Abnormal Psychology- Chapter 11 & 12

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Psychosis means:

Any disorder severe enough that the subject loses contact with reality

Which of the following is NOT consistent with the MOST common patterns of schizophrenia?

Women develop the disorder earlier and more severely than men.

Downward drift is BEST reflected in which of the following statements?

Schizophrenia causes people to fall into poverty and social disruption

Schizophrenia is found in all socioeconomic classes. However, it is MOST likely to be found in someone from a:

Lower level background

Armond does not feel much emotion and does not really want to do anything. He has also completely withdrawn from his friends and family. The presence of these behaviors illustrates ______ symptoms of schizophrenia.


Delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, heightened perceptions and hallucinations, and inappropriate affect are examples of ______ symptoms of schizophrenia.


Millie sees pretty colored butterflies on all the walls. She also hears gentle music, that is not actually there. The presence of these behaviors illustrates ______ symptoms of schizophrenia.


Rosa is sure that her family is planning to kidnap her and take her inheritance. She has found her husband talking on the phone in whispers and seen her children looking at her strangely. Rosa is MOST likely suffering from:


Antonio believes that the anchor on the evening television news is speaking directly, and personally to him. He even goes to the television studio to talk to the anchor. Antonio is suffering from:

Delusions of reference

The MAIN difference between hallucinations and delusions is that:

Delusion: the person truly believes "it" is there; Hallucination: the person believes they can see and talk to "it"

"I am the Virgin Mary and I’ve come to give birth to a new savior," says someone who is MOST likely experiencing:

Delusions of grandeur

A person with schizophrenia who said, "It’s cold today. My cold is better but I got it from the nurse. She is a big blonde who lives in Manhattan. I live in Manhattan with Jimmy Carter," is experiencing:

Loose association

"Insects make me itch. My brother collects them; he is 5 feet 10 inches tall. That’s my favorite number. I dance and draw." Such speech illustrates which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia?


If you could "get inside the head" of a person experiencing auditory hallucinations, you would MOST likely find that:

The person actually produces nerve signals of sound in his brain

If someone had the delusion of being an animal, the person MOST likely would be experiencing:


A person with schizophrenia who hears all the animals around her making plans to get her ready for the ball, and comes to think she is Cinderella, is experiencing a(n) ______ hallucination and a delusion of ______.

Auditory; grandeur

Which of the following would be the MOST common type of hallucination?


Research with those experiencing auditory hallucinations has demonstrated all of the following EXCEPT:

Movement of the oval window of the cochlea

A person with schizophrenia who laughs when told sad news and screams in situations that most people see as warm and tender is experiencing:

Inappropriate affect

In the middle of a normal, calm conversation, a person with Tourette’s syndrome might suddenly begin shouting, and then follow that with a string of obscenities. This is similar to the symptom of schizophrenia called:

Inappropriate affect

Poverty of speech, restricted and flat affect, loss of volition, and social withdrawal, are examples of ______ symptoms of schizophrenia.


A person with schizophrenia who is experiencing alogia is displaying:

A reduction in speech and speech content

The decrease in the fluency and productivity of speech that is seen in schizophrenia is specifically termed:

Alogia or poverty of speech

An emergency medical technician (EMT) arrives at the scene of a bad car accident, and calmly prepares a severely injured passenger for transport to a hospital, while others at the scene are screaming and crying with fear and grief. The EMT’s training has resulted in behavior similar to the symptom of schizophrenia called:

Blunt or flat affect

Martin is a person with schizophrenia who feels ambivalent about most issues. He has no goals and does not seem to have the energy or interest to think about them. He certainly cannot make decisions. He is MOST likely suffering from:

Loss of volition

A person with schizophrenia who is experiencing anhedonia is displaying:

Blunted of flat affect

A person with schizophrenia who is feeling apathetic, drained, and unable to start or follow through on any projects is displaying:

Loss of volition

Those with schizophrenia who are unable to recognize other people’s needs and emotions, and distance themselves from reality are displaying:

Social withdrawal

Those with schizophrenia who stop responding to their environment and remain motionless and silent for long periods of time are experiencing:

Catatonic stupor

Noreen has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She is totally unresponsive to her environment. She does not move for hours on end and never responds to contacts from others. This is an example of:

Catatonic symptoms

Those with schizophrenia who hold awkward and bizarre positions for long periods of time are experiencing:

Catatonic posturing

Those with schizophrenia who remain standing for hours and resist efforts to be moved are experiencing:

Catatonic rigidity

People with schizophrenia who wave their arms around in wild motions and make kicking motions with their legs are experiencing:

Catatonic excitement

Which of the following two pairs MOST closely represent opposites, in terms of the behavior you would observe in people with schizophrenia?

Catatonic stupor and catatonic excitement

The stage of the development of schizophrenia marked by deterioration of functioning and the display of mild symptoms is called the:

Prodromal phase

A person is socially withdrawn, speaks in odd ways, has strange ideas, and expresses little emotion, but is not displaying full-blown schizophrenic symptoms. What phase of schizophrenia is this person in?

Prodromal phase

Patients are MORE likely to recover from schizophrenia if they:

Demonstrate good pre-morbid functioning

Delia does not display all the full-blown schizophrenia symptoms any more. Occasionally, a shadow of a symptom appears. She is a bit withdrawn and not entirely clear all the time, but she can marginally function in the world. This is an example of:


Which of the following is NOT related to a fuller recovery from schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia developing in early life

A person with schizophrenia demonstrates poverty of speech and experiences auditory hallucinations. According to the "Type I-Type II" evaluation categorization, this person would be:

A mix of Type 1 (positive symptoms, neurotransmitters responsible) and Type 2 (negative symptoms, brain abnormalities)

Regarding likelihood of recovery and types of symptoms exhibited, which of the following would be the WORST disorder to have?

Type 2 Schizophrenia

According to the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia:

People with a biological predisposition for schizophrenia will develop it if certain psychosocial stressors are also present

Based on family pedigree studies, which relative of an individual with a diagnosis of schizophrenia would be MOST at risk for developing the disorder?

Identical Twin

What is the rate of concordance for schizophrenia in identical twins?


In general, the closer people are genetically related to someone with schizophrenia, the MORE likely they are to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, as well. This is evidence of:

A positive correlation between a schizophrenia diagnosis and closeness of relationship

Which of the following groups of relatives of someone diagnosed with schizophrenia shows the correct sequence from having the highest concordance rate for schizophrenia to having the lowest concordance rate for schizophrenia?

Sibling, parents, first cousin

Which of the following statements about genetic factors in schizophrenia is accurate?

Close relatives of those with schizophrenia are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than distant relatives of schizophrenics

If schizophrenia depended solely on genetic make-up, then compared to rates of schizophrenia in siblings in general, "fraternal" twins should have:

The same concordance rate for schizophrenia

The data from studies of the biological and adoptive parents of children who receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia as adults show that the concordance rate of schizophrenia with biological relatives is:

Higher than with adoptive relatives

Which of the following statements MOST fits the evidence for the biological basis of schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a polygenetic disorder probably impacting brain structure and chemical activity

For the first two weeks after starting college, a student can’t seem to talk coherently and is generally unresponsive to the moods of other students in the same dorm. Soon, the student resumes normal patterns of speaking and social interaction. This is an example of:

Brief psychotic disorder

A middle-aged individual shows many of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and, at the same time, often appears profoundly depressed. The symptoms have lasted almost a year. This is an example of:

Schizo effective

A person acts extremely jealous all the time and complains bitterly whenever other people appear to be getting more attention. This has been going on for a couple of months, and the person shows no other substantial symptoms. The BEST diagnosis, assuming, of course, the extreme jealousy has no basis in fact, is:

Delusional disorder

A young adult lives at home and has a parent who frequently exhibits delusions of grandeur, so much so that the young adult eventually develops delusions of grandeur, as well. The young adult’s psychotic disorder is called:

Shared psychotic disorder

Which of the following is the BEST example of a finding from genetic linkage and molecular biology studies?

Gene defects on certain chromosomes predispose one to schizophrenia

Does research support the thinking that there is a "schizophrenia gene"?

No: schizophrenia is probably a polygenic disorder, and researchers have no pinpointed the exact gene yet

Why are people taking medication for schizophrenia also often given medication that helps control shaking and tremors?

Medication used to treat schizophrenia leads to Parkinson-like symptoms

Which of the following supports the dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia?

Antipsychotic drugs often produce Parkinson-like symptoms

Researchers found that phenothiazines reduced psychotic symptoms but also caused Parkinsonian symptoms like tremors. This discovery suggests that:

Schizophrenia is tied to excessive dopamine

If a person receives the chemical L-dopa, a precursor of dopamine, it reduces the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. However, L-dopa also may increase symptoms of schizophrenia. What might one reasonably conclude from this?

Excessive dopamine produces schizophrenic symptoms

The link between dopamine and schizophrenia is supported by the finding that:

Lower dopamine activity helps remove schizophrenic symptoms

A new medication for schizophrenia appears to work because it blocks dopamine from binding to a receptor. The new medication functions as:

Dopamine antagonist

Recently the dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia has been challenged because it has been discovered that:

Effective new drugs suggest abnormal neurotransmitter activity of serotonin as well as dopamine

Chemically speaking, why do people who are methamphetamine addicts sometimes display schizophrenic-like behavior?

Amphetamines increase dopamine in the brain, leading to schizophrenic- like response

You have found enlarged ventricles during a postmortem analysis on a sample of brain tissue. This is MOST likely to be evidence of:

Schizo involving mainly negative symptoms

Postpartum psychosis occurs:

first 2-3 weeks, 1-2% of women after child birth: confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, delusions, obsessive behaviors, paranoia

Symptoms of postpartum psychosis appear to be triggered by:

A large change in hormone levels occurring just after childbirth

Andrea Yates, showing symptoms of postpartum psychosis, drowned her five children in 2001. Assuming she was suffering from postpartum psychosis, her actions were:

Atypical; less than 10% of women with postpartum psychosis harm or attempt to harm their offspring

Regarding brain structure, those with schizophrenia have been found to have all of the following EXCEPT:

Larger amounts of cortical grey matter

The finding that the HIGHEST rates of schizophrenia are found among people who are born during the winter supports which theory of schizophrenia?

A viral theory

The viral explanation for schizophrenia suggests that brain abnormalities, and therefore schizophrenia, result from viral exposure:

Before birth

Since 1950, interest in psychological explanations for schizophrenia, as opposed to genetic and biological explanations, have:

Been abandoned but reconsidered

According to Freud, people with schizophrenia:

Regress to a pre-ego state of primary narcissism

According to Freudian psychodynamic interpretation, people who develop schizophrenia regress to a state of:

Primary narcissism

According to Frieda Fromm-Reichmann (1948), schizophrenia is caused by:

a schizophrenogenic mother

A psychodynamic theorist of the twenty-first century is MOST likely to say:

"Biological abnormalities can lead to extreme regression:

Most contemporary psychodynamic theorists would agree with which of the following statements?

Schizophrenic mothers, if they do exist, don’t create schizophrenic children

The cognitive view of schizophrenia is based on the assumption that those with schizophrenia experience strange and unreal sensations:

And then tell their friends and family, who deny the reality of sensations

Occasionally, you see or hear things. Your friends tell you it’s your imagination, but eventually you come to think your friends are hiding something and you develop delusions of persecution to explain their behavior. This thinking leads you down the "rational path to madness." This scenario is consistent with the:

Cognitive view

The "rational path to madness" in schizophrenia is MOST consistent with a:

I experience disturbing symptoms. I talk them over with others. Others say i am imagining things. I decide others are lying to me.

Which of the following MOST accurately represents the "rational path to madness?"

A person starts having hallucinations and troubling sensations, and turn to family and friends. The family/friends deny the existence of the sensations. This makes the affected person think that their family/friends are lying to them and trying to hide the truth. The person rejects all feedback, and develops delusions that they are being lied to and persecuted.

Compared to African Americans, white Americans are:

Are less likely to suffer from heart disease

A country has an almost 3 percent prevalence for schizophrenia. That country:

Has a higher-than-average schizophrenia prevalence

Studies relating rates of diagnosis of schizophrenia to poverty and race show:

A connection between diagnosis of schizophrenia and both race and poverty

A person diagnosed with schizophrenia is not hospitalized, yet eventually shows complete remission of symptoms. This pattern is:

Typical of what happens in developing countries

Compared to those diagnosed with schizophrenia who live in developing countries, those diagnosed with schizophrenia who live in developed countries are:

Less likely to recover fully, and more likely to be hospitalized

The complete remission rate for those diagnosed with schizophrenia is:

Higher in developing countries than in underdeveloped countries, possibly because of better family and social support

People around those who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia begin to treat them as if they are "crazy," expecting and overreacting to odd behaviors that they might not even notice in others. This observation is MOST consistent with the ______ understanding of schizophrenia.


David Rosenhan (1973) sent eight normal people to various psychiatric hospitals. All eight complained of hearing voices that said "empty," "hollow," and "thud." After being admitted to one of the hospitals, each person acted normally, yet all were diagnosed as schizophrenic. One of the conclusions from this study is that:

The expectations produced by labeling can alter perception

Families that display high levels of expressed emotion do all of the following EXCEPT:

Approve of one another’s actions

If observations of the relationship between "expressed emotion" in families and recovery from schizophrenia demonstrate cause and effect, one would predict that relapse would be LEAST common in schizophrenics whose families:

Don’t express emotions, low stress households

Which of the following statements MOST accurately reflects current thinking about psychosis and schizophrenia?

People with different diagnosis can exhibit psychosis; its not limited to schizophrenia

What was the dominant way of treating schizophrenics during the first half of the twentieth century?


MOST patients who lived on hospital wards in state mental hospitals in the mid-1900s:

Were schizophrenic

The MAIN contribution of Philippe Pinel to the care of those with severe mental illnesses was to:

Treat the mentally ill as humans; this led to hospitals and then asylums

Which of the following is TRUE of state mental hospitals in the United States in the mid-twentieth century?

They were overcrowded and under staffed

A person who has a needle inserted into the brain through the eye socket, which is then rotated in order to destroy brain tissue, is experiencing a:

Transorbital lobotomy

Why were lobotomies so enthusiastically accepted by the medical community in the 1940s and 1950s?

Because it was practiced by eminent physicians

Theorists propose that institutionalized patients deteriorate because they are deprived of opportunities to develop self-respect and independence. The therapy that counters this effect by creating an environment that encourages self-respect and responsibility is known as:

Milieu therapy

Which therapy is based on the premise that when you change the social environment, you change the patient?

Milieu therapy

Maxwell Jones (1953) created an approach to psychotherapy of the institutionalized in London called:

Therapeutical community

A patient who is called a resident, lives in a therapeutic community, and actively works with staff members to create a life that is as much like that outside the hospital as possible is probably receiving:

Milieu therapy

A token economy approach to treatment is based on principles from the ______ of abnormal behavior.


A hospitalized patient no longer talks about delusions and hallucinations, thanks to participating in a token economy program. However, critics of the token economy program would say that the token economy program has:

Not eliminated the delusions and hallucinations, but improved the patients ability to imitate normal behavior

In behavioral terms, what is a token?

A reinforcer

A third-grade teacher gives students stickers throughout the school day when they engage in appropriate behaviors. At the end of the day, students can trade in their stickers for treats from the class "treasure chest." This program is MOST similar to which form of therapy used for institutionalized people with schizophrenia?

Token economy

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the token economy approach?

Legality and ethical

What is the concern regarding the changes produced by token economies?

Person learned new behaviors about changing distorted thinking

Antipsychotic drugs were discovered accidentally when researchers were trying to develop:


The discovery of antihistamine drugs in the 1940s indirectly led to the development of:

Antipsychotic drugs

The first antipsychotic drug to be approved for use in the United States was:


The term neuroleptic is applied to drugs that:

Can mimic symptoms of neurological disorders

If one could only use a single treatment for schizophrenia and wanted the MOST effective treatment, one should choose:

Antipsychotic drugs

What is the MOST accurate advice you could give someone thinking about taking traditional antipsychotic medication for their schizophrenia?

Although these drugs will probably work, there are significant side effects

If one were taking antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia, one would expect the drugs to:

Be most effective against positive symptoms of schizophrenia

A woman has been treated with chlorpromazine for several years. Lately, she seems to be chewing gum all the time and her arms are always in motion. She has begun to display twitching and facial tics. This is an example of:

Tardive dyskinesia

If a schizophrenic were making involuntary tic-like movements of the tongue, mouth, face, or body, smacking the lips, or making sucking or chewing movements, one would suspect the patient:

Had been taking antipsychotic medications for at least a year

The MOST successful way to diminish or eliminate tardive dyskinesia is:

To lower or stop the antipsychotic medications

If you were working with a patient who displayed muscle tremors and rigidity, facial tics, and tardive dyskinesia, you would suspect that the person was receiving:

Antipsychotic drugs

Which of the following drugs appears to react at D-1 and D-4 dopamine receptors MORE than at D-2 dopamine receptors?


Which of the following antipsychotic drugs appears to work at serotonin receptors?


The MOST widely used atypical antipsychotic drug is:


The LOWEST number of extrapyramidal side effects is seen after taking:


"I want to maximize the antipsychotic effect of a drug while minimizing its undesirable side effects," says a doctor. What is the BEST advice you can give the doctor?

"Use an atypical antipsychotic drug"

Imagine that your neighbor, who is being treated for schizophrenia, says that she mostly has negative symptoms of schizophrenia and is afraid of the extrapyramidal side effects of medication. She asks you what she should do. Your BEST response is:

Try atypical antipsychotic drugs; they should work best

Advantages of atypical antipsychotic drugs over conventional medications include:

Newer medications produce fewer extrapyramidal effects

Why do some therapists believe psychotherapy is unsuccessful in treating schizophrenia?

Unmedicated schizophrenics are too far removed from reality to form the relationship needed

Which form of therapy helps people learn to reinterpret their hallucinations and change their reactions to them rather than to seek to eliminate hallucinations and delusions?


Compared to African Americans, white Americans are:

More likely to receive atypical antipsychotic drugs for both schizophrenia and other psychic disorders

Based on research studies, your BEST chance of receiving a prescription for an atypical antipsychotic medication would be if you:

Have private insurance and are treated by a psychiatrist

Therapists who advise clients to resist following orders from their hallucinatory voices are using a technique from the cognitive-behavioral approach that involves:

Ways of coping with unpleasant hallucinations

If you are being treated for schizophrenia and are learning to distract yourself from the voices you hear and to reinterpret them as just a symptom of your disorder rather than reality, you are MOST likely receiving:

Partial hospitalization

Mindfulness is MOST similar to which of the following therapies?


Therapists who make statements such as "It’s not a real voice; it’s my illness" are using a technique from the cognitive-behavioral approach that involves:

Reattribution of their hallucinations

Therapists who advise clients to apply special breathing and relaxation techniques in response to their hallucinatory voices are using a technique from the cognitive-behavioral approach that involves:

Ways of coping with unpleasant hallucinations

New-wave cognitive-behavioral therapies are MOST similar to:

Acceptance and commitment therapy

A family with a high level of expressed emotion may display a great deal of:


The goal of family therapy is:

To help the family better support the schizophrenic patient

If relatives of a schizophrenic patient come to have more realistic expectations, reduce their guilt, and work on establishing better communication, they are probably receiving:

Family Therapy

Families with HIGH levels of "expressed emotion":

Expressed emotion members frequently express criticism, disapproval, and hostility towards each other and intrude on one’s privacy

If you and your family were receiving support, encouragement, and advice from other families with schizophrenic members, you would MOST likely be participating in:

Family psychoeducational programs

A patient who receives help in finding work, in finding a place to live, and in taking medication correctly, is probably receiving:

Social Therapy

Social therapy appears to play the STRONGEST role in:

Lessening the possibility of relapse in those recovering from schizophrenia

A person attending a Hearing Voices Network (HVN) meeting can expect to learn that:

All interpretations of voices are equally valid

The belief that many people hear voices and that this can be a meaningful, nonpathological experience is held by:

A member of the Hearing Voices Network

Who is MOST likely to offer the advice, "If you have the urge to yell at your ‘voices’ in public, do so with a cell phone up to your ear"?

A member of the Hearing Voices Network

The Community Mental Health Act stipulated that patients with mental disorders should receive all of the following without leaving their communities EXCEPT:

Research opportunities


Was aimed at returning patients with mental disorders to their communities

In the original Community Mental Health Act, the place where individuals would be treated was a:

Research opportunities

If a person being treated for schizophrenia goes every day to a community care program where the focus is on improving social skills and receiving therapy, the person is MOST likely participating in:

Partial hospitalization

Why is the diagnosis of MICA important in treatment?

A dual diagnosis is more complicated to treat then a single one

A person lives at home but spends his day at a mental health facility. The facility might be described as providing:

Partial Hospitalization

An individual who displays serious psychotic symptoms, but would NOT benefit from being sent to a large state psychiatric hospital for a long period of time, would BEST be served by:

Short-term hospitalization in a local psychiatric unit

Schizophrenics who receive 24-hour supervision in a community setting, usually following a milieu approach, are receiving:

Halfway house services

Helen was just discharged from a public mental health facility and went to live with a group of other former patients in a group-living arrangement. There, staff members help out but the former patients control most of their day-to-day activities. Helen’s living arrangement is a:

Halfway house

The staff members who work in halfway houses are usually:


Several people with schizophrenia work at a recycling center, where on-time behavior is expected, and payment is made solely for work completed. The people do not compete with each other. MOST likely, this work takes place at a:

Sheltered Workshop

Schizophrenics who are working in a sheltered workshop are receiving:

Occupational training

The person most responsible for coordinating community service, providing practical help with problem-solving social skills, and ensuring that medications are being taken properly is a:

Case manager

In the treatment of schizophrenia, a case manager’s primarily goal is to help with:

Coordination of services

A disturbed individual kills a number of people in a mass shooting. The shooter is found to be mentally ill. How likely is it that such an individual will have received mental health services in the past year?

Likely, although the coordination of those services is a problem

Where is a person with a serious mental illness MOST likely to be housed?

In a community mental health center

Which of the following is the BEST example of the "criminalization" of the mentally ill?

Mentally ill people who commit minor crimes are jailed instead of treated

In the criminal justice world, "frequent fliers" are people who:

Are mentally ill with high recidivism rates

If you were looking for people who have schizophrenia, where would you MOST likely find them?

Living on their own unsupervised

Someone says to you, "Homeless people scare me. They’re all crazy." What is your BEST response?

Unfortunately, about a third of homeless people are mentally ill

If you went to a meeting of a group lobbying for better care for the mentally ill, made up primarily of family members of people with severe mental disorders, you would probably be attending:

National alliance for the mentally ill

Research suggests that an effective treatment plan for schizophrenia should include:

Biological treatments and psychological treatments

The enduring pattern of inner thoughts and emotions and outward behaviors that are unique to each individual is termed:


The consistencies of one’s characteristics are called:

Personality traits

What differentiates normal personality characteristics from personality disorders?

All of the above (specific characteristics, the degree of inflexibility and maladaptiveness, the length of time one possesses the characteristics)

The MOST important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that:

They are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress

One reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals:

Are frequently unaware that they have a problem

Comorbidity means that:

Two disorders may occur together in an individual

Personality disorders are categorized into three main clusters that include all of the following EXCEPT:


Based on a structured interview, Diagnostician A classifies an individual’s personality disorder in the "odd" cluster. Based on another structured interview of the same type, Diagnostician B classifies an individual’s personality disorder in the "dramatic" cluster. If what is described here is typical of what happens when that variety of structured interview is used, one would say the structured interview has:

Low reliability and low validity

Which of the following would a phrenologist MOST likely have done?

Assessed personality by feeling for bumps and indentations on the head

The categorical approach to personality disorders assumes that:

Problematic personality traits are either present or absent

If you believe that personality disorders are best understood as a matter of degree in difference from typical personality rather than as a specific diagnosis, you agree with:

The dimensional approach

How do personality disorders differ from the personality characteristics of typical people?

They lead to more maladaptive, distressful and inflexible

An individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. That individual is MOST likely to have a parent or sibling who has:


Which of the following statements is MOST accurate in terms of current research findings?

"Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another

The category of "odd" personality disorders includes the traits of:

Extreme suspicion, social withdrawal, cognitive/perceptual peculiarities

"It is clear that very demanding parents caused this person to develop paranoid personality disorder." This statement MOST likely would be made by someone from which of the following theoretical perspectives?


Reese is distrustful of others and reacts quickly to perceived threats. Even though he has no evidence, he is sure his wife is unfaithful. He finds it almost impossible to forgive those he thinks have wronged him. Reese displays the characteristics of:


According to current research, if a person living in the United States is distrustful of both lawyers and congressional members, that type of person is:

Common: most people in the United States distrust both lawyers and congressional members

A person experiencing paranoid personality disorder frequently says things like, "You’ve got to get them before they get you," and "People have been sinners since the Garden of Eden." If these sayings reflect maladaptive assumptions the person has about people in general, the theorist who would be LEAST surprised would have which theoretical position?


Which of the following statements regarding the treatment of paranoid personality disorder is MOST accurate?

One similarity of those experiencing paranoid personality disorder and those experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they tend:

These individuals do not have close ties with others

The schizoid personality disorder differs from paranoid personality disorder in that:

The people genuinely prefer to be alone; paranoid alone because of suspiciousness

The parents of those with schizoid personality disorder are MOST likely to have been:


Wes has always been a loner. He has never much cared for being with other people and does not form relationships easily. He appears to be without emotion. Wes may be exhibiting:

Schizoid personality disorder

The theorist who describes schizoid personality disorder as developing from coping with parental rejection by avoiding relationships represents the:


A person who is LEAST likely to be affected by criticism or praise from other people is one suffering from:

Schizoid personality disorder

An individual diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder reports having a great deal of difficulty figuring out how others feel, and as a child had difficulty developing adequate language skills. These findings would make the MOST sense to a theorist with which background?


Cognitive theorists believe that because of their difficulty scanning the environment, perceiving accurately, and picking up emotional cues, those with schizoid personalities are slow to develop:

Language and motor skills

There is a new game called "Moods," in which one thinks about and acts out the mood listed on a card. Being encouraged to play this game is MOST like the treatment ______ might use for those with schizoid disorders.


The type of therapy that generally provides the LEAST help for those with schizoid personality disorder is:

Drug therapy

A belief by someone that the CNN anchor is talking about an event pertaining to that individual in a personal way may reflect:

Ideas of reference

Schizotypal personality disorders differ from other "odd" personality disorders in that they are related to schizophrenia and:

Mood disorders

When Selina sees a report of a train wreck on television, she thinks that it is a sign that she should not take the train to work the next day and so decides to take the bus instead. If she has a diagnosable personality disorder, it is MOST likely:

Schizotypal personality disorder

Digressive and vague language with loose associations accompanied by attention and concentration problems are characteristic of:


The disorder that appears to be MOST closely related to schizotypal personality disorder is:


A person who does poorly on a task called backward masking is MOST likely to be experiencing:

Schizotypal personality disorder

A client has enlarged brain ventricles and a measurable loss of gray matter. These symptoms are:

Biological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder

Characteristics of the Virginia Tech shooter reveal that he:

Displayed a combination of features from many personality disorders

As part of their therapy, clients learn to evaluate their unusual thoughts, track the accuracy of "magical" predictions, and reconnect with the world and with their limitations. The diagnoses of these clients would MOST likely be in which of the following broad categories of personality disorders?


Should drugs be used in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder?

Maybe; in low doses, they seem to help some clients

Which category of personality disorder contains the disorders MOST commonly diagnosed?


An adult has been jailed for the third time for fraud; each time it has been for persuading investors to put money into a phony silver mine. If the adult has received a DSM-5 diagnosis, the MOST likely diagnosis is:

Antisocial personality disorder or a substance related disorder

A friend of yours says, "A 15-year-old high school student accused of shooting several classmates received a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder." Your MOST accurate reply would be:

No, the student is too young for that diagnosis

Ben set up an elaborate scheme to mine gold in the Rockies and organized a large town meeting where he made a presentation to sell stock in his company. The shares were only $5 each and everyone could afford them. He showed pictures of the mine and explained how the company expected to gross $100 million each month. As it turns out, he was a terrific con artist who had made similar proposals in the last couple of years. Ben is MOST likely suffering from:

Antisocial personality disorder

Cruelty to animals and people, destruction of property, and truancy before the age of 15:

Is characteristic of those later diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder

Which of these well-known people appears to have displayed symptoms of antisocial personality disorder?

Bernie Madoff

Which of the following statements is NOT generally true of those with antisocial personality disorder?

They care for one’s safety, except theirs and their children’s

Sarah respects none of society’s boundaries and is insensitive to other people, frequently violating their rights. She does not consider the consequences of her actions. She MOST probably experiences:

Antisocial personality disorder

A friend says to you, "He must have antisocial personality disorder; look how careful he is about his own well-being, but how careless he is about others’ safety." Your MOST accurate reply would be:

"you’re partly right; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careless about their own safety, as well as the safety of others."

If you wanted to write a book about a fictional character who is a "typical" example of antisocial personality disorder, you might have the character exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:

Periods of very high anxiety

The strong relationship between antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse means that:

There are high rates of substance about among those with antisocial personality disorder

The absence of parental love results in emotional detachment and the use of power to form relationships. This is MOST like a ______ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder.


Which of the following statements BEST represents current knowledge about mass murderers?

We really don’t know what causes mass murders to act or how to treat them

Which of the following marks an individual as a pseudocommando?

Expecting to be killed while committing a mass

Which of the following is MOST characteristic of mass murderers?

Feelings of persecution and desire for revenge

Biologically speaking, if one wanted to treat antisocial personality disorder, one would want to ______ the individual with the disorder.

Decrease the level of anxiety

The fact that children may learn antisocial behavior by modeling parental conflict and aggressiveness provides support for:

A young boy is constantly told by his parents to "Be a man!" whenever he is in conflict with friends. In turn, his parents themselves often act aggressively toward each other, and toward him. The theorist who would be BEST able to explain an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder for this boy would be:


Giving in to a child’s refusal to comply with a parental request may inadvertently reinforce stubborn and defiant behavior, setting the scene for the development of antisocial personality disorder. This is MOST like a ______ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder.


Assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they all share characteristics of impulsiveness and aggression and also lack sympathy and empathy. Which perspective would MOST strongly explain the cause of these characteristics?


Which of the following statements is MOST accurate regarding antisocial personality disorder?

An individual with a diagnosed personality disorder is emotionally unstable, impulsive, and reckless. This person’s diagnosis is likely to be which of the following personality disorders?


"There’s nothing out there for me. I can’t stand other people, and I can’t stand myself, either. I’m just really mad right now." Such a statement would MOST likely be made by someone with which personality disorder?

Borderline personality disorder

"That personality disorder has become so common; I encounter it almost every day in the emergency room." MOST likely, this doctor is talking about which personality disorder?


Lisa felt like she was on an emotional rollercoaster. She felt angry and empty. Lisa’s feelings are MOST similar to those of someone with:


What is a common reason for the hospitalization of people with borderline personality disorder?

People with this disorder tend to engage in self injurious or self mutilation behaviors

Transported to the hospital after a suicide attempt, a man is later admitted to the hospital’s psychiatric wing. His history showed other self-destructive behaviors and recklessness. MOST likely, if the man is diagnosed with a personality disorder, it will be:


Studies of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder show that:

Over half attempted suicide at least once in their lives, and about 10 percent succeed

Gort’s parents never quite liked him and probably did not want children in the first place. He just was not accepted. It was clear early in school that Gort had a low opinion of himself and did not know how to interact with the other children. Now he cuts himself and has been to the ER several times. This is a description of the possible development of:

Borderline personality disorder

A therapist treating a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder came up with the following analysis: the parents probably did not want children in the first place; the child was not accepted; the child developed low self-esteem, dependency, and an inability to cope with separation. The therapist’s theoretical orientation is probably:

Object relations

Which of the following has experienced "triggering"?

An individual who is prompted to injure himself intentionally after watching someone else do it

If an individual has damage to the prefrontal cortex, which of the following symptoms would MOST likely be observed?

Deficits in planning, self-control, and decision

When dialectical behavior therapy is used with patients with borderline personality disorder, those patients, compared to patients receiving other forms of therapy, make:

Far fewer suicide attempts and are hospitalized less often

Dr. Marsha Linehan, developer of dialectical behavior therapy, would have diagnosed her young adult self with:

Borderline personality disorder

A patient receiving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder experiences an emotion that he or she realizes is inappropriate. Immediately after, the patient acts in a very different, appropriate, way. This DBT procedure is called:

Opposite action

Dialectical behavior therapy emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT:

Use of antipsychotic medications in an outpatient setting

Which of the following would MOST clearly fit into the biosocial theory of the
development of borderline personality disorder?

An individual who has difficult controlling internal emotions and parents who mislabel those emotions

The inability to accurately interpret one’s internal biological emotional or physiological
states is characteristic of both:

Borderline personality disorder and eating disorders

Which of the following have sociocultural theorists suggested as a cause for the
emergence of borderline personality disorder?

Rapid social change

Only 23 percent of adults report openly expressing their anger. Should they?

No, ironically, venting appears to make people angrier

What aspect of dialectical behavior therapy relates to psychodynamic theory?

The emphasis on the patient therapist relationship

. "That’s it!" says your friend, the psychotherapist. "I can’t work with that client. As soon
as I show any empathy at all, it becomes almost impossible to challenge the client, and
the client keeps calling me at all hours of the day." MOST likely, this is a client with:

Borderline personality disorder

A friend asks your advice about the BEST therapy to use for treating borderline
personality disorder. Your BEST answer is:

"Research suggests that dialectical behavior therapy is the most effective"

A therapist states, "I seldom use drugs when I treat clients with borderline personality
disorder." The therapist MOST likely says this because:

The risk of suicide increases because using drugs may lead to overdose

A client is searching for the BEST treatment for borderline personality disorder. Will
drug treatment be effective if it is the only intervention the client receives?

No; they should be used along with psychotherapy, if used at all.

"Beatlemania" gripped the United States in the 1960s when the British rock group, The
Beatles performed; adoring fans screamed, sometimes fainted, and shouted exaggerated,
emotional praise at the group. These behaviors MOST closely resemble the
characteristics of:


"You had one eye in the mirror as you watched yourself…/ You’re so vain, you
probably think this song is about you/ You’re so vain…" sang Carly Simon in the 1973
#1 hit, "You’re So Vain." If the subject of the song were diagnosed with a personality
disorder, which of the following would be the MOST likely diagnosis?


When the seat belt light in DiDi’s car stays on for a few extra seconds, she bursts into
tears. She always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate
show of emotion. She probably could receive a diagnosis of:

Histrionic personality disorder

A person constantly strives to be the center of attention, yet the ideas the person so
eloquently expresses are usually shallow and changeable. If this person were diagnosed
with a personality disorder, it MOST likely would be:

Histrionic personality disorder

"The problem is that they assume they can’t take care of themselves, so they think others
have to meet their needs. This pattern of thinking is not very helpful in trying to deal
with histrionic personality disorder." A psychologist from which of the following
perspectives would agree MOST strongly with this quote?


The type of therapist MOST likely to try to help people diagnosed with histrionic
personality disorder to believe they are not helpless, and to teach them better thinking
skills, is:


"I am the greatest!" a famous boxer declared loudly and often. Had he in fact acted
throughout his adult life as though he were the greatest, the most appropriate diagnosis
would be:

Narcissistic personality disorder

The personality disorder that is characterized by the need for undying love and
admiration is:


Ty is fairly handsome, but not as handsome as he thinks he is. He doesn’t care about
anyone but himself and is sure that everyone around him feels the same way. He is
MOST likely experiencing:

Narcissistic personality disorders

The "flower children" of the 1960s and 1970s have sometimes been called the "me"
generation, reflecting the supposed self-centered individualism of the time. If this is
true, a sociocultural theorist would predict a larger than usual percentage of which kind
of personality disorder among the aging "me" generation?

Narcissistic personality disorders

Behavioral and cognitive theorists propose that people who develop narcissistic
personality disorder may have been treated:

Too positively

Although lying—even compulsive lying—is not considered a psychological disorder, it
is sometimes characteristic of people with:

Narcissistic personality disorders

You might suspect an "era of narcissism" is approaching for a country when:

Increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness

Assume you have to give an in-class presentation about narcissistic personality disorder.
What is the MOST accurate thing you can say about treatment for this disorder?

No form of therapy is clearly better than the others

A client is initially very resistant to therapy, cannot acknowledge weaknesses, and
ignores feedback. MOST likely, the client is experiencing:

Narcissistic personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy

Like those with paranoid personality disorder, those with avoidant personality disorder

Are very sensitive to criticism and avoid close relationships

Elena can’t seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or
appearing foolish. She is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar
situations. She may be experiencing:

Avoidant personality disorder

Avoidant personality disorder seems MOST closely related to:

Social anxiety

If a person primarily fears close social relationships, one would MOST likely conclude
that the person is experiencing:

Avoidant personality disorder

According to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of
avoidant personality disorder is:

Shame in childhood

A client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase his or her number
of social contacts per day, The person, at the least, must greet others with the sentence,
"Hello, how are you doing?" MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical


Group therapy is particularly useful in the treatment of avoidant personality disorder
MAINLY because group therapy:

Gradually increases social contacts

Cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder focuses on:

Improving their self-image by changing their thought process

A person who has an excessive need to be taken care of and is clingy is MOST likely to
qualify for a diagnosis of:

Dependent personality disorder

People with avoidant personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships, while
people with dependent personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships.

Initiating, ending

A high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends, for suggestions
before deciding on a college to attend and on an academic major. This student’s
behavior is:


If parents excessively reinforce clinging and punish attempts at independence, the result
might be the development of:

Dependent personality disorder

A child who is severely criticized for acting independently, and who is praised for doing
exactly what parents say to do, later develops dependent personality disorder. The
therapist who would be LEAST surprised by this outcome would have which theoretical


"Be loyal to your family" was what the child heard all the time, along with, "You
shouldn’t and can’t do it on your own, so don’t even try." A behaviorist would say this
kind of upbringing would be MOST likely to produce which of the personality disorders
in the child, when he or she reached adulthood?


According to DSM-5, a personality disorder must "deviate markedly from the
expectations of a person’s culture." This implies that different cultures may not see some
behaviors as symptoms of personality disorders. What does the research in this area

There has been little multicultural research done, but some research shows differing cultural expectations

Among Hispanic Americans, the rates for borderline personality disorder for women
and men are about the same. Compared to many other cultural groups in the United
States, this finding is:

Very unusual; in most cultural groups about three times as many women as men receive diagnosis

"Group therapy is a good option for those with dependent personality disorder; they’ll be
able to observe others’ coping skills, and model them." This statement would MOST
likely be made by a therapist having which of the following theoretical perspectives?


One especially good reason to use a form of group therapy in the treatment of dependent
personality disorder is that:

The group members can model appropriate behaviors and expression of feelings to one another

In the United States, most teenagers have cell phones with text capability. Which of the
following MOST accurately describes adult cell phone usage?

Most have cell phones, and most of them text

The TV show Monk features a detective who is very seldom happy, has few good
friends, insists on a very rigid order and way in which he must do things, and frequently
has difficulty making up his mind about what to do. If he were diagnosed with a
personality disorder, it would MOST likely be:

Obsessive compulsive

The TV show Saturday Night Live once featured a skit involving an "Anal Retentive
Carpenter," who had to keep all his tools and work materials in just the "right" places,
arranged "just so." He was very anxious anytime tools and materials were not just as he
wanted them. The MOST appropriate diagnosis for the carpenter would be:

Obsessive compulsive

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is MOST common among:

Men with jobs

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the relationship between
obsessive-compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder) and obsessive-compulsive
personality disorder?

Some people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder also experience obsessive-compulsive disorder (anxiety disorder).

Psychodynamic theorists explain obsessive-compulsive personality disorder as a
fixation at the:


"It is obvious that this case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder arises from an
early childhood fixation." Which type of psychologist would MOST likely have made
that statement?

Psychodynamic – Freudian

With the help of a therapist, a client with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has
experienced a dramatic decrease in both dichotomous thinking and worrying. The
client’s behavior is:

Uncommon; most with obsessive compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy

Those diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder appear MORE
responsive to which kinds of therapy?

Psychodynamic and cognitive therapy

A group of diagnostic clinicians can’t agree with each other on appropriate personality
disorder diagnoses for several clients. In fact, it is obvious that, in many cases, they
have made inaccurate diagnoses. Assuming they are competent clinicians, this situation
would indicate the DSM-5 categories for personality disorder are:

Neither reliable nor valid

All of the following are problems in the use of the DSM-5 to diagnose personality
disorders EXCEPT:

Of the following statements, which MOST accurately reflects up-to-date research on
DSM-5 categories of personality disorder?

Individuals do not necessarily have to have very similar personalities to receive the same diagnosis

"Let’s try to figure out where clients fall on several key personality traits, rather than
using a dichotomous classification system." Someone saying this would MOST likely
favor which approach to classifying personality disorders?

Dimensional approach

DSM-5 has been described as functioning like a light switch, which can be "on" or
"off." In other words, one either does or does not qualify for a personality disorder
diagnosis. Some theorists suggest that degree of symptoms, not symptom absence or
presence, is more important and similar to a:

Dimmer switch, with the light adjustable from all the way off to all the way on

"The client scores low on extroversion and agreeableness, but high on neuroticism.
Looks like schizoid personality disorder to me." The therapist being quoted is using
what instrument to make the diagnosis?

Big five personality

If instruments such as the "Big Five" are used to describe personality, rather than
relying on DSM-5, then diagnosis of psychological disorder would become:

Less categorical and more a matter of degree

Currently, the "Big Five" approach to personality disorders is:

A large body of research conducted with diverse populations consistently suggests that the basic structure of personality may consist of five "supertraits" or factors – Neuroticism Extroversion Openness to experience Agreeableness Conscientious -The DSM-5 Framers have designed their own alternative dimensional approach for possible use in a future revision —-People whose traits significantly impair their functioning should receive a diagnosis called personality disorder— trait specified (PDTS) —When assigning this diagnosis, clinicians would also identify and list the problematic traits and rate the severity of impairment caused by them.

The authors of DSM-5 have designed their own dimensional approach in diagnosing
personality disorders for possible inclusion in future revisions of the DSM. The idea is
that individuals whose traits significantly impair their functioning should receive a
diagnosis of:

Personality disorders trait specified

The five traits to be included in future revisions of the DSM-5 that utilize a dimensional
approach in diagnosing personality disorders are:

Negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism

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