply wasn't there experiencing the abuse. One explanation of this behavior is:

self-hypnosis

Individuals experiencing dissociative amnesia sometimes are given sodium amobarbital or sodium pentobarbital because those drugs:

Calm people and reduce their inhibitions

What treatment approach is often used in cases of dissociative amnesia and fugue?

hypnotherapy

I was running down a familiar country lane when all of a sudden nothing looked familiar. It took me several seconds to realize where I was, and I continued my run without incident. What I experienced was:

Jamais Vu

Just before 8 A.M. (when my first class meets), my young daughter did something that annoyed me as I was about to leave home for the short drive to campus. "Katie," I said, "what do I always say at a time like this?" She looked at the clock and then said to me, "What you say is, 'Where are my keys?'" My daughter was apparently familiar with my:

absentmindedness

A strong "feeling of knowing" is associated with which of the following?

the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

A visual image that is retained so vividly that one can continue to scan it for more information is called:

an eidetic image

Psychodynamic therapy may be particularly effective in the treatment of dissociative disorders because:

psychodynamic therapy often tries to recover lost memories

A person diagnosed with a dissociative disorder has recovered almost completely, even though the person had not received any therapy. That person was LEAST likely to have been diagnosed with:

Dissociative Amnesia

People with which dissociative disorder typically do not eventually recover without receiving treatment?

dissociative identity disorder

What effect has the use of sodium amobarbital had in treating dissociative amnesia and fugue?

Results are mixed, successful with some patients and not with others

In the treatment of dissociative amnesia, sodium amobarbital and sodium pentobarbital work by:

freeing people from their inhibitions, thus allowing them to recall unpleasant events

The first step in treating people with dissociative identity disorder is to:

bond with the primary personality

The usual goal of therapy for dissociative identity disorders is to:

merge the subpersonalities into a single identity

A client receiving treatment for identity disorder is progressing well through therapy; then, fusion occurs. Most likely, the client has:

merged the final two or more subpersonalities.

At a workshop about multiple personality disorder, a therapist says, "In my experience, once integration begins, the need for therapy is practically over, and later dissociations just don't happen." This therapist's experience is:

very unusual: most successful therapies last well beyond the beginning of integration

The effects of taking hallucinogens, accompanied by feelings that objects are changing size, that other people are distorted, and that one might be mechanical—is MOST similar to:

depersonalization

If you were to experience "doubling," you would MOST likely feel that:

your mind were floating above your actual body

Depersonalization ______, while derealization ______.

refers to oneself: refers to the external world

Someone who is experiencing "doubling" is:

feeling like his or her mind is floating above him or her

If a person's mental functioning or body feels unreal or foreign, the person is MOST likely suffering from:

depersonalization

Feeling that your hands and feet are smaller or bigger than usual or that you are in a dreamlike state is called:

doubling

When a person feels that the external world is removed, mechanical, distorted, or even "dead," he or she is experiencing:

derealization

I have just arrived in a city where I know no one, and English is not spoken by very many people. I feel as though my mind is separating from my body, and I am actually observing myself do things. What I am experiencing is:

temporary depersonalization

Transient depersonalization and derealization:

can be induced by a life threatening experience

Depersonalization disorder is most common among those who are:

adolescents and young adults

If I suffer from depersonalization disorder, but the symptoms disappear after a while, they most likely will reappear if I:

Survive a bad car accident

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate about depersonalization disorder?

Depersonalization disorder usually comes on suddenly and may be triggered by extreme fatigue, intense stress or pain

Just before debuting at Carnegie Hall, the pianist suffered paralysis of the left hand. Which of the following BEST describes her disorder?

conversion disorder

A 35-year-old woman hobbles into the office of a physician complaining of a debilitating illness that has robbed her of the use of her left leg and right arm. The physician finds no physical basis for her symptoms. She appears totally unaware that the cause of her symptoms may be psychological. The diagnosis would be:

conversion disorder

Abnormalities that are thought to have both biological and psychological causes are:

somatoform disorders

René Descartes' mind-body dualism is:

inconsistent with modern views of the relationship between the mind and bodily illnesses

Which of the following is an example of malingering?

intentionally faking a back problem to avoid military service

Which of the following is TRUE about factitious disorders?

Those with factitious disorder are not trying to achieve some external gain by faking illness

A man appeared at the emergency room complaining of bloody diarrhea. The doctor who examined him found that the man was intentionally creating the diarrhea through use of laxatives and anticoagulant medication, and liked being a patient. The man is MOST likely:

experiencing a factitious disorder.

Having a background in medicine, but also a grudge against the profession, puts a person at risk for:

a factitious disorder

Someone who has Munchausen syndrome, by definition, also has:

A factitious disorder

A woman complains of an assortment of physiological ailments. You think that she is intentionally producing the physical symptoms in order to appear sick, which fills some psychological need. You would diagnose:

factitious disorder

Sarah brings her young daughter into the emergency room with internal bleeding. The attending physician later concludes that Sarah caused the symptoms in her daughter intentionally, caused by a need to gain attention and praise for her devoted care of her sick child. If this assessment is correct, Sarah would be diagnosed as having:

Munchausen syndrome by proxy

If a chronically ill child was removed from home and placed in foster care, and then became quite healthy, one might suspect that the parent (usually the mother) was experiencing:

a factitious disorder

Munchausen syndrome is a:

...

Munchausen syndrome by proxy is MOST likely to adversely affect the physical well-being of:

the child of the person experiencing it

Which of the following is a MAIN characteristic of an individual with Munchausen syndrome by proxy?

Emotionally needy

A person experiencing blindness, paralysis, or loss of feeling may also be said to be displaying:

Conversion Disorder

Which of the following is likely to be useful in distinguishing conversion or somatic symptom disorders from true medical problems?

the failure of a condition to develop as expected

Which of the following would lead you to suspect a conversion disorder rather than medical symptoms?

Uniform and even numbness in the damaged hand

Conversion disorders are MORE common in:

less educated populations

Conversion disorders MOST often appear between:

Late Childhood and young adulthood

The patient had several surgeries over the years for vague and nonspecific sexual reproductive problems, visiting many of the top hospitals in the East during the course of treatment. The BEST diagnosis for this disorder is:

Somatic Symptom Disorder

Somatic symptom disorders differ from conversion disorders in that:

conversions disorders usually last less time

A patient with a heart condition complained of adhesions from the scar, leg cramps, and joint stiffness. He seemed to be hurting all over, but no medical reason could be found to explain the symptoms. The BEST diagnosis for this disorder is:

somatic symptom disorder (predominant pain pattern)

If a person complains of a wide variety of physical symptoms over a period of time in the absence of a physical basis for the symptoms, the diagnosis would MOST likely be:

somatization disorder

Madeline appeared at the clinic complaining of pain in her knee, shoulder, and abdomen, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and exhaustion. The patient history revealed that she had been going to clinics for years trying to get treatment for these complaints and a host of other physical symptoms. The diagnostic consensus was that Madeline suffered from:

Somatic Symptom Disorder

A woman has experienced a wide range of vague but disturbing physical symptoms over a period of several years. Doctors cannot find a cause for the problems; medically, the woman appears normal. Based on this information, the BEST diagnosis would be:

somatic symptom disorder ( somatization disorder)

The relationship between gender and somatic symptom disorder generally is that:

more women than men are diagnosed with both somatization pattern and predominant pain pattern forms of somatic symptom disorder

A woman has close female relatives diagnosed with a somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder. According to research, her probability of being diagnosed with the same disorder is about:

20%

An individual develops somatic symptom disorder after a near-fatal car crash. The diagnosis:

is less likely to be somatization pattern then predominant pain pattern

About what percentage of American men experience a somatic symptom disorder in a given year?

less than 1%

If you looked in Jeanette's medicine cabinet, you would find dozens of prescriptions and even more over-the-counter medications. Every time she sneezes, Jeanette is sure she has the latest deadly flu, although no physician has ever found anything wrong with her. Jeanette probably suffers from:

somatic symptom disorder

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, a person who today is diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder would MOST likely have been diagnosed with:

Briquet's syndrome

Which statement BEST reflects our understanding of hysterical disorders?

The causes of hysterical disorders are poorly understood, with no theory predominate in aiding understanding

Disorders that represent the conversion of conflicts and anxiety into physical symptoms would include:

Conversion Disorders

According to the psychodynamic view, conversion disorder symptoms function to keep unacceptable thoughts and conflicts out of consciousness. This is called:

primary

It was convenient when Rowena awoke blind. She had been terrified about testifying and now she did not have to. This is an example of:

Secondary Gain

Freud believed that "hysterical" symptoms:

represented a conversion of underlying emotional conflict into physical symptoms

A woman who is particularly threatened by any display of anger becomes unable to speak when she is most angry with her husband, thereby keeping the anger out of her awareness. According to psychodynamic theorists, she is achieving ______ from her illness.

Primary Gain

If a man's behavior elicited kindness and sympathy from his wife when he was mute, he would be receiving ______ gains from his behavior.

Secondary

Every time Miguel had a headache, his mother let him miss school. Now, as an adult, his headaches have become more frequent. His head pounds any time he is required to do something he would rather not. This is a ______ explanation of conversion symptoms.

behavioral

If a therapist believed that a person was displaying conversion disorder symptoms because the symptoms helped the person avoid unpleasant situations, you would think that the therapist was:

a psychoanalyst or a behaviorist.

"It's obvious that the patient observed friends who had symptoms of illness, then imitated those symptoms to get attention," says the therapist. MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical perspective?

behavioral

The first time the patient reported vague chest pains to 911, local EMTs responded with obvious attention and concern. Over the months, the patient called 911 more and more often, receiving the same concerned care for the same symptoms. This pattern of patient response is MOST easily explained by which theoretical perspective?

Behavioral

If you were a therapist with a behavioral view, which of the following questions would you be MOST likely to ask someone you suspected might have a somatic symptom disorder?

has any friend of yours had similar symptoms recently?

The MAIN criticism of the behavioral and psychodynamic explanations for the maintenance of hysterical disorders is that:

They can't explain how the gains can outweigh the pain of the disorder

That people with somatic symptom disorders use their symptoms to express emotions that they cannot easily express otherwise reflects the:

Cognitive View

A cognitive theorist would be MOST likely to say which of the following about hysterical disorders?

The patient is otherwise unable to communicate difficult emotions.

Residents of Japan are more likely than residents of the United States to show higher rates of somatic complaints, MOST likely reflecting:

a Western bias that sees somatization as an inferior way to handle emotions

An individual who has been diagnosed with a somatic symptom disorder would MOST likely first seek:

Medical help

A therapist treating an individual with a conversion disorder works to reduce pleasurable outcomes associated with being sick, while increasing pleasurable outcomes associated with being well. This technique is called:

reinforcement

Albert had finally had enough of his inability to walk, and he went to a psychologist who told him there was nothing medically wrong. The therapist was using the treatment approach of:

confrontation

Based on evidence from case studies, the BEST advice you could give someone who is experiencing a conversion disorder about seeking treatment is:

approaches using suggestion, reinforcement and confrontation are often used.

Behavioral therapists treating a conversion disorder would be MOST likely to focus on:

reducing the rewards available for displaying the disorder

Imagine someone gets hit in the nose by a batted ball. The latest research suggests that swearing will:

reduce pain

"Medical student's disease," which is the tendency for medical students to experience the symptoms of diseases they are studying, is MOST similar to:

illness anxiety disorder

When I took abnormal psychology as an undergraduate, I was convinced I had symptoms of many of the earlier disorders we covered. As soon as we moved on to new disorders, though, I was convinced I had some of their symptoms, as well. My experiences were similar to those of some people with a form of illness anxiety disorder sometimes called:

"medical student's disease"

"It seems to me that people with illness anxiety disorder simply model what they see others doing." A person with which theoretical view would be MOST likely to say this?

Behavioral

A therapist treating a client with illness anxiety disorder repeatedly shows the client how the client's body is less than perfect, while not allowing the client to seek medical attention. MOST likely, the therapist's viewpoint is:

behavioral and the therapy is called exposure and response prevention

Increasingly concerned about my minor heartbeat irregularities, I think that my health is being threatened, and more and more often I misinterpret my body's normal signals. Which viewpoint BEST explains my experiences?

Cognitive

An example of evidence for psychophysiological disorders is that:

ulcers, asthma, insomnia, and chronic headaches probably have physical and psychological causes

All of the following are considered traditional psychophysiological disorders EXCEPT:

cancer

About what percent of the U.S. population experience insomnia in a given year?

25%

A friend of yours has just been diagnosed with a dyssomnia. Your friend's particular diagnosis could be any of the following EXCEPT:

Nightmare Disorder

A person diagnosed with sleep apnea is MOST likely to be someone who:

Snores and is overweight

Narcolepsy is a:

Biological disorder often triggered by strong emotions

A person feels well rested during the day, does not have burning sensations in the stomach, and is experiencing a great deal of stress. If you are told this person has a psychophysiological disorder, your BEST guess about what the disorder is would be:

Hypertension

If your parent has just been diagnosed with essential hypertension, the physician would think your parent's hypertension:

Has both physical and psychological causes

Surveys show that people are LEAST likely to do which of the following in order to relieve stress?

Drink alcoholic beverages

If you are similar to most other people, which of the following are you MOST likely to do to relieve stress?

Watch tv, read, or listen to music

Which of the following BEST illustrates the interaction of psychosocial and physical factors in the development of a medical condition?

Hypertension cause by obesity and constant stress

A graph that shows a spike in deaths due to heart attacks on the day in which a community experienced a significant disaster demonstrates that:

Stress plays an important role in coronary heart disease and deaths

Obesity and lack of exercise have been linked MOST closely to which of the following psychophysiological disorders?

Coronary heart disease

A friend of yours has been diagnosed as having a high risk for coronary heart disease. His high risk is MOST likely due to:

An interactions of psychosocial and physiological factors

A person who has difficulty expressing unpleasant emotions such as anger or hostility is displaying a ______.

Repressive coping style

Of the following, the individual at MOST risk of developing heart disease is:

Type A, Hostile

People who are consistently angry, impatient, competitive, driven, and ambitious, are displaying a ______ and are at greater risk for heart disease.

Type A personality

Which of the following aspects of Type A personality make a person MOST vulnerable to heart disease?

Hostility and time urgency

Researchers have found a link between Type A personality and:

Coronary heart disease

Hypertension is more common among African Americans than among white Americans. Psychosocial stressors that can explain this difference include all of the following EXCEPT:

Evolutionary factors making African Americans more susceptible to hypertension

Hypertension is more common among African Americans than among white Americans. If someone believes this is because African Americans are more likely to live in dangerous areas, work at unsatisfying jobs, and suffer discrimination, this person is emphasizing the role of ______ factors in the development of the disorder.

Sociocultural

Recent research shows that high levels of anxiety and other emotional problems among those living in poverty may be caused by:

Physiological changes resulting from stress

Compared to white Americans and African Americans, Hispanic Americans have:

Lower rates of high blood pressure and lower rates of high cholesterol

Compared to white Americans and African Americans, Hispanic Americans have the lowest prevalences:

For both cancer and high blood pressure

If someone were to correlate scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, and look at the relationship between stress and illness, that person would MOST likely find:

A significant positive correlation

Of the following, the MOST serious limitation of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale is that it:

Does not take into account the stresses of diverse populations

Research using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale indicates that:

The greater the life stress, the greater the chances of illness

Which of the following would you NOT find on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?

Exercise

Which of the following individuals is experiencing the MOST stress as measured by the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?

Someone whose spouse has just died

African Americans rate all of the following as MORE stressful than white Americans do, EXCEPT for:

Death of a spouse

If you were working in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, you would be studying:

The links between stress and illness

Foreign invaders of the body that stimulate a response from the immune system are called:

Antigens

The generic term for the white blood cells that react to foreign invaders in the body is:

Lymphocytes

Recent research suggests that stress interferes with human immune system functioning by:

Slowing lymphocyte functioning

The white blood cells that destroy infected body cells are called:

Natural killer T-Cells

The reduction in activity of the immune system when a person is under stress is related to the activity of the neurotransmitter:

Norepinephrine

The effect of norepinephrine and corticosteroids on a body experiencing stress is:

Norepinephrine and corticosteroids increase release during stress, which contributes to increased activity by the sympathetic nervous system. Heightened activity of sympathetic NS leads to heightened response. Long term heightened release however leads to the norepinephrine traveling to the receptors on certain lymphocytes giving them an inhibitory message to stop their activity, slowing down immune functioning. Corticosteroids are also said to contribute to poorer immune system functioning

If you have a high level of cytokines, we know that:

You are at greater risk for heart disease, stroke, and other illnesses

A friend says to you, "I feel like I'm stressed out and sick all the time. What kind of person is LEAST likely to have an immune system as weak as mine?" Your BEST answer is:

An optimist who is highly spiritual

Bayview Child Health Center's medical director, Nadine Burke, has gathered data that suggest children growing up in very stressful environments:

Experience changes in brain chemistry, which make psychological adjustment more difficult

According to Bayview Child Health Center's medical director, Nadine Burke, the BEST approach to use with children who have experienced difficult, traumatic lives is to:

Use a combination of medical and psychological assessment and treatment

What kind of evidence is there in "The Poverty Clinic" article that early interventions with children raised in stressful, traumatic environments are successful?

The evidence has not yet showed the superiority any particular form of therapy

"The Poverty Clinic" provides evidence that a stressful, traumatic early childhood:

Often produces both psychological and physical problems

Which of the following is MOST supported by current research?

Social support seems to aid recovery in cancer patients

If a friend of yours was suffering from hypertension, the BEST advice you could give from the following alternatives is:

Combine medication and relaxation training

Relaxation training, biofeedback, meditation, and hypnosis all illustrate the use of:

Psychological treatments for physical illnesses

According to your text, relaxation training, meditation, and biofeedback have each been used for the treatment of all of the following EXCEPT:

Viral infections

A biofeedback procedure involving an electromyograph (EMG) MOST likely would be used to:

Reduce painful muscle tension

Maureen is learning to warm her hands. She looks at a dial that reflects the output from a heat-sensitive device on her fingers and tries to make the dial go up. This is a form of:

Biofeedback Training

A friend says to you, "I'm thinking about using a psychological procedure to help me deal with my severe back pain. What do you think I should I do?" Based on research evidence, your BEST answer is:

Use whichever one you want, but include medical treatment, too

A patient who treats severe pain by meditating, paying attention to her thoughts and sensations, while remaining nonjudgmental is engaging in:

Mindfulness meditation

Meditation, hypnosis, and cognitive interventions are all useful in:

Controlling pain

People who are coping with severe pain by telling themselves that they can get through it by focusing on the pain ending, and by remembering that they have gotten through it before, are MOST likely to have received which of the following therapies?

Cognitive intervention

One study showed that playing computer games prior to surgery was ______ in relaxing young patients.

More effective than anti-anxiety drugs

"You should work on replacing those negative self-statements with coping self-statements," says a therapist whose view is MOST likely:

Cognitive

A friend says, "I'm going to get some therapy to help reduce my headaches. What do you suggest?" Based on current research on the effectiveness of treatments for stress-related physical disorders, your BEST answer would be:

A combination of psychotherapy and drug therapy works better than any therapy by itself

One of the MAIN findings from the research on the relationship between psychology and physical illness is:

There is a strong relationship between psychology and physical illness

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Fear differs from anxiety in that:

fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more general.

The MOST common mental disorders in the United States are the:

anxiety disorders

Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?

panic disorder

Every once in a while, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on
suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of a(n):

a panic attack

Leila always feels threatened and anxious—imagining something awful is about to
happen. But she is able to work and care for her family, although not as well as she would
like. Leila is probably experiencing:

a generalized anxiety disorder

People with one anxiety disorder are most likely to:

experience another anxiety disorder, too.

A person who is restless, keyed-up, and on edge for no apparent reason is experiencing:

free-floating anxiety

Someone interested in the effects of culture, poverty, and race on the risk for generalized
anxiety disorders, probably represents the ______ perspective.

sociocultural

"Who wouldn’t be afraid all the time? We have bombs, overpopulation, AIDS, and
violent crime everywhere. It is difficult to get a good job unless you understand all that
complicated computer junk." This complaint is consistent with a ______ explanation of
generalized anxiety disorder

socio cultural

Generalized anxiety disorder is more common:

in African Americans than white Americans

One limitation of the sociocultural approach to understanding generalized anxiety
disorders is that it cannot explain:

why everyone who experiences danger doesn’t experience generalized anxiety

According to Freud, children who are prevented from expressing id impulses like
making mud pies, playing war, and exploring their genitals are at risk for developing:

neurotic anxiety

Which theoretical position explains the origin of anxiety disorders as caused by the
development of defense mechanisms for ego protection?

Carl Rogers’ client-centered theory

According to Freud, children who are severely and repeatedly punished for expressing
their id impulses may develop:

Moral Anxiety

According to Freud, a generalized anxiety disorder is most likely to result when:

growing up

"Phobic and generalized anxiety disorders arise when people stop looking at themselves
honestly and with acceptance, and instead deny and distort their true thoughts, emotions,
and behavior." This explanation for anxiety disorders would most likely be offered by:

humanistic theorists

If you criticized everything you did, looking for flaws, and never could measure up to
your personal standards, you would be exhibiting what Carl Rogers called:

conditions of worth

Which theory states that people develop generalized anxiety disorders because they
failed to receive unconditional positive regard as children and evaluate themselves with
conditions of worth?

Humanistic perspective

Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies have in common:

Their lack of strong support from controlled studies

How strong is the evidence supporting the usefulness of client-centered therapy for
those with generalized anxiety disorder?

not very strong: case reports of client-centered therapy’s usefulness are not strongly supported by controlled studies

If I believe that it is a dire necessity for me to be loved or approved of by everyone and
that it is catastrophic if things are not the way I want them, I am displaying:

irrational assumptions

A person who believes that it is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way he
or she would like them to be is displaying a:

maladaptive assumptions

A person who believes that one should be thoroughly competent, adequate, and
achieving in all possible aspects is displaying a:

basic irrational assumptions

Cognitive therapists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is induced by:

maladaptive assumptions

Research on the cognitive explanation for the development of generalized anxiety shows
that people with generalized anxiety symptoms:

excessively worry

The most fitting motto for someone with generalized anxiety disorder is:

"Better safe than sorry."

If you live in a city, own your home and pay taxes, you are least likely to experience
which of the following events next year?

being diagnosed with cancer

Which of the following is an example of a metaworry?

Worrying about worrying

According to "intolerance of uncertainty theory," those with generalized anxiety
disorder are:

likely to overestimate the chances that any negative event will occur.

In terms of cognitive theories explaining generalized anxiety disorder, a good deal of
research supports:

both metacognitive theory and intolerance of uncertainty theory.

Of the following, the best description of the "avoidance theory of generalized anxiety
disorder" is:

Worrying serves to reduce bodily arousal

If your therapist gave you homework that required you to challenge your maladaptive
assumptions and replace them with healthier ones, the therapist would be using:

rational-emotive therapy

The therapy for generalized anxiety disorder developed by Albert Ellis is called

rational-emotive therapy

"Your worries? They’re only thoughts. Don’t try to stop them, but recognize that they’re
thoughts, and don’t let them upset you so much." This quote most likely would come
from someone using which form of therapy for generalized anxiety disorder?

mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy:

receives support in therapy applications for a wide range of disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder

Mindfulness therapy teaches people to accept their worries and live in the present
moment, which is MOST consistent with which theoretical approach?

Cognitive

Until recently, the evidence that generalized anxiety disorder is related to biological
factors came largely from:

family pedigree studies

Evidence in support of the biological understanding of generalized anxiety is supported
by the finding that:

benzodizapines provide relief from anxiety

Benzodiazepines are believed to be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder
because they mimic the effect of ______ at certain receptor sites in the brain.

gamma-aminobutyric acid

GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter believed to be involved in reducing the
excitability of neurons in the brain, has been implicated in the etiology of:

generalized anxiety disorder

GABA is related to:

generalized anxiety disorder

If you wanted a drug to improve the functioning of GABA, you would choose:

benzodiazepines

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?

All of the following are biological treatments for generalized anxiety EXCEPT:

Rational emotive therapy

Which of the following medications works primarily by enhancing GABA?

benzodiazepines

Which of the following is a nondrug biological treatment for anxiety that is in general
use today?

relaxation therapy

Devon is being treated for anxiety. He is connected to an instrument that records muscle
tension. His job is to try to reduce the muscle tension. This is an example of:

biofeedback training

According to current research, using relaxation training to treat generalized anxiety
disorder is:

better than nothing, and about as effective as meditation.

A friend asks you whether to try relaxation training or biofeedback to reduce anxiety.
Based on present research, your BEST answer is:

relaxation training

An intense, persistent, and irrational fear that is accompanied by a compelling desire to
avoid the object of the fear, to the point of interfering with the life of the person is
called:

specific phobia

How do phobias and common fear differ?

a phobia is more intense and persistent and the desire to avoid the object or situation is greater.

Which of the following is true about specific phobias?

Each year about 9% of people in the United States have symptoms of a phobia.

Of the following, those LEAST likely to experience specific phobias are:

white American males

A friend of yours lives in a large city and has a specific phobia about snakes. Research
shows that your friend is MOST likely to be a:

A male friend of yours has been diagnosed with agoraphobia and is receiving treatment. This is:

very uncommon; most people diagnosed with agoraphobia are females and do not receive treatment

A woman you know constantly avoids crowded streets and buildings, and is very reluctant to leave home, even with a friend. Recently, she has experienced extreme, sudden fear every time she enters a crowded street or building. Most likely, this woman would be diagnosed with:

Panic disorder and agoraphobia

Which theoretical position explains the origin of phobias as due to classical conditioning?

behaviorist perspective

When he was 5 years old, Samir was almost struck by lightning while walking through a forest during a rainstorm. Today, he is extremely afraid of trees. A behaviorist would say that Samir has acquired this fear by:

Classical conditioning

While walking through a forest during a rainstorm, 5-year-old Samir was almost struck by lightning. Today, as an adult, he is extremely afraid of trees. What is the conditioned stimulus in the example?

The trees

Davon watched his father run away from a snake in fear. Now he is afraid of snakes. This apparent acquisition of fear of snakes is an example of:

modeling

The process when a learned fear to one stimulus is also elicited by similar stimuli is known as:

stimulus generalization

Little Karen was bitten by a tan pony she was riding at a carnival. The incident left her hurt and frightened. The next month she was visiting her uncle, who had a tan Great Dane (dog). It frightened her even though she had never had a bad experience with a dog. Fear of this dog is an example of:

stimulus generalization

When I was a young child and watching TV with my mother, a mouse ran by. My mother screamed, scaring me. Subsequently, I have been afraid of mice. In this example, my mother’s scream is the:

unconditioned stimulus

When I was a young child and watching TV with my mother, a mouse ran by. My mother screamed, scaring me. Subsequently, I have been afraid of mice. In this example, the mouse is the:

conditioned stimulus

Research has supported all of the following behavioral assumptions EXCEPT:

phobias are always acquired through classical conditioning in humans

Apparently, people develop phobias more readily to such objects as spiders and conditions like the dark than they do to such objects as computers and radios. This observation supports the idea of:

preparedness

If the idea of "preparedness" is accurate, then:

some phobias should be acquired more easily than others

The MAJOR behavioral approaches to treating specific phobias such as flooding and modeling are more generally called:

desensitization, flooding, and modeling

Someone who believes that among our ancestors, those who feared animals, darkness, and heights were more likely to survive long enough to reproduce, represents the ______ explanation of the development of phobias.

evolutionary

You are suffering from arachnophobia. Your therapist first has you go through relaxation training, then has you construct a fear hierarchy, and finally, has you go through a phase of graded pairings of spiders and relaxation responses. This approach is called:

in vivo desensitization

Pairing the thought of feared objects and relaxation training is part of:

covert desensitization

The first step in systematic desensitization treatment is:

relaxation training

A phobic person is taken to a snake-handling convention in order to actually confront snakes as part of desensitization training. This is an example of the:

flooding

A person with a phobia is taught to imagine the feared items as part of desensitization training. This is an example of the:

systematic desensitization

Your fear of spiders is debilitating because you are studying to become an entomologist, which means, as part of your training, you have to study spiders. To treat this phobia, your therapist puts you in a room with spiders, even asking you to handle them. This technique might be used in:

flooding

If you were afraid of dogs and your therapist treated you by interacting with dogs while you watched, you would be receiving:

vicarious conditioning

One procedure used to treat phobic disorders involves having the therapist confront the feared object or situation while the fearful client observes. This is called:

vicarious conditioning

In modeling, the client:

Harry is terrified of the snakes that his 8-year-old son brings home. During his therapy, his therapist demonstrated how to handle them. This is a form of therapy based on:

modeling

A person with a phobia is exposed to computer graphics that simulate real-world situations. This is an example of the:

virtual reality

A person being treated for agoraphobia is gradually learning to leave home and to enter crowded public places. Additionally, the therapist hopes that "outside world" experiences will become more rewarding for the person. The treatment described BEST reflects what theoretical orientation?

behavioral

Assume that someone you know was treated recently for agoraphobia using behavioral therapies such as a form of exposure therapy. Based on your research, your best guess is that this person:

would improve immediately and would maintain improvement a couple of years later

Which one of the following is the BEST example of a general symptom of social anxiety?

apprehension about being evaluated by others

Steve is afraid of eating in public, expecting to be judged negatively and to feel humiliated. As a result, he always makes up excuses when asked out to eat. His diagnosis would MOST likely be:

a social phobia

Which of the following is an example of a specific social anxiety?

fear of public speaking

Jan is very fearful of speaking in public and will do everything she can to avoid that behavior. If her fear is judged to be phobic, the MOST accurate diagnosis would be:

narrow social phobia

More women than men experience all of the following disorders EXCEPT:

obsessive compulsive disorder

An emphasis on the beliefs and expectations that lead someone with social anxiety disorder to overestimate how badly a social interaction went is characteristic of:

Cognitive Theorists

A person recently was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. If this is all the information you have, your BEST guess is that the person is in:

high school, and more likely than average to have a close relative with social anxiety disorder

Research by cognitive theorists on the topic of social anxiety disorder has shown support for the prevalence of all of the following among those with this diagnosis, EXCEPT for:

underestimating how badly the social event went

A friend asks you, "You’re taking an abnormal psychology course; what’s the BEST treatment for social anxiety disorder?" Your BEST research-based answer is:

the best psychotherapy eliminates symptoms as fast and longer than the drug therapy

A friend asks you, "I’ve been diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, and my therapist wants me to use drug therapy, not psychological therapy. What do you think?" Based on current research, your BEST answer would be:

"Some therapists think psychological therapy should always be used, even with drug therapy; there’s less chance of relapse"

A psychotherapist models appropriate social skills for a client with social anxiety disorder, then uses modeling for another client with a phobia for spiders. What the therapist is doing is:

common; modeling is often used in the treatment of these kinds of disorders.

Imagine that you are being treated for social anxiety disorder. Your therapist watches you act out a social scene, points out what you did correctly and incorrectly, and praises you for what you did well. Which behavioral technique did your therapist NOT use?

modeling

Rosa’s heart was racing (from the 4 cups of coffee she had just finished), but she thought she might be having a heart attack. Her fear seemed to be increasing without end. This might be the beginning of a:

panic attack

You notice someone who is sweating, experiencing shortness of breath, choking, feeling dizzy, and is afraid of dying. If what is happening is not a heart attack but an indicator of an anxiety disorder, the person is MOST likely experiencing a:

panic attack

A person who experiences unpredictable panic attacks combined with dysfunctional behavior and thoughts is MOST likely experiencing:

panic disorder

A person experiencing a panic disorder is MOST likely also to have which of the following:

Fear of leaving home

The phobia MOST often associated with panic disorder is:

agoraphobia

The drug treatment that is MOST effective in treating panic disorders is like that used to treat:

depression

Panic disorder appears to be related to abnormal activity of which neurotransmitter?

norepinephrine

Antidepressant drugs are frequently effective in treating panic attacks. This may mean that the disorder is related to levels of the neurotransmitter:

norepinephrine

Imagine that someone yells "Fire!" in a crowded theater, and audience members begin to try to leave the building. Some "panic" and begin pushing their way blindly through the crowd of other people to an exit. This form of "panic" is:

common, and similar to the panic those with panic disorder experience

Which of the following convinces researchers that panic disorder is biologically different from generalized anxiety disorder?

differences in the brain circuitry in the two disorders

The proportion of panic-attack sufferers who are helped at least somewhat by antidepressant drugs is about:

80%

Antidepressants and alprazolam (Xanax) have been found to be successful in treating:

panic attacks

What type of drug is alprazolam (Xanax)?

benxodiazepine

Which one of the following statements about the use of antidepressants, such as Xanax, to treat a panic disorder is MOST accurate?

For the drugs to be effective, one has to keep taking them, even when symptoms are lessened.

The cognitive explanation for panic disorders is that people who have them:

misinterpret the physiological events that are occurring within their bodies

According to cognitive theorists, people experiencing anxiety sensitivity:

interpret their bodily sensations as potentially harmful

People who experience a positive event, get excited, breath harder, have an increase in their heart rate, and then interpret the symptoms as a heart attack, are experiencing what cognitive theorists call:

anxiety sensitivity

Jose and Ted both get racing hearts once in a while. When it happens to Ted, he panics and thinks he is going to die. Gradually, he has developed these panic attacks if he even thinks that his heart is beating strongly. When Jose’s heart starts beating strongly, he looks to his current activity to understand what is producing the sensations (hard work). Ted apparently has a high degree of:

anxiety sensitivity

Imagine that researchers investigating panic disorder gave you a drug that caused you to hyperventilate and your heart to beat rapidly. You would have been given a(n):

biological challenge test

Which of the following therapies is an effective long-term, nonpharmacological treatment for panic attacks that involves teaching patients to interpret their physical sensations accurately?

Cognitive

Which of the following is true about drug and cognitive treatments for panic disorder?
A) Drug treatments are significantly more effective, especially early in the disorder.
B) Cognitive treatment is more effective over time, even if the person continues to
take medication.
C) Both drug treatments and cognitive treatments are effective.
D) Neither drug treatments nor cognitive treatments show much promise.

Both drug treatments and cognitive treatments are effective

When someone checks the stove 10 times to make sure it is turned off before leaving in the morning, that person is exhibiting a(n):

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Religious rituals and superstitious behavior (such as not stepping on cracks) would be considered a compulsive behavior:

when they are time-consuming, interfere with daily function, and cause distress

People who experience obsessions show:

Thoughts that are intrusive and foreign to them

What do obsessions and compulsions have in common?

they both try to alleviate anxiety

Which of the following reflects the MOST common obsessive thought?

if i touch that door knob it will be dirty and contaminated

Sam can’t leave for work without going back into his house and making sure that he has taken all of his writing materials. He does this several times before he allows himself to start the car and drive to work. He is frequently late for work because he is so unsure about remembering everything. Sam is displaying:

a checking compulsion

Those who are anxious unless their books are perfectly lined up on their desks and who must eat the food on their plates in a balanced order are exhibiting a:

balancing compulsion

A professor who puts on rubber gloves before grading papers and religiously avoids any contact with the hands of students is exhibiting a(n):

touching compulsion

A psychodynamic theorist finds that a client is experiencing a battle between anxiety-provoking id impulses and anxiety-reducing ego defense mechanisms. She thinks that this usually unconscious conflict is being played out in an open and obvious manner. She is sure this underlying conflict explains her client’s:

obsessive-compulsive disorder

According to the psychodynamic perspective, if a woman keeps engaging in immoral sexual behavior and repeatedly scrubs her face and hands in response to her thoughts about her behavior:

the immoral images represent id impulses

According to Freud, obsessive-compulsive disorders have their origin in the ______ stage of development:

anal

Psychodynamic therapies as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorders:

appear to work better when used in short-term rather than traditional ways

Behaviorists believe that compulsive behavior:

is reinforced because engaging in it reduces anxiety

According to behaviorists, why do patients engage in compulsive behaviors?

those behaviors reduce anxiety and are thus reinforced

A person with obsessive-compulsive disorder who was told that everyone was required to wear shoes at all times in the house and not to vacuum for a week, would be experiencing what therapy procedure?

Exposure and response prevention

The therapy Eliot is receiving emphasizes dealing with his compulsions, but not his obsessions. In addition, he does "homework" in the form of self-help procedures between therapy sessions. MOST likely, Eliot is receiving which kind of therapy?

behavioral

"Everyone has intrusive and unwanted thoughts. Most people ignore them. But some people blame themselves and expect terrible consequences, so they act in ways they hope will neutralize the thoughts." The type of theorist most likely to agree with this quote would be a:

cognitive theorist

According to cognitive theorists, compulsive acts serve to ______ obsessive thoughts.

neutralize

A friend of yours says, "I’ll try to see only the positive side of things and then everything will be OK!" From a cognitive perspective, your friend is:

neutralizing

Cognitive theorists have found that people who develop obsessive-compulsive disorder also:

believe their thoughts are capable of causing hart to themselves and others

Which one of these descriptors would be LEAST likely to describe someone experiencing obsessive-compulsive disorder, according to the cognitive perspective?

Let the good times roll. Don’t worry about tomorrow

Antidepressants that are effective in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder serve to:

increase serotonin actively in the brain

For an antidepressant to be effective against obsessive-compulsive disorder, it must:

increase serotonin activity

A neurologist who was working with a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder would be suspicious of abnormality in what region of the brain?

caudate nuclei

Which of the following brain areas have been implicated in obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

the orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate nuclei

If you were taking an antidepressant that increases levels of serotonin and improved brain function for symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, you could expect that:

it would lead to short term relief but relapse wold occur if you stopped medication

The most current research we have suggests that reductions in activity levels in the caudate nuclei among people with obsessive-compulsive disorder result from:

both medications and cognitive-behavioral therapies

A clinician who is not up-to-date uses the term "excessive behaviors" to describe a category of disorder. According to the DSM-5, that category is now called:

obsessive-compulsive-related disorders

If you really wanted to impress your friends, you would refer to "hair-pulling disorder" by the scientific name:

trichotillomania

Someone with skin-picking disorder would be LEAST likely to pick skin in which area of the body?

abdomen

My office is a mess; graded tests are in piles on my desk, overflowing bookshelves line the walls, and research materials from years ago occupy boxes on the floor. If I am experiencing a diagnosable disorder, it would MOST likely be in what category?

obsessive-compulsive-related disorders

Which of the following is not usually true of body dysmorphic disorder?

most disorder specific behaviors would not be considered normal for a teenager

Which of the following behavior patterns is NOT listed in the DSM-5 as an
obsessive-compulsive-related disorder?

most disorder-specific behaviors would be considered "normal" for a teenager

Your abnormal psychology instructor asks in class, "What kinds of treatments are commonly used to treat obsessive-compulsive-related disorders?" Confidently (and accurately), you reply:

exposure therapies and antidepressant drugs

Someone you know who has body dysmorphic disorder is considering plastic surgery. Based on available research, what is your BEST advice?

exposure therapy and antidepressant drugs

Someone you know has "tanorexia," and constantly tries to achieve a darker complexion through sun and tanning booth exposure. The MOST accurate diagnosis for this person is:

no diagnosis; "tanorexia" is not yet considered a DSM disorder

People who have a biological vulnerability for anxiety, which is then triggered by social and psychological factors, may develop anxiety disorders, according to the:

diathesis-stress model

A comprehensive approach that involves several techniques in treating anxiety disorders is called:

a stress management program

Poor health is BEST described as a:

stressor

A person who copes well with a happy event in life is showing a positive:

stress response

Having to walk the dog several times a day when it is raining is an example of a:

stressor

Looking for rainbows while walking the dog in the rain is an example of a:

stress response

In the face of fear, someone is unable to concentrate and develops a distorted and irrational view of the world. This person is showing which of the following fear responses?

cognitive

A student who fears being called on in class, and in fact panics at the thought of public speaking, is experiencing a(n) ______ response to stress.

emotional

A student who turns pale and feels nauseated when called on to speak in class is experiencing a(n) ______ response to stress.

physical

The statement, "This is awful, but I guess I can deal with it like I do everything else," MOST impacts one’s:

stress response

What do acute and posttraumatic stress disorder have in common with dissociative disorders?

symptoms

In terms of their DSM diagnostic categorization, which of the following pairs belong together?

acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

The part of the body that releases hormones into the bloodstream is the ______ system.

endocrine

In response to a threat, we perspire, breathe more quickly, get goose bumps, and feel nauseated. These responses are controlled by the:

sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following accurately describes the sympathetic nervous system pathway of the stress response?

The hypothalamus excites the sympathetic nervous system, which then excites body organs to release hormones that serve as neurotransmitters, causing even more arousal.

The gland that produces a hormone that is involved in the reaction to fearful and stressful situations is the:

adrenal

Imagine that you just had a "close call" while driving, but now you feel your body returning to normal. Which part of your nervous system is controlling this return to normalcy?

parasympathetic nervous system

The group of hormones that appears to be most involved in arousal and fear reaction are the:

corticosteroids

Which of the following accurately describes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway of the stress response?

The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary that produces a stress hormone that causes the adrenal gland to release corticosteroids

A teammate of a basketball player says, "Congratulations on making those game-winning free throws. Weren’t you bothered by the fans waving their arms behind the basket?" The basketball player replies, "Thanks. I felt a little nervous, but to tell the truth, I didn’t even notice the fans." Most likely, the player who made the foul shots has:

low trait anxiety, but high situational anxiety.

I am generally a calm, relaxed person. If you are generally a tense, excitable person, we differ in:

trait anxiety

For me, crossing a bridge is terrifying. If you hardly notice crossing a bridge, we differ in:

State anxiety

Some people are stimulated by exciting, potentially dangerous activities that terrify others. These varying reactions represent differences in:

state anxiety

Norepinephrine is to ______ as corticosteroid is to ______.

sympathetic pathway; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway

If a deer jumps out in front of you while you are driving, which part of the stress response is active?

Sympathetic nervous system

If I have a severe fear of flying, we know that I have a high level of:

we can’t tell; it might be trait or state anxiety or both

A person who witnessed a horrible accident and then became unusually anxious and depressed for 3 weeks is probably experiencing:

acute stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorders:

last longer than a month

A pattern of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and flashbacks that begins shortly after a horrible event and persists for less than a month is called:

acute stress disorder

One distinction that DSM-5 makes between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder is based on:

how long the anxiety symptoms last

Dorian was only 10 miles away when Mt. St. Helens exploded with one of the largest blasts in history. There was ash and lava everywhere, and he was terrified and sure he was going to die.. When rescue teams found him a week later, he was cold, hungry, and scared. More than a year later he still has nightmares and wakes up in a cold sweat. This description BEST fits a(n):

posttraumatic stress disorder

Salina was terrified during the San Francisco earthquake of 1989 (who wouldn’t be!). For a couple of weeks after, she did not sleep well or feel comfortable inside a building. However, gradually the fears diminished, and they disappeared within a month. Her reaction to the earthquake would MOST likely be diagnosed as a(n):

acute stress disorder

Almost every night, Cara wakes up terrified and screaming for the boys to get off her. Two years later she still can’t get the gang rape out of her mind. The fear, anxiety, and depression are ruining her life. This is an example of a(n):

posttraumatic stress reaction

A pattern of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and flashbacks that persists for years after a horrible event is called:

posttraumatic stress disorder

Which of the following is the BEST example of "reduced responsiveness" as it relates to posttraumatic stress disorder?

feeling detached or estranged from other and loss of interest in activities

Which of the following does NOT characterize stress disorders?

a compulsive need to engage in activities that remind one of the event

Which of the following is typical of posttraumatic stress disorder?

increased arousal, anxiety, and guilt

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who is upset by what she or he had to do to survive and perhaps even feels unworthy of surviving is:

experiencing increased anger, anxiety, and guilt

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who is having "flashbacks" is:

re-experiencing the traumatic event

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who refuses to talk about it is:

experiencing avoidance

A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who has symptoms of derealization is:

experiencing reduced responsiveness

When was acute stress disorder as a result of combat (called "shell shock") first recognized?

after World War 1

Those who are MOST likely to experience a psychological stress disorder are:

female, or low income individuals

Years after the U.S. Civil War was over, many veterans diagnosed with "melancholia" or "soldier’s heart" still experienced vivid flashbacks of their combat experiences, as well as nightmares and guilt about what they had done. Today, their MOST likely diagnosis would be:

posttraumatic stress disorder

Based on recent research, it can be concluded that the impact of repeated combat deployments:

significantly increases one’s risk of developing PT

A friend says, "If we could just eliminate combat traumas, we could eliminate a great deal of posttraumatic stress disorder." Of the following choices, your MOST accurate answer would be:

Yes, although civilian trauma causes many more cases of PTSD than combat trauma does.

Which of the following is the MOST common experience for a veteran of the Iraq/Afghanistan wars?

seeing friends seriously wounded or killed

How concerned should we be about victims of sexual assault and terror? Is there a very great risk that they will experience PTSD?

Yes the risk is great; over a third of sexual assault victims and about half of terror victims experience PTSD

Which one of the following statements about rape is MOST accurate?

Most rape victims are young

In which of the following racial groups is a woman’s risk of being raped the greatest, relative to the group’s percentage of the population?

African Americans

Which one of the following statements about the long-term effects of rape on women is MOST accurate?

Rape impacts a woman’s psychological and physical health

What proportion of women are the victims of rape at some point during their lifetime?

1/6

Surveys suggest that about what percent of female rape victims in the United States are teenagers, or younger?

over 60%

What percentage of rape victims qualified for diagnosis of acute stress disorder in Rothbaum, et. al.’s (1992) study?

94%

These days, many people experience disasters secondhand through the media.. Studies show that watching coverage of disasters:

increases the likelihood of watchers developing stress disorders.

Those MOST likely to experience substantial stress symptoms after the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001:

live near the attack site

A torture victim who is subjected to threats of death, mock executions, and degradation is experiencing what type of torture?

live near the attack site

Investigators have shown that traumatic events are related to abnormal activity of the neurotransmitter:

norepinephrine

Current research suggests that those who experience severe stress:

have abnormal levels of norepinephrine and cortisol following the trauma

A person’s levels of cortisol and norepinephrine are in the normal range. MOST likely, that person is experiencing:

no stress disorder

The torturers on the TV show Homeland who made Brady think he had killed and buried his fellow soldier were engaging in what kind of torture?

psychological

What do we know about the inheritance of PTSD?

Women who have high cortisol levels tend to have children with high cortisol levels

Based on current research, what is the BEST conclusion about the cause of acute and posttraumatic stress disorders? Is nature or nurture more responsible for these disorders?

it’s probably an interaction. both nature and nurture are important

Based on current research, what is the relationship between personality and stress disorders?

Personality characteristics are related to both the development of stress disorders and recovery from them

The MOST common diagnosis for making insurance claims is:

adjustment disorder

About 30 percent of those receiving outpatient therapy are diagnosed with an adjustment disorder. Some experts say adjustment disorders are:

overdiagnosed, because they are easy to apply to many problems and are less stigmatizing than other diagnoses

Someone you know has just been diagnosed with an adjustment disorder. You can be reasonably sure that this person’s disorder is:

not in the normal range of functioning, but less severe than acute distress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

The MOST likely people to develop stress disorders are:

anxious, and think they cannot control negative things that happen to them

Research suggests that which of the following would be MOST likely NOT to develop a stress disorder following trauma?

someone who believes that vents are generally under his or her control

The people MOST likely to develop stress disorders lived their childhood in:

poverty, and had parents who divorced when they were younger than 10 years old

After Marie’s plane crashed, her mother came to stay with her. Her friends visited often, and went to lunch and dinner with her occasionally. This situation, which probably contributed to Marie’s coping ability after the accident, relates to ______ as a factor in her response to the stress.

social support

Several studies have demonstrated that Hispanic American combat veterans and police officers have higher rates of PTSD than other veterans or officers. Research into the causes of this difference have MOST often focused on possible:

cultural belief system and social support causes.

Kelly was in a passenger plane that had engine trouble. She watched as all four engines stopped, one at a time. Then the plane exploded and she was thrown free 5,000 feet in the air. It was a miracle that she survived, though severely injured, because she landed in a thick pine forest covered with 10 feet or more of snow. When she regained consciousness several weeks later, she had a stress reaction that lasted for years, and she could never fly again. The factor that probably contributed most to her extreme posttraumatic stress reaction was:

the severity of the trauma

A friend says to you, "I know someone who is a combat veteran who was just diagnosed with PTSD. Do you think therapy will help this person?" Which of the following is the BEST answer you can give based on current research?

Probably- about two thirds of those receiving therapy for PTSD eventually show improvement

A combat veteran receiving the best treatment for a stress disorder would be likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT:

antipsychotic medication

A combat veteran undergoing "eye movement desensitization and reprocessing" is experiencing which general form of therapy?

exposure therapy

"The therapist wants me to imagine scenes where I was in combat and imagine them like I was there. I don’t want to do that. How can this possibly help me?" Which of the following is the BEST answer you can give to a combat veteran who says this?

Your therapist is suggesting an effective form of exposure called ‘flooding.’

A returning combat veteran with a stress disorder would MOST likely be in ______, to help change dysfunctional attitudes and styles of interpretation that resulted from the trauma.

cognitive therapy

Combat veterans in a therapy group express a great deal of guilt and rage. MOST likely, the veterans are in a(n):

rap group

A flash flood hits a small Appalachian community. Those providing critical incident stress debriefing intervention would:

provide short-term counseling services

Ideally, critical incident stress debriefing occurs:

immediately, and is short term.

If someone asked you about the effectiveness of psychological debriefing following a disaster, based on research, you would be MOST correct in saying that:

there is limited evidence that debriefing works

Based on research studies, which of the following statements about the effectiveness of psychological debriefing following a disaster would be MOST accurate?

Debriefing doesn’t work too well, it might even make victims worse.

A person experiencing multiple personalities would MOST accurately be diagnosed with dissociative:

identity disorder

If you had lost your sense of identity, which of the following would MOST likely be disrupted?

your memory

Dissociative disorders:

involve major changes in memory

Which diagnosis includes a breakdown in sense of self, a significant alteration in memory or identity, and even a separation of one part of the identity from another part?

dissociative disorder

A feeling of detachment from oneself could be diagnosed as PTSD or depersonalization disorder. How would one decide which diagnosis is BEST?

by considering which symptoms predominated

People who are unable to recall important information about themselves, especially of an upsetting nature, are MOST likely experiencing:

dissociative amnesia

In the most common type of dissociative amnesia, a person loses memory for:

all events beginning with the trauma but within a limited period of time

After a major earthquake, television coverage showed survivors shuffling confusedly through the ruined buildings. If such victims later could not remember the days immediately after the earthquake, the victims would be suffering from what type of amnesia?

localized

Mary Ann experiences a mugging and robbery in which her prized poodle is kidnapped. Eventually the dog is found and returned. However, she is unable to recall events immediately following the attack, up until the safe return of the dog. This is a classic example of:

localized amnesia

Gwendolyn is held up at knifepoint and her young son is kidnapped. Eventually, her son is found and returned. However, she is unable to recall events that occurred since the attack, although she remembers some new experiences; worse still, she finds that she is forgetting events that occurred even before the attack. This is a classic example of:

generalized amnesia

Carlotta is attacked in the street and her young daughter is kidnapped. Eventually, the police find her daughter and she is returned to her mother. However, Carlotta is unable to recall events that have occurred since the attack. She is even unable to retain new information; she remembers what happened before the attack but cannot remember new and ongoing experiences. This is a classic example of:

continuous amnesia

Ever since the auto accident, during which Pat was miraculously unhurt, Pat has not been the same. Pat forgets appointments, friends’ names, and even things done in the last few days. Pat’s amnesia is termed:

continuous

Combat veterans are MOST likely to report symptoms of:

localized amnesia

A person, years after committing a serious crime, is found living under a false identity over 1,000 miles from where the person used to live. The person’s memory of the crime, and of other earlier events, is intact. MOST likely this is a case of:

no mental disorder

Which of the following is NOT an example of memory recovery techniques used by therapists?

drug induced memory

A personality change that often accompanies dissociative fugues is that people become:

more outgoing

Dissociative fugues usually:

Of the following alternatives, which is the BEST way of differentiating between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue?

those with dissociative fugue travel

An individual who had suffered from dissociative fugue likely would have experienced all of the following EXCEPT:

a recurrence of the problem months or years later

Of the following disorders, the one for which an individual would LEAST likely need therapy to avoid a recurrence and to recover lost memories is:

dissociative fugue

client who is talking calmly and rationally, all of a sudden begins whining and complaining like a spoiled child. If that client has a diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder, the client just experienced:

switching

A person with dissociative identity disorder has just experienced "switching." Which of the following MOST likely has happened?

the person has changed from one subpersonality to another

One who suffers from dissociative identity disorder is MOST likely to be a:

woman who was physically abused as a child

Alexis has multiple personality disorder. When one of her personalities, Jodi, is asked about another one, Tom, she claims ignorance. Tom has never heard of Jodi either. This would be called a:

mutually amnesic relationship

When all of the subpersonalities in a person with dissociative identity disorder are aware of one another, it is termed a:

mutually cognizant pattern

Raymond has multiple personality disorder. All of his subpersonalities talk about and tattle on each other. This is called a:

mutually cognizant pattern

In case of multiple personality, "Pat" is aware of the existence of "Jerry" and "Chris," but "Jerry" and "Chris," are not aware of the existence of the other personalities. This form of subpersonality relationship is called:

one-way amnesic

Juanita has dissociative personality disorder. Big Tony and Smart Alice are two personalities who are aware of all of the others. None of her other personalities are aware of each other. This would be called a:

one-way amnestic relationship

Jason has dissociative identity disorder. Fat Freddy and Carmen are two personalities who are aware of all of the others, but do not interact with them. Fat Freddy and Carmen would be described as:

co-conscious.

Modern studies suggest that the average number of subpersonalities in cases of multiple personality in women is about:

15, and is lower for men

An individual who formerly knew how to speak a foreign language and play a musical instrument, can no longer remember how to as a result of a dissociative disorder. The dissociative disorder MOST likely is:

dissociative identity

The BEST example of the subpersonalities in dissociative identity disorder differing in their vital statistics occurs when:

one personality is a woman and the other is a man

That some subpersonalities might be able to drive and others might not, demonstrates the different ______ of multiple personalities.

abilities and preferences

Research on evoked potential with people with dissociative identity disorder has revealed that:

different subpersonalities have shown different brain response patterns

If a researcher believes that dissociative identity disorders are iatrogenic, that researcher believes that dissociative identity disorders:

cannot be measured using standard personality test

One very interesting study investigated the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder, and the physiological responses of the "subpersonalities" of those instructed to fake dissociative identity disorder. The study showed that the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder:

differed from one another, but the sub personalities of those faking dissociative identity disorder did not

How do results from evoked potential studies support the idea of the existence of multiple personalities?

Different subpersonalities have been found to show different brain wave patterns

In the United States, the number of diagnosed cases per year of dissociative identity disorder:

has increased

To what can we attribute much of the dramatic rise in the number of reported cases of dissociative identity disorder in recent years?

A growing belief by clinicians that this is an authentic disorder

A psychodynamic theorist would use repression as the chief explanation for all dissociative disorders EXCEPT:

A psychodynamic theorist would use repression as the chief explanation for dissociative identity disorder, dissociative fugue, and dissociative amnesia

Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative amnesias and fugues result from:

repression

"An abused child’s thoughts occasionally drift to other, less anxiety-arousing topics; this anxiety reduction thus serves to strengthen ‘other’ thoughts, while weakening the thoughts about abuse." A psychologist with which theoretical background would be MOST likely to offer this quotation as an explanation for the development of dissociative disorders?

behavioral

In addition to failing to explain why some people who experience severe trauma do not develop dissociative disorders, behavioral theorists also have the MOST difficulty explaining how:

temporary escape from painful memories grows into a complex disorder

Which of the following hypotheses used to explain dissociative disorders is shared by psychodynamic and behavioral theorists?

they serve to help someone escape something unpleasant

The chief sources of data used to support the theories of psychodynamic and behavioral clinicians are:

case studies

Kevin studies his history notes and textbook while he is drinking beer. According to some theorists, Kevin would later do better on his history exam if he also had alcohol in his system while taking the exam. These theorists would be basing their claim on:

state-dependent learning

Laurent has three subpersonalities. Jackie emerges when Laurent is in an awkward social situation, Grace surfaces during sporting events, and Carlos appears when Laurent is angry. The therapist believes that the mood and conditions under which each subpersonality appears are critical to understanding this disorder, demonstrating a belief in:

state dependent learning

If you studied for this exam while you were unusually happy, you will probably do BEST taking it while you are:

unusually happy

If the state-dependent learning explanation of dissociative disorders is correct, a person may not remember stressful events because he or she is:

at a different arousal level after the stress is over.

Just after doing well in an intramural basketball game—something which left me very happy, and in a high state of excitement—I sat down and studied for my abnormal psychology test. Research shows I would perform best on that test if, at the time of the test, I was:

happy and excited

Which of the following has been proposed as a possible cause of dissociative disorders?

Self-hypnosis

What characteristic is MOST common to both self-hypnosis and dissociative identity disorder?

the ability to escape threatening events

What conclusion does research on hypnosis and hypnotic amnesia support?

Dissociative disorders are similar to behaviors seen in hypnotic amnesia

A child in an extremely abusive family situation often seems to become deaf to the verbal abuse, and insensitive to the physical abuse, as if the child simply wasn’t there experiencing the abuse. One explanation of this behavior is:

self-hypnosis

Individuals experiencing dissociative amnesia sometimes are given sodium amobarbital or sodium pentobarbital because those drugs:

Calm people and reduce their inhibitions

What treatment approach is often used in cases of dissociative amnesia and fugue?

hypnotherapy

I was running down a familiar country lane when all of a sudden nothing looked familiar. It took me several seconds to realize where I was, and I continued my run without incident. What I experienced was:

Jamais Vu

Just before 8 A.M. (when my first class meets), my young daughter did something that annoyed me as I was about to leave home for the short drive to campus. "Katie," I said, "what do I always say at a time like this?" She looked at the clock and then said to me, "What you say is, ‘Where are my keys?’" My daughter was apparently familiar with my:

absentmindedness

A strong "feeling of knowing" is associated with which of the following?

the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

A visual image that is retained so vividly that one can continue to scan it for more information is called:

an eidetic image

Psychodynamic therapy may be particularly effective in the treatment of dissociative disorders because:

psychodynamic therapy often tries to recover lost memories

A person diagnosed with a dissociative disorder has recovered almost completely, even though the person had not received any therapy. That person was LEAST likely to have been diagnosed with:

Dissociative Amnesia

People with which dissociative disorder typically do not eventually recover without receiving treatment?

dissociative identity disorder

What effect has the use of sodium amobarbital had in treating dissociative amnesia and fugue?

Results are mixed, successful with some patients and not with others

In the treatment of dissociative amnesia, sodium amobarbital and sodium pentobarbital work by:

freeing people from their inhibitions, thus allowing them to recall unpleasant events

The first step in treating people with dissociative identity disorder is to:

bond with the primary personality

The usual goal of therapy for dissociative identity disorders is to:

merge the subpersonalities into a single identity

A client receiving treatment for identity disorder is progressing well through therapy; then, fusion occurs. Most likely, the client has:

merged the final two or more subpersonalities.

At a workshop about multiple personality disorder, a therapist says, "In my experience, once integration begins, the need for therapy is practically over, and later dissociations just don’t happen." This therapist’s experience is:

very unusual: most successful therapies last well beyond the beginning of integration

The effects of taking hallucinogens, accompanied by feelings that objects are changing size, that other people are distorted, and that one might be mechanical—is MOST similar to:

depersonalization

If you were to experience "doubling," you would MOST likely feel that:

your mind were floating above your actual body

Depersonalization ______, while derealization ______.

refers to oneself: refers to the external world

Someone who is experiencing "doubling" is:

feeling like his or her mind is floating above him or her

If a person’s mental functioning or body feels unreal or foreign, the person is MOST likely suffering from:

depersonalization

Feeling that your hands and feet are smaller or bigger than usual or that you are in a dreamlike state is called:

doubling

When a person feels that the external world is removed, mechanical, distorted, or even "dead," he or she is experiencing:

derealization

I have just arrived in a city where I know no one, and English is not spoken by very many people. I feel as though my mind is separating from my body, and I am actually observing myself do things. What I am experiencing is:

temporary depersonalization

Transient depersonalization and derealization:

can be induced by a life threatening experience

Depersonalization disorder is most common among those who are:

adolescents and young adults

If I suffer from depersonalization disorder, but the symptoms disappear after a while, they most likely will reappear if I:

Survive a bad car accident

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate about depersonalization disorder?

Depersonalization disorder usually comes on suddenly and may be triggered by extreme fatigue, intense stress or pain

Just before debuting at Carnegie Hall, the pianist suffered paralysis of the left hand. Which of the following BEST describes her disorder?

conversion disorder

A 35-year-old woman hobbles into the office of a physician complaining of a debilitating illness that has robbed her of the use of her left leg and right arm. The physician finds no physical basis for her symptoms. She appears totally unaware that the cause of her symptoms may be psychological. The diagnosis would be:

conversion disorder

Abnormalities that are thought to have both biological and psychological causes are:

somatoform disorders

René Descartes’ mind-body dualism is:

inconsistent with modern views of the relationship between the mind and bodily illnesses

Which of the following is an example of malingering?

intentionally faking a back problem to avoid military service

Which of the following is TRUE about factitious disorders?

Those with factitious disorder are not trying to achieve some external gain by faking illness

A man appeared at the emergency room complaining of bloody diarrhea. The doctor who examined him found that the man was intentionally creating the diarrhea through use of laxatives and anticoagulant medication, and liked being a patient. The man is MOST likely:

experiencing a factitious disorder.

Having a background in medicine, but also a grudge against the profession, puts a person at risk for:

a factitious disorder

Someone who has Munchausen syndrome, by definition, also has:

A factitious disorder

A woman complains of an assortment of physiological ailments. You think that she is intentionally producing the physical symptoms in order to appear sick, which fills some psychological need. You would diagnose:

factitious disorder

Sarah brings her young daughter into the emergency room with internal bleeding. The attending physician later concludes that Sarah caused the symptoms in her daughter intentionally, caused by a need to gain attention and praise for her devoted care of her sick child. If this assessment is correct, Sarah would be diagnosed as having:

Munchausen syndrome by proxy

If a chronically ill child was removed from home and placed in foster care, and then became quite healthy, one might suspect that the parent (usually the mother) was experiencing:

a factitious disorder

Munchausen syndrome is a:

Munchausen syndrome by proxy is MOST likely to adversely affect the physical well-being of:

the child of the person experiencing it

Which of the following is a MAIN characteristic of an individual with Munchausen syndrome by proxy?

Emotionally needy

A person experiencing blindness, paralysis, or loss of feeling may also be said to be displaying:

Conversion Disorder

Which of the following is likely to be useful in distinguishing conversion or somatic symptom disorders from true medical problems?

the failure of a condition to develop as expected

Which of the following would lead you to suspect a conversion disorder rather than medical symptoms?

Uniform and even numbness in the damaged hand

Conversion disorders are MORE common in:

less educated populations

Conversion disorders MOST often appear between:

Late Childhood and young adulthood

The patient had several surgeries over the years for vague and nonspecific sexual reproductive problems, visiting many of the top hospitals in the East during the course of treatment. The BEST diagnosis for this disorder is:

Somatic Symptom Disorder

Somatic symptom disorders differ from conversion disorders in that:

conversions disorders usually last less time

A patient with a heart condition complained of adhesions from the scar, leg cramps, and joint stiffness. He seemed to be hurting all over, but no medical reason could be found to explain the symptoms. The BEST diagnosis for this disorder is:

somatic symptom disorder (predominant pain pattern)

If a person complains of a wide variety of physical symptoms over a period of time in the absence of a physical basis for the symptoms, the diagnosis would MOST likely be:

somatization disorder

Madeline appeared at the clinic complaining of pain in her knee, shoulder, and abdomen, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and exhaustion. The patient history revealed that she had been going to clinics for years trying to get treatment for these complaints and a host of other physical symptoms. The diagnostic consensus was that Madeline suffered from:

Somatic Symptom Disorder

A woman has experienced a wide range of vague but disturbing physical symptoms over a period of several years. Doctors cannot find a cause for the problems; medically, the woman appears normal. Based on this information, the BEST diagnosis would be:

somatic symptom disorder ( somatization disorder)

The relationship between gender and somatic symptom disorder generally is that:

more women than men are diagnosed with both somatization pattern and predominant pain pattern forms of somatic symptom disorder

A woman has close female relatives diagnosed with a somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder. According to research, her probability of being diagnosed with the same disorder is about:

20%

An individual develops somatic symptom disorder after a near-fatal car crash. The diagnosis:

is less likely to be somatization pattern then predominant pain pattern

About what percentage of American men experience a somatic symptom disorder in a given year?

less than 1%

If you looked in Jeanette’s medicine cabinet, you would find dozens of prescriptions and even more over-the-counter medications. Every time she sneezes, Jeanette is sure she has the latest deadly flu, although no physician has ever found anything wrong with her. Jeanette probably suffers from:

somatic symptom disorder

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, a person who today is diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder would MOST likely have been diagnosed with:

Briquet’s syndrome

Which statement BEST reflects our understanding of hysterical disorders?

The causes of hysterical disorders are poorly understood, with no theory predominate in aiding understanding

Disorders that represent the conversion of conflicts and anxiety into physical symptoms would include:

Conversion Disorders

According to the psychodynamic view, conversion disorder symptoms function to keep unacceptable thoughts and conflicts out of consciousness. This is called:

primary

It was convenient when Rowena awoke blind. She had been terrified about testifying and now she did not have to. This is an example of:

Secondary Gain

Freud believed that "hysterical" symptoms:

represented a conversion of underlying emotional conflict into physical symptoms

A woman who is particularly threatened by any display of anger becomes unable to speak when she is most angry with her husband, thereby keeping the anger out of her awareness. According to psychodynamic theorists, she is achieving ______ from her illness.

Primary Gain

If a man’s behavior elicited kindness and sympathy from his wife when he was mute, he would be receiving ______ gains from his behavior.

Secondary

Every time Miguel had a headache, his mother let him miss school. Now, as an adult, his headaches have become more frequent. His head pounds any time he is required to do something he would rather not. This is a ______ explanation of conversion symptoms.

behavioral

If a therapist believed that a person was displaying conversion disorder symptoms because the symptoms helped the person avoid unpleasant situations, you would think that the therapist was:

a psychoanalyst or a behaviorist.

"It’s obvious that the patient observed friends who had symptoms of illness, then imitated those symptoms to get attention," says the therapist. MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical perspective?

behavioral

The first time the patient reported vague chest pains to 911, local EMTs responded with obvious attention and concern. Over the months, the patient called 911 more and more often, receiving the same concerned care for the same symptoms. This pattern of patient response is MOST easily explained by which theoretical perspective?

Behavioral

If you were a therapist with a behavioral view, which of the following questions would you be MOST likely to ask someone you suspected might have a somatic symptom disorder?

has any friend of yours had similar symptoms recently?

The MAIN criticism of the behavioral and psychodynamic explanations for the maintenance of hysterical disorders is that:

They can’t explain how the gains can outweigh the pain of the disorder

That people with somatic symptom disorders use their symptoms to express emotions that they cannot easily express otherwise reflects the:

Cognitive View

A cognitive theorist would be MOST likely to say which of the following about hysterical disorders?

The patient is otherwise unable to communicate difficult emotions.

Residents of Japan are more likely than residents of the United States to show higher rates of somatic complaints, MOST likely reflecting:

a Western bias that sees somatization as an inferior way to handle emotions

An individual who has been diagnosed with a somatic symptom disorder would MOST likely first seek:

Medical help

A therapist treating an individual with a conversion disorder works to reduce pleasurable outcomes associated with being sick, while increasing pleasurable outcomes associated with being well. This technique is called:

reinforcement

Albert had finally had enough of his inability to walk, and he went to a psychologist who told him there was nothing medically wrong. The therapist was using the treatment approach of:

confrontation

Based on evidence from case studies, the BEST advice you could give someone who is experiencing a conversion disorder about seeking treatment is:

approaches using suggestion, reinforcement and confrontation are often used.

Behavioral therapists treating a conversion disorder would be MOST likely to focus on:

reducing the rewards available for displaying the disorder

Imagine someone gets hit in the nose by a batted ball. The latest research suggests that swearing will:

reduce pain

"Medical student’s disease," which is the tendency for medical students to experience the symptoms of diseases they are studying, is MOST similar to:

illness anxiety disorder

When I took abnormal psychology as an undergraduate, I was convinced I had symptoms of many of the earlier disorders we covered. As soon as we moved on to new disorders, though, I was convinced I had some of their symptoms, as well. My experiences were similar to those of some people with a form of illness anxiety disorder sometimes called:

"medical student’s disease"

"It seems to me that people with illness anxiety disorder simply model what they see others doing." A person with which theoretical view would be MOST likely to say this?

Behavioral

A therapist treating a client with illness anxiety disorder repeatedly shows the client how the client’s body is less than perfect, while not allowing the client to seek medical attention. MOST likely, the therapist’s viewpoint is:

behavioral and the therapy is called exposure and response prevention

Increasingly concerned about my minor heartbeat irregularities, I think that my health is being threatened, and more and more often I misinterpret my body’s normal signals. Which viewpoint BEST explains my experiences?

Cognitive

An example of evidence for psychophysiological disorders is that:

ulcers, asthma, insomnia, and chronic headaches probably have physical and psychological causes

All of the following are considered traditional psychophysiological disorders EXCEPT:

cancer

About what percent of the U.S. population experience insomnia in a given year?

25%

A friend of yours has just been diagnosed with a dyssomnia. Your friend’s particular diagnosis could be any of the following EXCEPT:

Nightmare Disorder

A person diagnosed with sleep apnea is MOST likely to be someone who:

Snores and is overweight

Narcolepsy is a:

Biological disorder often triggered by strong emotions

A person feels well rested during the day, does not have burning sensations in the stomach, and is experiencing a great deal of stress. If you are told this person has a psychophysiological disorder, your BEST guess about what the disorder is would be:

Hypertension

If your parent has just been diagnosed with essential hypertension, the physician would think your parent’s hypertension:

Has both physical and psychological causes

Surveys show that people are LEAST likely to do which of the following in order to relieve stress?

Drink alcoholic beverages

If you are similar to most other people, which of the following are you MOST likely to do to relieve stress?

Watch tv, read, or listen to music

Which of the following BEST illustrates the interaction of psychosocial and physical factors in the development of a medical condition?

Hypertension cause by obesity and constant stress

A graph that shows a spike in deaths due to heart attacks on the day in which a community experienced a significant disaster demonstrates that:

Stress plays an important role in coronary heart disease and deaths

Obesity and lack of exercise have been linked MOST closely to which of the following psychophysiological disorders?

Coronary heart disease

A friend of yours has been diagnosed as having a high risk for coronary heart disease. His high risk is MOST likely due to:

An interactions of psychosocial and physiological factors

A person who has difficulty expressing unpleasant emotions such as anger or hostility is displaying a ______.

Repressive coping style

Of the following, the individual at MOST risk of developing heart disease is:

Type A, Hostile

People who are consistently angry, impatient, competitive, driven, and ambitious, are displaying a ______ and are at greater risk for heart disease.

Type A personality

Which of the following aspects of Type A personality make a person MOST vulnerable to heart disease?

Hostility and time urgency

Researchers have found a link between Type A personality and:

Coronary heart disease

Hypertension is more common among African Americans than among white Americans. Psychosocial stressors that can explain this difference include all of the following EXCEPT:

Evolutionary factors making African Americans more susceptible to hypertension

Hypertension is more common among African Americans than among white Americans. If someone believes this is because African Americans are more likely to live in dangerous areas, work at unsatisfying jobs, and suffer discrimination, this person is emphasizing the role of ______ factors in the development of the disorder.

Sociocultural

Recent research shows that high levels of anxiety and other emotional problems among those living in poverty may be caused by:

Physiological changes resulting from stress

Compared to white Americans and African Americans, Hispanic Americans have:

Lower rates of high blood pressure and lower rates of high cholesterol

Compared to white Americans and African Americans, Hispanic Americans have the lowest prevalences:

For both cancer and high blood pressure

If someone were to correlate scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, and look at the relationship between stress and illness, that person would MOST likely find:

A significant positive correlation

Of the following, the MOST serious limitation of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale is that it:

Does not take into account the stresses of diverse populations

Research using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale indicates that:

The greater the life stress, the greater the chances of illness

Which of the following would you NOT find on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?

Exercise

Which of the following individuals is experiencing the MOST stress as measured by the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?

Someone whose spouse has just died

African Americans rate all of the following as MORE stressful than white Americans do, EXCEPT for:

Death of a spouse

If you were working in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, you would be studying:

The links between stress and illness

Foreign invaders of the body that stimulate a response from the immune system are called:

Antigens

The generic term for the white blood cells that react to foreign invaders in the body is:

Lymphocytes

Recent research suggests that stress interferes with human immune system functioning by:

Slowing lymphocyte functioning

The white blood cells that destroy infected body cells are called:

Natural killer T-Cells

The reduction in activity of the immune system when a person is under stress is related to the activity of the neurotransmitter:

Norepinephrine

The effect of norepinephrine and corticosteroids on a body experiencing stress is:

Norepinephrine and corticosteroids increase release during stress, which contributes to increased activity by the sympathetic nervous system. Heightened activity of sympathetic NS leads to heightened response. Long term heightened release however leads to the norepinephrine traveling to the receptors on certain lymphocytes giving them an inhibitory message to stop their activity, slowing down immune functioning. Corticosteroids are also said to contribute to poorer immune system functioning

If you have a high level of cytokines, we know that:

You are at greater risk for heart disease, stroke, and other illnesses

A friend says to you, "I feel like I’m stressed out and sick all the time. What kind of person is LEAST likely to have an immune system as weak as mine?" Your BEST answer is:

An optimist who is highly spiritual

Bayview Child Health Center’s medical director, Nadine Burke, has gathered data that suggest children growing up in very stressful environments:

Experience changes in brain chemistry, which make psychological adjustment more difficult

According to Bayview Child Health Center’s medical director, Nadine Burke, the BEST approach to use with children who have experienced difficult, traumatic lives is to:

Use a combination of medical and psychological assessment and treatment

What kind of evidence is there in "The Poverty Clinic" article that early interventions with children raised in stressful, traumatic environments are successful?

The evidence has not yet showed the superiority any particular form of therapy

"The Poverty Clinic" provides evidence that a stressful, traumatic early childhood:

Often produces both psychological and physical problems

Which of the following is MOST supported by current research?

Social support seems to aid recovery in cancer patients

If a friend of yours was suffering from hypertension, the BEST advice you could give from the following alternatives is:

Combine medication and relaxation training

Relaxation training, biofeedback, meditation, and hypnosis all illustrate the use of:

Psychological treatments for physical illnesses

According to your text, relaxation training, meditation, and biofeedback have each been used for the treatment of all of the following EXCEPT:

Viral infections

A biofeedback procedure involving an electromyograph (EMG) MOST likely would be used to:

Reduce painful muscle tension

Maureen is learning to warm her hands. She looks at a dial that reflects the output from a heat-sensitive device on her fingers and tries to make the dial go up. This is a form of:

Biofeedback Training

A friend says to you, "I’m thinking about using a psychological procedure to help me deal with my severe back pain. What do you think I should I do?" Based on research evidence, your BEST answer is:

Use whichever one you want, but include medical treatment, too

A patient who treats severe pain by meditating, paying attention to her thoughts and sensations, while remaining nonjudgmental is engaging in:

Mindfulness meditation

Meditation, hypnosis, and cognitive interventions are all useful in:

Controlling pain

People who are coping with severe pain by telling themselves that they can get through it by focusing on the pain ending, and by remembering that they have gotten through it before, are MOST likely to have received which of the following therapies?

Cognitive intervention

One study showed that playing computer games prior to surgery was ______ in relaxing young patients.

More effective than anti-anxiety drugs

"You should work on replacing those negative self-statements with coping self-statements," says a therapist whose view is MOST likely:

Cognitive

A friend says, "I’m going to get some therapy to help reduce my headaches. What do you suggest?" Based on current research on the effectiveness of treatments for stress-related physical disorders, your BEST answer would be:

A combination of psychotherapy and drug therapy works better than any therapy by itself

One of the MAIN findings from the research on the relationship between psychology and physical illness is:

There is a strong relationship between psychology and physical illness

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