Abnormal Psych Chapter 16

The enduring pattern of inner thoughts and emotions along with outward behavior that is unique to each individual is termed:
A)
a trait.
B)
character.
C)
personality.
D)
individuality.

C) personality.

The consistencies of one's characteristics are called:
A)
inherited characteristics.
B)
learned responses.
C)
personality traits.
D)
personality typologies.

C) personality traits.

What differentiates normal personality characteristics from personality disorders?
A)
the specific characteristics
B)
the degree of inflexibility and maladaptiveness
C)
the length of time one possesses the characteristics
D)
All the answers are correct.

D) All the answers are correct.

The MOST important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that:
A)
disorders of thought, perception, and attention are present.
B)
the personality traits are limited to discrete periods of illness.
C)
they are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress.
D)
they are social in that they involve an inability to form lasting relationships with other people.

C) they are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress.

DSM-5, like its predecessor, DSM-IV-TR, identifies 10 personality disorders utilizing a:
A)
systematical approach.
B)
categorical approach.
C)
dimensional approach.
D)
phrenological approach.

B) categorical approach.

All of the following are criticisms of DSM-5 diagnoses of personality disorders EXCEPT:
A)
the reliability of the diagnosis.
B)
the validity of the diagnosis.
C)
distinguishing one personality disorder from another personality disorder.
D)
incorporating new research into the new edition.

D) incorporating new research into the new edition.

One reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals:
A)
enjoy their symptoms and do not seek change.
B)
are frequently unaware that they have a problem.
C)
experience no distress and do not want treatment.
D)
have accompanying mood disorders that must be treated first.

B) are frequently unaware that they have a problem.

Comorbidity means that:
A)
one disorder may develop into another.
B)
one disorder automatically implies the other.
C)
two disorders may occur together in an individual.
D)
the appearance of one disorder implies the disappearance of the one that preceded it.

C) two disorders may occur together in an individual.

Personality disorders are categorized into three main clusters that include all of the following EXCEPT:
A)
odd.
B)
dramatic.
C)
anxious.
D)
schizophrenic.

D) schizophrenic.

Which of the following would a phrenologist MOST likely have done?
A)
assessed personality by feeling for bumps and indentations on the head
B)
argued that personality disorders should not be categorized according to symptoms
C)
treated personality disorders using didactic behavioral therapy
D)
criticized the validity and reliability of personality disorders in DSM

A) assessed personality by feeling for bumps and indentations on the head

The categorical approach to personality disorders assumes that:
A)
problematic personality traits are either present or absent.
B)
personality disorders are best understood on a continuum based on severity of symptoms.
C)
individuals can turn their symptoms off and on like a light switch.
D)
children as well as adults should be diagnosed with personality disorders.

A) problematic personality traits are either present or absent.

Based on a structured interview, Diagnostician A classifies an individual's personality disorder in the "odd" cluster. Based on another structured interview of the same type, Diagnostician B classifies an individual's personality disorder in the "dramatic" cluster. If what is described here is typical of what happens when that variety of structured interview is used, one would say the structured interview has:
A)
high reliability and high validity.
B)
high reliability and low validity.
C)
low reliability and high validity.
D)
low reliability and low validity

D) low reliability and low validity

If you believe that personality disorders are BEST understood as a matter of degree in difference from typical personality rather than as a specific diagnosis, you agree with:
A)
the dimensional approach.
B)
the categorical approach.
C)
the symptomatic approach.
D)
the cluster approach.

A) the dimensional approach.

How do personality disorders differ from the personality characteristics of typical people?
A)
They lead to more maladaptive, distressful, and inflexible behaviors.
B)
They include personality traits not experienced by typical people.
C)
They are generally treated successfully with antipsychotic medication.
D)
They are caused by epigenetic processes.

A) They lead to more maladaptive, distressful, and inflexible behaviors.

An individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. That individual is MOST likely to have a parent or sibling who has:
A)
bipolar disorder.
B)
schizophrenia.
C)
one of the paraphilias.
D)
alcoholism.

B) schizophrenia.

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate, in terms of current research findings?
A)
"Odd" personality disorders cause schizophrenia.
B)
"Odd" personality disorders are caused by schizophrenia.
C)
"Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another.
D)
"Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are not related to one another.

C) "Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another.

The category of "odd" personality disorders includes the traits of:
A)
anxiety and fearfulness.
B)
being highly dramatic, emotional, or erratic.
C)
inflexibility and total loss of contact with reality.
D)
extreme suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and perceptual peculiarities.

D) extreme suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and perceptual peculiarities.

Reese is distrustful of others and reacts quickly to perceived threats. Even though he has no evidence, he is sure his wife is unfaithful. He finds it almost impossible to forgive those he thinks have wronged him. Reese displays the characteristics of:
A)
avoidant personality disorder.
B)
paranoid personality disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) paranoid personality disorder.

"It is clear that very demanding parents caused this person to develop paranoid personality disorder." This statement MOST likely would be made by someone from which of the following theoretical perspectives?
A)
cognitive
B)
behavioral
C)
sociocultural
D)
psychodynamic

D) psychodynamic

According to current research, if a person living in the United States is distrustful of both lawyers and congressional members, that type of person is:
A)
rare: such distrust defines those with paranoid personality disorder.
B)
rare: such distrust defines those with schizotypal personality disorder.
C)
uncommon: great distrust of congressional members but not great distrust of lawyers defines those with paranoid personality disorder.
D)
common: most people in the United States distrust both lawyers and congressional members.

D) common: most people in the United States distrust both lawyers and congressional members.

A person experiencing paranoid personality disorder frequently says things like "You've got to get them before they get you," and "People have been sinners since the Garden of Eden." If these sayings reflect maladaptive assumptions the person has about people in general, the theorist who would be LEAST surprised would have which theoretical position?
A)
cognitive
B)
biological
C)
sociocultural
D)
psychodynamic

A) cognitive

Which of the following statements regarding the treatment of paranoid personality disorder is MOST accurate?
A)
Drug therapy generally works best.
B)
Psychodynamic therapy involving hypnotic regression is often effective.
C)
Behavioral therapy usually works well, and in relatively few sessions.
D)
Most therapies are of limited effectiveness and progress slowly.

D) Most therapies are of limited effectiveness and progress slowly.

One similarity of those experiencing paranoid personality disorder and those experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they tend:
A)
not to have close ties to others.
B)
to distrust others.
C)
to be described by others as arrogant and angry.
D)
not to score well on typical intelligence tests.

A) not to have close ties to others.

The schizoid personality disorder differs from paranoid personality disorder in that:
A)
those with schizoid personality disorder seek close affiliations with others, while those with paranoid personality do not.
B)
paranoid personality disorder is treatable only through drug therapy; schizoid personality can be treated with psychotherapy.
C)
women are more likely to have schizoid personality disorder than paranoid personality disorder; the opposite is true for men.
D)
those with schizoid personality disorder desire to be alone; those with paranoid personality are alone because of suspiciousness.

D) those with schizoid personality disorder desire to be alone; those with paranoid personality are alone because of suspiciousness.

Wes has always been a loner. He has never much cared for being with other people and does not form relationships easily. He appears to be without emotion. Wes may be exhibiting:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
paranoid personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

A) schizoid personality disorder.

The theorist who describes schizoid personality disorder as developing from coping with parental rejection by avoiding relationships represents the:
A)
cognitive perspective,
B)
behavioral perspective.
C)
existential perspective.
D)
psychodynamic perspective.

D) psychodynamic perspective.

The parents of those with schizoid personality disorder are MOST likely to have been:
A)
responsive.
B)
accepting.
C)
unaccepting.
D)
available.

C) unaccepting.

A person who is LEAST likely to be affected by criticism or praise from other people is one suffering from:
A)
avoidant personality disorder.
B)
schizoid personality disorder.
C)
paranoid personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) schizoid personality disorder.

An individual diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder reports having a great deal of difficulty figuring out how others feel, and as a child had difficulty developing adequate language skills. These findings would make the MOST sense to a theorist with which background?
A)
psychodynamic
B)
sociocultural
C)
cognitive
D)
biological

C) cognitive

Cognitive theorists believe that because of their difficulty scanning the environment, perceiving accurately, and picking up emotional cues, those with schizoid personalities develop ______ very slowly.
A)
language and motor skills
B)
secondary sex characteristics
C)
allergies and other medical problems
D)
thinking disorders

A) language and motor skills

There is a new game called "Moods" where one acts out the mood listed on a card. Being encouraged to play this game is most like the treatment _____ might use for those with schizoid disorders.
A)
psychoanalytic therapists
B)
cognitive therapists
C)
behavioral therapists
D)
biological therapists

B) cognitive therapists

The type of therapy that generally provides the least help for those with schizoid personality disorder is:
A)
behavioral.
B)
drug.
C)
cognitive.
D)
None of the other alternatives provide help for those with schizoid personality disorder.

B) drug.

Schizotypal personality disorders differ from other "odd" personality disorders in that they are related to schizophrenia and:
A)
stress disorders.
B)
mood disorders.
C)
anxiety disorders.
D)
mental retardation.

B) mood disorders.

When Selina sees a report of a train wreck on television, she thinks that it is a sign that she should not take the train to work the next day and so decides to take the bus instead. If she has a diagnosable personality disorder, it is MOST likely:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
paranoid personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

D) schizotypal personality disorder.

A belief that the news anchor on CNN is giving one important messages about one's behavior reflects:
A)
bodily illusions.
B)
ideas of reference.
C)
passive-aggressive disorder.
D)
backward masking.

B) ideas of reference.

Digressive and vague language with loose associations accompanied by attention and concentration problems are characteristic of:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
paranoid personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

D) schizotypal personality disorder.

The disorder that appears to be MOST closely related to the schizotypal personality disorder is:
A)
anxiety.
B)
schizophrenia.
C)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

B) schizophrenia.

A person who does poorly on a task called backward masking is MOST likely to be experiencing:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
paranoid personality disorder.
C)
borderline personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

D) schizotypal personality disorder.

A client has enlarged brain ventricles and a measurable loss of gray matter. These symptoms are:
A)
psychoneuroimmunological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder.
B)
psychoneuroimmunological, and the most likely diagnosis is antisocial personality disorder.
C)
biological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder.
D)
biological, and the most likely diagnosis is antisocial personality disorder.

C) biological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder.

Characteristics of the Virginia Tech shooter reveal that he:
A)
fit the diagnostic category of histrionic personality disorder.
B)
displayed a combination of features from many personality disorders.
C)
did not fit any of the personality disorders.
D)
did not appear to have a mental disorder.

B) displayed a combination of features from many personality disorders.

As part of their therapy, clients learn to evaluate their unusual thoughts, track the accuracy of "magical" predictions, and reconnect with the world and with their limitations. The diagnoses of these clients would MOST likely be in which of the following broad categories of personality disorder?
A)
"dependent"
B)
"dramatic"
C)
"anxious"
D)
"odd"

D) "odd"

Should drugs be used in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder?
A)
Maybe; in low doses, they seem to help some clients.
B)
Maybe; in high doses, they seem to help some clients.
C)
Yes; in low doses, they seem to help practically all clients.
D)
Yes; in high doses, they seem to help practically all clients.

A) Maybe; in low doses, they seem to help some clients.

Which category of personality disorder contains the disorders MOST commonly diagnosed?
A)
"odd"
B)
"dramatic"
C)
"anxious"
D)
There are no clear differences among the categories in terms of frequency of diagnosis.

B) "dramatic"

An adult has been jailed for the third time for fraud; each time it has been for persuading investors to put money into a phony silver mine. If the adult has received a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis, it is MOST likely either:
A)
schizotypal personality disorder or a stress disorder.
B)
schizotypal personality disorder or a substance-related disorder.
C)
antisocial personality disorder or a stress disorder.
D)
antisocial personality disorder or a substance-related disorder.

D) antisocial personality disorder or a substance-related disorder.

A friend of yours says, "A 15-year-old high schooler accused of shooting several classmates received a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder." Your MOST accurate reply would be:
A)
"Yes, that kind of behavior often is associated with that diagnosis."
B)
"I don't think so; those with that diagnosis seldom engage in criminal activity."
C)
"Yes, and I'll bet that wasn't the only diagnosis, either."
D)
"No; the kid is too young for that diagnosis."

D) "No; the kid is too young for that diagnosis."

Cruelty to animals and people, destruction of property, and truancy before the age of 15:
A)
may be best diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder.
B)
are characteristic of those later diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.
C)
predict later antisocial disorder with virtual certainty.
D)
seem unrelated to antisocial personality disorder.

B) are characteristic of those later diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.

Which of these well-known people appears to have displayed symptoms of antisocial personality disorder?
A)
Mitt Romney
B)
Bernie Madoff
C)
Bill Clinton
D)
Martha Stewart

B) Bernie Madoff

Ben set up an elaborate scheme to mine gold in the Rockies. He had a large town meeting and made a presentation of his stock. The shares were only $5 each, and everyone could afford them. He showed pictures of the mine and explained how the company expected to gross $100 million each month. As it turns out, he was a terrific con artist who had made several "successful" proposals such as this in towns across America in the last couple of years. He is MOST likely suffering from:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) antisocial personality disorder.

Which of the following statements is NOT generally true of those with antisocial personality disorder?
A)
They lie very frequently.
B)
They are careless with money, and often do not pay their debts.
C)
They care for no one's safety, except theirs and their children's.
D)
They have little regard for their own safety or the safety of others.

C) They care for no one's safety, except theirs and their children's.

Sarah respects none of society's boundaries and is insensitive to other people, frequently violating their rights. She does not consider the consequences of her actions. She MOST probably experiences:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

B) antisocial personality disorder.

A friend says to you, "He must have antisocial personality disorder; look how careful he is about his own well-being, but how careless he is about others' safety." Your MOST accurate reply would be:
A)
"You're right; those are classic characteristics of antisocial personality disorder."
B)
"You're partly right; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careful about the safety of family members."
C)
"You're partly right; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careless about their own safety, as well as the safety of others."
D)
"You've got it backwards; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careless of their own safety, but show at least some concern for others' safety."

C) "You're partly right; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careless about their own safety, as well as the safety of others."

If you wanted to write a book about a fictional character who is a "typical" example of antisocial personality disorder, you might have the character exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:
A)
incessant lying.
B)
periods of very high anxiety.
C)
persistent violation of others' rights.
D)
lack of conscience after committing crimes.

B) periods of very high anxiety.

Which of the following statements BEST represents current knowledge about mass murderers?
A)
The mental health field has a clear understanding of what causes mass murderers to behave as they do.
B)
We really don't know what causes mass murderers to act or how to treat them.
C)
We know how to treat mass murderers effectively; we just don't have the funds to offer treatment to all who need it.
D)
The focus of the field is more on the feelings of mass murderers than on their diagnoses.

B) We really don't know what causes mass murderers to act or how to treat them.

Which of the following marks an individual as a pseudocommando?
A)
wearing combat fatigues while committing mass murder
B)
expecting to be killed while committing mass murder
C)
forcing others to engage in mass murder
D)
previously serving as a member of the military in a noncombat zone

B) expecting to be killed while committing mass murder

Which of the following is MOST characteristic of mass murderers?
A)
a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder
B)
previous imprisonment
C)
feelings of persecution and desire for revenge
D)
being under the influence of illegal substances while killing

C) feelings of persecution and desire for revenge

The strong relationship between antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse means that:
A)
substance abuse causes individuals to develop antisocial personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder causes individuals to abuse substances.
C)
there are high rates of substance abuse among those with antisocial personality disorder.
D)
if individuals stop abusing substances, their antisocial personality disorder will be cured.

C) there are high rates of substance abuse among those with antisocial personality disorder.

The two childhood disorders that have been related to later antisocial personality disorder are:
A)
depression and withdrawal.
B)
schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
C)
mental retardation.
D)
conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

D) conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The absence of parental love results in emotional detachment and the use of power to form relationships. This is most likely a _____ personality disorder.
A)
cognitive
B)
biological
C)
behavioral
D)
psychodynamic

D) psychodynamic

The fact that children may learn antisocial behavior by modeling parental conflict and aggressiveness provides support for:
A)
psychodynamic theory.
B)
behavioral theory.
C)
both psychodynamic and behavioral theories.
D)
neither psychodynamic nor behavioral theories.

B) behavioral theory.

A young boy is constantly told by his parents to "Be a man!" whenever he is in conflict with friends. In turn, his parents themselves often act aggressively toward each other, and toward him. The theorist who would be BEST able to explain an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder for this boy would be a ______ theorist.
A)
behavioral
B)
cognitive
C)
biological
D)
psychodynamic

A) behavioral

Giving in to a child's refusal to comply with a parental request may inadvertently reinforce stubborn and defiant behavior, setting the scene for the development of antisocial personality disorder. This is most like a ______ disorder.
A)
cognitive
B)
biological
C)
behavioral
D)
psychodynamic

C) behavioral

Biologically speaking, if one wanted to treat antisocial personality disorder, one would want to ______ the individual with the disorder.
A)
reduce the degree of interpersonal sensitivity in
B)
identify those who are modeling antisocial personality disorder for
C)
increase the anxiety level of
D)
decrease the rewards available for the antisocial behavior in

C) increase the anxiety level of

Assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they generally experience less anxiety than other people when they lie or "con" others. This outcome would most strongly support which theoretical position?
A)
behavioral
B)
psychodynamic
C)
cognitive
D)
biological

D) biological

Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding antisocial personality disorder?
A)
Most who have it are not treated, and most who are treated are not helped much.
B)
Most who have it are not treated, but most who are treated are helped substantially.
C)
Most who have it are treated, but most who are treated are not helped much.
D)
Most who have it are treated, and most who are treated are helped substantially.

A) Most who have it are not treated, and most who are treated are not helped much.

An individual with a diagnosed personality disorder is emotionally unstable, impulsive, and reckless. This person's diagnosis is likely to be which of the following personality disorders?
A)
borderline
B)
schizotypal
C)
obsessive-compulsive
D)
avoidant

A) borderline

"There's nothing out there for me. I can't stand other people, and I can't stand myself, either. I'm just really mad right now." Such a statement would most likely be made by someone with which personality disorder?
A)
borderline
B)
antisocial
C)
narcissistic
D)
paranoid

A) borderline

"That personality disorder has become so common, I encounter it almost every day in the emergency room." MOST likely, this doctor is talking about which personality disorder?
A)
borderline
B)
antisocial
C)
schizoid
D)
avoidant

A) borderline

Lisa felt like she was on an emotional roller coaster. She felt angry and empty. Lisa's feelings are MOST similar to those of someone with:
A)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
B)
narcissistic personality disorder.
C)
borderline personality disorder.
D)
antisocial personality disorder.

C) borderline personality disorder.

What is a common reason for the hospitalization of people with borderline personality disorder?
A)
They may attempt suicide or otherwise hurt themselves.
B)
They finally cannot care for themselves.
C)
They voluntarily ask for hospitalization, out of desperation.
D)
They are so afraid of leaving their homes that they suffer social paralysis.

A) They may attempt suicide or otherwise hurt themselves.

Transported to the hospital after a suicide attempt, a man is later admitted to the hospital's psychiatric wing. His history showed other self-destructive behaviors and recklessness. MOST likely, if the man is diagnosed with a personality disorder, it will be:
A)
paranoid.
B)
avoidant.
C)
narcissistic.
D)
borderline.

D) borderline.

Studies of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder show that:
A)
less than half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and almost none succeed.
B)
less than half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and over 5 percent succeed.
C)
over half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and almost none succeed.
D)
over half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and about 10 percent succeed.

D) over half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and about 10 percent succeed.

A therapist treating a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder came up with the following analysis: the parents probably did not want children in the first place; the child just was not accepted; the child developed low self-esteem, dependency, and an inability to cope with separation. The therapist's theoretical orientation is probably:
A)
behavioral.
B)
biological.
C)
object relations theory.
D)
cognitive-behavioral theory.

C) object relations theory.

Gort's parents never quite liked him, probably did not want children in the first place. He just was not accepted. It was clear early in school that Gort had a low opinion of himself and did not know how to interact with the other children. Now he cuts himself and has been to the ER several times. This is a description of the possible development of:
A)
histrionic personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
schizoid personality disorder.
D)
borderline personality disorder.

D) borderline personality disorder.

Which of the following has experienced "triggering"?
A)
an individual who posts YouTube videos of himself biting and cutting himself
B)
an individual who commits suicide by shooting himself while someone else films it
C)
an individual who is prompted to injure himself intentionally after watching someone else do it
D)
an individual who engages in intentional self-injury but encourages others not to do so

C) an individual who is prompted to injure himself intentionally after watching someone else do it

If an individual has damage to the prefrontal cortex, which of the following symptoms would MOST likely be observed?
A)
fear and other negative emotions
B)
a thought disorder
C)
odd but imaginative language
D)
deficits in planning, self-control, and decision making

D) deficits in planning, self-control, and decision making

Which of the following have sociocultural theorists suggested as a cause for the emergence of borderline personality disorder?
A)
rapid social change
B)
traditional family structures
C)
clinging and dependent parents
D)
nontraditional family structures

A) rapid social change

Which of the following would MOST clearly fit into the biosocial theory of the development of borderline personality disorder?
A)
an individual who has deficits in the functioning of both the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex
B)
an individual who has family members who display many of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder
C)
an individual who engages in self-injurious behavior while under the influence of illegal substances
D)
an individual who has difficulty controlling internal emotions and parents who mislabel those emotions

D) an individual who has difficulty controlling internal emotions and parents who mislabel those emotions

The inability to accurately interpret one's internal biological emotional or physiological states is characteristic of both:
A)
schizophrenia and schizoid personality disorder.
B)
a mass murderer and self-injurious behavior.
C)
odd and dramatic personality disorders.
D)
borderline personality disorder and eating disorders.

D) borderline personality disorder and eating disorders.

"That's it!" says your friend, the psychotherapist. "I can't work with that client. As soon as I show any empathy at all, it becomes almost impossible to challenge the client, and the client keeps calling me at all hours of the day." MOST likely, this is a client with:
A)
borderline personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

A) borderline personality disorder.

What aspect of dialectical behavior therapy relates to psychodynamic theory?
A)
the emphasis on anal retention
B)
the emphasis on social skills training
C)
the emphasis on multicultural influences on behavior
D)
the emphasis on the patient-therapist relationship.

D) the emphasis on the patient-therapist relationship.

A friend asks your advice about the MOST effective therapy to use for treating borderline personality disorder. Your BEST answer is:
A)
"There is no effective therapy for borderline personality disorder.
B)
"If you're going to use a psychodynamic approach, avoid relational therapy.
C)
"Using drugs is a safe, effective way to treat the disorder."
D)
"Research suggests that dialectical behavior therapy is the most effective."

D) "Research suggests that dialectical behavior therapy is the most effective."

When dialectical behavior therapy is used with patients with borderline personality disorder, those patients, compared to patients receiving other forms of therapy, make:
A)
far fewer suicide attempts, and are hospitalized less often.
B)
far fewer suicide attempts, but are hospitalized about as often.
C)
about the same number of suicide attempts, but are hospitalized less often.
D)
about the same number of suicide attempts, and are hospitalized about as often.

A) far fewer suicide attempts, and are hospitalized less often.

Dr. Marsha Linehan, the developer of dialectical behavior therapy, would have diagnosed her young adult self with:
A)
antisocial personality disorder.
B)
borderline personality disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
dependent personality disorder.

B) borderline personality disorder.

A patient receiving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder experiences an emotion that he or she realizes is inappropriate. Immediately after, the patient acts in a very different, appropriate, way. This DBT procedure is called:
A)
reactive correction.
B)
counterbalancing.
C)
opposite action.
D)
"fine tuning."

C) opposite action.

Dialectical behavior therapy emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT:
A)
social skills training.
B)
mindfulness meditation (a Zen technique involving observing one's emotions).
C)
the client-therapist relationship.
D)
the use of antipsychotic medications in an outpatient setting.

D) the use of antipsychotic medications in an outpatient setting.

A therapist states, "I seldom use drugs when I treat clients with borderline personality disorder." The therapist MOST likely says this because:
A)
the risk of suicide increases because using drugs may lead to overdose.
B)
in most cases, drugs seem to make aggressiveness even worse.
C)
in most cases, drugs seem to make emotional outbursts even more extreme.
D)
the therapist is unaware that drugs are always used in combination with dialectical behavior therapy, the most effective therapy for those with borderline personality disorder.

A) the risk of suicide increases because using drugs may lead to overdose.

A client is searching for the BEST treatment for borderline personality disorder. Will drug treatment be effective if it is the only intervention the client receives?
A)
Yes; drugs alone work at least as well as drugs plus psychotherapy, and are less expensive.
B)
Yes; drugs alone work at least as well as drugs plus psychotherapy, but are expensive.
C)
Maybe; but only if the client is nonsuicidal.
D)
No; they should be used along with psychotherapy, if used at all.

D) No; they should be used along with psychotherapy, if used at all.

"Beatlemania" gripped the United States in the 1960s when the British rock group The Beatles performed; adoring fans screamed, sometimes fainted, and shouted exaggerated, emotional praise at the group. These behaviors MOST closely resemble the characteristics of:
A)
histrionic personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
schizoid personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

A) histrionic personality disorder.

"You had one eye in the mirror as you watched yourself.../You're so vain, you probably think this song is about you/You're so vain..." sang Carly Simon in the 1973 #1 hit, "You're So Vain." If the subject of the song were diagnosed with a personality disorder, which of the following would be the MOST likely diagnosis?
A)
antisocial
B)
histrionic
C)
schizoid
D)
schizotypal

B) histrionic

When the seat belt light in DiDi's car stays on for a few extra seconds, she bursts into tears. She always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate show of emotion. She probably could receive a diagnosis of:
A)
obsessive personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

C) histrionic personality disorder.

A person constantly strives to be the center of attention, yet the ideas the person so eloquently expresses are usually shallow and changeable. If this person were diagnosed with a personality disorder, it MOST likely would be:
A)
histrionic.
B)
borderline.
C)
antisocial.
D)
obsessive-compulsive.

A) histrionic.

"The problem is that they assume they can't take care of themselves, so they think others have to meet their needs. This pattern of thinking is not very helpful in trying to deal with histrionic personality disorder." A psychologist from which of the following perspectives would agree MOST strongly with this quote?
A)
biological
B)
sociocultural
C)
cognitive
D)
behavioral

C) cognitive

The type of therapist MOST likely to try to help people diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder to believe they are not helpless, and to teach them better thinking skills, is a ______ therapist:
A)
psychodynamic
B)
cognitive
C)
sociocultural
D)
behavioral

B) cognitive

"I am the greatest!" a famous boxer declared loudly and often. Had he in fact acted throughout his adult life as though he were the greatest, the most appropriate diagnosis would be:
A)
histrionic personality disorder.
B)
narcissistic personality disorder.
C)
antisocial personality disorder.
D)
impulse-control personality disorder.

B) narcissistic personality disorder.

The personality disorder that is characterized by the need for undying love and admiration is:
A)
borderline.
B)
histrionic.
C)
narcissistic.
D)
schizotypal.

C) narcissistic.

Ty is fairly handsome, but not as handsome as he thinks he is. He doesn't care about anyone but himself and is sure that everyone around him feels the same way. He is MOST likely experiencing:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
narcissistic personality disorder.
C)
schizotypal personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) narcissistic personality disorder.

The "flower children" of the 1960s and 1970s have sometimes been called the "me" generation, reflecting the supposed self-centered individualism of the time. If this is true, a sociocultural theorist would predict a larger than usual percentage of which kind of personality disorder among the aging "me" generation?
A)
narcissistic
B)
antisocial
C)
obsessive-compulsive
D)
dependent

A) narcissistic

Behavioral and cognitive theorists propose that people who develop narcissistic personality disorder may have been treated:
A)
too positively in early life.
B)
too negatively in early life.
C)
either too positively or too negatively in early life.
D)
ambiguously and neglectfully in early life.

A) too positively in early life.

You might suspect an "era of narcissism" is approaching for a country when:
A)
there is increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness.
B)
preferences in women's and men's clothing undergo substantial shifts.
C)
there is a decline in materialism and individualism.
D)
the sale of "inspirational" DVDs, books, and tapes suddenly increases.

A) there is increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness.

Assume you have to give an in-class presentation about narcissistic personality disorder. What is the MOST accurate thing you can say about treatment for this disorder?
A)
"Cognitive therapy works best."
B)
"Behavioral therapy works best."
C)
"Psychodynamic therapy works best."
D)
"No form of therapy is clearly better than the others.

D) "No form of therapy is clearly better than the others.

A client is initially very resistant to therapy, cannot acknowledge weaknesses, and ignores feedback. MOST likely, the client is experiencing:
A)
schizoid personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy.
B)
schizoid personality disorder, and will make a great deal of progress in therapy.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder, and will make a great deal of progress in therapy.

C) narcissistic personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy.

Like those with paranoid personality disorder, those with avoidant personality disorder usually:
A)
are very sensitive to criticism.
B)
avoid close relationships.
C)
are very sensitive to criticism and avoid close relationships.
D)
are indifferent to criticism and seek out close relationships.

C) are very sensitive to criticism and avoid close relationships.

Elena can't seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or appearing foolish. She is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar situations. She may be experiencing:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

B) avoidant personality disorder.

Avoidant personality disorder seems MOST closely related to:
A)
schizophrenia.
B)
social anxiety.
C)
mania.
D)
eating disorders.

B) social anxiety.

If a person primarily fears close social relationships, one would MOST likely conclude that the person is experiencing:
A)
social phobia.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
both social phobia and avoidance personality disorder.
D)
a personality disorder from the dramatic cluster.

B) avoidant personality disorder.

According to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of avoidant personality disorder is:
A)
an early sense of guilt.
B)
early experiences of shame.
C)
lack of development of trust.
D)
an inability to express anger.

B) early experiences of shame

A client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase the number of social contacts per day. The person, at the least, must greet others with the sentence, "Hello; how are you doing?" MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical background?
A)
psychodynamic
B)
cognitive
C)
behavioral
D)
sociocultural

C) behavioral

Group therapy is particularly useful in the treatment of avoidant personality disorder MAINLY because group therapy:
A)
allows those in the group to see that others have avoidant personality disorder, too.
B)
involves an eclectic combination of theoretical approaches.
C)
provides practice in social interactions.
D)
requires attendance at therapy sessions.

C) provides practice in social interactions.

Cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder focuses on:
A)
providing practice in social behaviors in a group setting.
B)
increasing the client's tolerance of emotional discomfort and building up his or her self- image.
C)
providing social skills training and exposure treatment that requires clients to gradually increase their social contacts.
D)
helping patients uncover the origins of their symptoms and resolve the unconscious conflicts that may be operating.

B) increasing the client's tolerance of emotional discomfort and building up his or her self- image.

A person who has an excessive need to be taken care of and is clingy is MOST likely to qualify for a diagnosis of:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
histrionic personality disorder.
C)
dependent personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

C) dependent personality disorder.

People with avoidant personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships, while people with dependent personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships.
A)
initiating; ending
B)
ending; initiating
C)
ending; beginning
D)
seeking; initiating

A) initiating; ending

A high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends for suggestions before deciding on a college to attend, and on an academic major. This student's behavior is:
A)
typical of those with dependent personality disorder.
B)
typical of those who will develop dependent personality disorder.
C)
normal for those in high school.
D)
reflective of an anxiety disorder, not of dependent personality disorder.

C) normal for those in high school.

If parents excessively reinforce clinging and punish attempts at independence, the result might be the development of:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
borderline personality disorder.
C)
dependent personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

C) dependent personality disorder.

A child who is severely criticized for acting independently, and who is praised for doing exactly what parents say to do, later develops dependent personality disorder. The therapist who would be LEAST surprised by this outcome would have which theoretical orientation?
A)
sociocultural
B)
behavioral
C)
cognitive
D)
psychodynamic

B) behavioral

"Be loyal to your family" was what the child heard all the time, along with "You shouldn't— and can't—do it on your own, so don't even try." A behaviorist would say this kind of upbringing would be MOST likely to produce which of the personality disorders in the child, when he or she reached adulthood?
A)
narcissistic
B)
antisocial
C)
avoidant
D)
dependent

D) dependent

"Group therapy is a good option for those with dependent personality disorder; they'll be able to observe others' coping skills, and model them." This statement would MOST likely be made by a therapist having which of the following theoretical perspectives?
A)
psychodynamic
B)
behavioral
C)
sociocultural
D)
biological

B) behavioral

One especially good reason to use a form of group therapy in the treatment of dependent personality disorder is that:
A)
the therapist can still control the group, because the participants are so dependent.
B)
the group members will see how maladaptive the dependent behavior is when they observe it in the other group members.
C)
the group members can model appropriate behaviors and expression of feelings to one another.
D)
All of these alternatives are good reasons to use group therapy with those with dependent personality disorder.

C) the group members can model appropriate behaviors and expression of feelings to one another.

In the United States, most teenagers have cell phones and text. Which of the following MOST accurately describes adult cell phone usage?
A)
Most do not have cell phones, so most do not text.
B)
About half have cell phones, but most of them do not text.
C)
Most have cell phones, but most of them do not text.
D)
Most have cell phones, and most of them text.

D) Most have cell phones, and most of them text.

The TV show Monk features a detective who is very seldom happy, has few good friends, has a very rigid order and way in which he must do things, and who frequently has difficulty making up his mind about what to do. If he were diagnosed with a personality disorder, it would MOST likely be a ______ disorder.
A)
narcissistic
B)
obsessive-compulsive
C)
schizoptypal
D)
borderline

B) obsessive-compulsive

The TV show Saturday Night Live once featured a skit involving an "Anal Retentive Carpenter," who had to keep all his tools and work materials in just the "right" places, arranged "just so." He was very anxious any time tools and materials were not just as he wanted them. The MOST appropriate diagnosis for the carpenter would be:
A)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
B)
borderline personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
impulse-control personality disorder.

A) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is MOST common among:
A)
unemployed women.
B)
women with jobs.
C)
unemployed men.
D)
men with jobs.

D) men with jobs.

Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?
A)
You cannot suffer from both of them at the same time.
B)
Some people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder also experience obsessive- compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder).
C)
The most likely disorder comorbid with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is obsessive-compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder).
D)
The two obsessive-compulsive disorders are comorbid over half the time.

B) Some people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder also experience obsessive- compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder)

Psychodynamic theorists explain obsessive-compulsive personality disorder as a fixation at the:
A)
oral stage.
B)
anal stage.
C)
phallic stage.
D)
genital stage.

B) anal stage.

"It is obvious that this case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder arises from an early childhood fixation." Which type of psychologist would MOST likely have made that statement?
A)
behavioral
B)
cognitive
C)
sociocultural
D)
psychodynamic

D) psychodynamic

With the help of a therapist, a client with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has experienced a dramatic decrease in both dichotomous thinking and worrying. The client's behavior is:
A)
common; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy.
B)
common; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder seek help, and this person is most likely receiving psychodynamic therapy.
C)
uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy.
D)
uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving psychodynamic therapy.

C) uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy.

Those diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder appear MORE responsive to which kinds of therapy?
A)
cognitive and biological
B)
psychodynamic and biological
C)
psychodynamic and cognitive
D)
biological and behavioral

C) psychodynamic and cognitive

A group of diagnostic clinicians can't agree with each other on appropriate personality disorder diagnoses for several clients. In fact, it is obvious that, in many cases, they have inaccurately made their diagnoses. Assuming they are competent clinicians, this situation would indicate the DSM-5 categories for personality disorder are:
A)
both reliable and valid.
B)
neither reliable nor valid.
C)
reliable, but not valid.
D)
not reliable, but valid.

B) neither reliable nor valid.

All of the following are problems in the use of the DSM-5 to diagnose personality disorders EXCEPT:
A)
the criteria are so restrictive that several categories rarely, if ever, are used.
B)
people who act very differently may require the same diagnosis.
C)
there is considerable overlap of symptoms across many categories.
D)
sometimes the diagnostician must try to figure out why a person does something.

A) the criteria are so restrictive that several categories rarely, if ever, are used.

Of the following statements, which one most accurately reflects up-to-date research on DSM- 5 categories of personality disorder?
A)
Diagnostic criteria for personality disorders have remained very consistent for many years.
B)
Passive-aggressive personality disorder remains the personality disorder easiest to diagnose and treat.
C)
Individuals do not necessarily have to have very similar personalities to receive the same diagnosis.
D)
Personality disorder "clusters" are quite distinct from one another.

C) Individuals do not necessarily have to have very similar personalities to receive the same diagnosis.

"Let's try to figure out where clients fall on several key personality traits, rather than using a dichotomous classification system." Someone saying this would MOST likely favor which approach to classifying personality disorders?
A)
the traditional DSM-5 approach
B)
a psychodynamic approach
C)
a cognitive-behavioral approach
D)
a dimensional approach

D) a dimensional approach

DSM-5 has been described as functioning like a light switch, which can be "on" or "off." In other words, one either does or does not qualify for a personality disorder diagnosis. Some theorists suggest that degree of symptoms, not symptom absence or presence, is more important and similar to a:
A)
flashlight, running on batteries.
B)
dimmer switch, with the light adjustable from all the way off to all the way on.
C)
candle, which may be blown out at any time.
D)
capacitor, which builds up a charge slowly then discharges it all at once.

B) dimmer switch, with the light adjustable from all the way off to all the way on.

"The client scores low on extroversion and agreeableness, but high on neuroticism. Looks like schizoid personality disorder to me." The therapist being quoted is using what instrument to make the diagnosis?
A)
the "Big Five" personality test
B)
"supertrait" theory
C)
a 200-statement test, with each statement rated on a 1-to-7 scale
D)
a "dichotomizing" test

A) the "Big Five" personality test

If instruments such as the "Big Five" are used to describe personality, rather than relying on DSM-5, then diagnoses of psychological disorder would become:
A)
more categorical as well as more a matter of degree.
B)
more categorical and less a matter of degree.
C)
less categorical and more a matter of degree.
D)
less categorical as well as less a matter of degree.

C) less categorical and more a matter of degree.

Although lying, even compulsive lying, is not considered a psychological disorder, it is sometimes characteristic of people with:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
depressive disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
anxiety disorder.

C) narcissistic personality disorder.

Currently, the "Big-Five" approach to personality disorders is:
A)
the recipient of recognition, with a great amount of research being done on it.
B)
the focus of no research at all.
C)
the focus of a great amount of research, but there are no important results.
D)
the focus of a small amount of research, but there are no important results.

A) the recipient of recognition, with a great amount of research being done on it.

The authors of DSM-5 have designed their own dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders for possible inclusion in future revisions of the DSM. The idea is that individuals whose traits significantly impair their functioning should receive a diagnosis of:
A)
psychoticism disorder.
B)
personality disorder trait specified.
C)
negative affectivity disorder.
D)
detachment disorder.

B) personality disorder trait specified.

The five traits to be included in future revisions of the DSM-5 that utilize a dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders are:
A)
conscientiousness, negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition.
B)
disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism, agreeableness, extroversion.
C)
negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism.
D)
detachment, extroversion, neuroticism, antagonism, conscientiousness.

C) negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism.

If future editions of the DSM change to a dimensional approach in the diagnosis of personality disorders, clinicians will have to:
A)
not do anything differently then they are doing now in diagnosing personality disorders.
B)
utilize a GAF scale in diagnosing personality disorders.
C)
rate the degree of dysfunctioning caused by each person's traits in diagnosing personality disorders.
D)
utilize categories versus a dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders.

C) rate the degree of dysfunctioning caused by each person's traits in diagnosing personality disorders.

Only 23 percent of adults report openly expressing their anger. Should they?
A)
Yes. Venting is a healthy way to express anger.
B)
Yes. Otherwise, they will develop a personality disorder.
C)
Yes. Venting is better than walking away from an anger-producing situation.
D)
No. Ironically, venting appears to make people angrier.

D) No. Ironically, venting appears to make people angrier.

Abnormal Psych Chapter 16 - Subjecto.com

Abnormal Psych Chapter 16

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The enduring pattern of inner thoughts and emotions along with outward behavior that is unique to each individual is termed:
A)
a trait.
B)
character.
C)
personality.
D)
individuality.

C) personality.

The consistencies of one’s characteristics are called:
A)
inherited characteristics.
B)
learned responses.
C)
personality traits.
D)
personality typologies.

C) personality traits.

What differentiates normal personality characteristics from personality disorders?
A)
the specific characteristics
B)
the degree of inflexibility and maladaptiveness
C)
the length of time one possesses the characteristics
D)
All the answers are correct.

D) All the answers are correct.

The MOST important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that:
A)
disorders of thought, perception, and attention are present.
B)
the personality traits are limited to discrete periods of illness.
C)
they are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress.
D)
they are social in that they involve an inability to form lasting relationships with other people.

C) they are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress.

DSM-5, like its predecessor, DSM-IV-TR, identifies 10 personality disorders utilizing a:
A)
systematical approach.
B)
categorical approach.
C)
dimensional approach.
D)
phrenological approach.

B) categorical approach.

All of the following are criticisms of DSM-5 diagnoses of personality disorders EXCEPT:
A)
the reliability of the diagnosis.
B)
the validity of the diagnosis.
C)
distinguishing one personality disorder from another personality disorder.
D)
incorporating new research into the new edition.

D) incorporating new research into the new edition.

One reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals:
A)
enjoy their symptoms and do not seek change.
B)
are frequently unaware that they have a problem.
C)
experience no distress and do not want treatment.
D)
have accompanying mood disorders that must be treated first.

B) are frequently unaware that they have a problem.

Comorbidity means that:
A)
one disorder may develop into another.
B)
one disorder automatically implies the other.
C)
two disorders may occur together in an individual.
D)
the appearance of one disorder implies the disappearance of the one that preceded it.

C) two disorders may occur together in an individual.

Personality disorders are categorized into three main clusters that include all of the following EXCEPT:
A)
odd.
B)
dramatic.
C)
anxious.
D)
schizophrenic.

D) schizophrenic.

Which of the following would a phrenologist MOST likely have done?
A)
assessed personality by feeling for bumps and indentations on the head
B)
argued that personality disorders should not be categorized according to symptoms
C)
treated personality disorders using didactic behavioral therapy
D)
criticized the validity and reliability of personality disorders in DSM

A) assessed personality by feeling for bumps and indentations on the head

The categorical approach to personality disorders assumes that:
A)
problematic personality traits are either present or absent.
B)
personality disorders are best understood on a continuum based on severity of symptoms.
C)
individuals can turn their symptoms off and on like a light switch.
D)
children as well as adults should be diagnosed with personality disorders.

A) problematic personality traits are either present or absent.

Based on a structured interview, Diagnostician A classifies an individual’s personality disorder in the "odd" cluster. Based on another structured interview of the same type, Diagnostician B classifies an individual’s personality disorder in the "dramatic" cluster. If what is described here is typical of what happens when that variety of structured interview is used, one would say the structured interview has:
A)
high reliability and high validity.
B)
high reliability and low validity.
C)
low reliability and high validity.
D)
low reliability and low validity

D) low reliability and low validity

If you believe that personality disorders are BEST understood as a matter of degree in difference from typical personality rather than as a specific diagnosis, you agree with:
A)
the dimensional approach.
B)
the categorical approach.
C)
the symptomatic approach.
D)
the cluster approach.

A) the dimensional approach.

How do personality disorders differ from the personality characteristics of typical people?
A)
They lead to more maladaptive, distressful, and inflexible behaviors.
B)
They include personality traits not experienced by typical people.
C)
They are generally treated successfully with antipsychotic medication.
D)
They are caused by epigenetic processes.

A) They lead to more maladaptive, distressful, and inflexible behaviors.

An individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. That individual is MOST likely to have a parent or sibling who has:
A)
bipolar disorder.
B)
schizophrenia.
C)
one of the paraphilias.
D)
alcoholism.

B) schizophrenia.

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate, in terms of current research findings?
A)
"Odd" personality disorders cause schizophrenia.
B)
"Odd" personality disorders are caused by schizophrenia.
C)
"Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another.
D)
"Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are not related to one another.

C) "Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another.

The category of "odd" personality disorders includes the traits of:
A)
anxiety and fearfulness.
B)
being highly dramatic, emotional, or erratic.
C)
inflexibility and total loss of contact with reality.
D)
extreme suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and perceptual peculiarities.

D) extreme suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and perceptual peculiarities.

Reese is distrustful of others and reacts quickly to perceived threats. Even though he has no evidence, he is sure his wife is unfaithful. He finds it almost impossible to forgive those he thinks have wronged him. Reese displays the characteristics of:
A)
avoidant personality disorder.
B)
paranoid personality disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) paranoid personality disorder.

"It is clear that very demanding parents caused this person to develop paranoid personality disorder." This statement MOST likely would be made by someone from which of the following theoretical perspectives?
A)
cognitive
B)
behavioral
C)
sociocultural
D)
psychodynamic

D) psychodynamic

According to current research, if a person living in the United States is distrustful of both lawyers and congressional members, that type of person is:
A)
rare: such distrust defines those with paranoid personality disorder.
B)
rare: such distrust defines those with schizotypal personality disorder.
C)
uncommon: great distrust of congressional members but not great distrust of lawyers defines those with paranoid personality disorder.
D)
common: most people in the United States distrust both lawyers and congressional members.

D) common: most people in the United States distrust both lawyers and congressional members.

A person experiencing paranoid personality disorder frequently says things like "You’ve got to get them before they get you," and "People have been sinners since the Garden of Eden." If these sayings reflect maladaptive assumptions the person has about people in general, the theorist who would be LEAST surprised would have which theoretical position?
A)
cognitive
B)
biological
C)
sociocultural
D)
psychodynamic

A) cognitive

Which of the following statements regarding the treatment of paranoid personality disorder is MOST accurate?
A)
Drug therapy generally works best.
B)
Psychodynamic therapy involving hypnotic regression is often effective.
C)
Behavioral therapy usually works well, and in relatively few sessions.
D)
Most therapies are of limited effectiveness and progress slowly.

D) Most therapies are of limited effectiveness and progress slowly.

One similarity of those experiencing paranoid personality disorder and those experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they tend:
A)
not to have close ties to others.
B)
to distrust others.
C)
to be described by others as arrogant and angry.
D)
not to score well on typical intelligence tests.

A) not to have close ties to others.

The schizoid personality disorder differs from paranoid personality disorder in that:
A)
those with schizoid personality disorder seek close affiliations with others, while those with paranoid personality do not.
B)
paranoid personality disorder is treatable only through drug therapy; schizoid personality can be treated with psychotherapy.
C)
women are more likely to have schizoid personality disorder than paranoid personality disorder; the opposite is true for men.
D)
those with schizoid personality disorder desire to be alone; those with paranoid personality are alone because of suspiciousness.

D) those with schizoid personality disorder desire to be alone; those with paranoid personality are alone because of suspiciousness.

Wes has always been a loner. He has never much cared for being with other people and does not form relationships easily. He appears to be without emotion. Wes may be exhibiting:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
paranoid personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

A) schizoid personality disorder.

The theorist who describes schizoid personality disorder as developing from coping with parental rejection by avoiding relationships represents the:
A)
cognitive perspective,
B)
behavioral perspective.
C)
existential perspective.
D)
psychodynamic perspective.

D) psychodynamic perspective.

The parents of those with schizoid personality disorder are MOST likely to have been:
A)
responsive.
B)
accepting.
C)
unaccepting.
D)
available.

C) unaccepting.

A person who is LEAST likely to be affected by criticism or praise from other people is one suffering from:
A)
avoidant personality disorder.
B)
schizoid personality disorder.
C)
paranoid personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) schizoid personality disorder.

An individual diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder reports having a great deal of difficulty figuring out how others feel, and as a child had difficulty developing adequate language skills. These findings would make the MOST sense to a theorist with which background?
A)
psychodynamic
B)
sociocultural
C)
cognitive
D)
biological

C) cognitive

Cognitive theorists believe that because of their difficulty scanning the environment, perceiving accurately, and picking up emotional cues, those with schizoid personalities develop ______ very slowly.
A)
language and motor skills
B)
secondary sex characteristics
C)
allergies and other medical problems
D)
thinking disorders

A) language and motor skills

There is a new game called "Moods" where one acts out the mood listed on a card. Being encouraged to play this game is most like the treatment _____ might use for those with schizoid disorders.
A)
psychoanalytic therapists
B)
cognitive therapists
C)
behavioral therapists
D)
biological therapists

B) cognitive therapists

The type of therapy that generally provides the least help for those with schizoid personality disorder is:
A)
behavioral.
B)
drug.
C)
cognitive.
D)
None of the other alternatives provide help for those with schizoid personality disorder.

B) drug.

Schizotypal personality disorders differ from other "odd" personality disorders in that they are related to schizophrenia and:
A)
stress disorders.
B)
mood disorders.
C)
anxiety disorders.
D)
mental retardation.

B) mood disorders.

When Selina sees a report of a train wreck on television, she thinks that it is a sign that she should not take the train to work the next day and so decides to take the bus instead. If she has a diagnosable personality disorder, it is MOST likely:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
paranoid personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

D) schizotypal personality disorder.

A belief that the news anchor on CNN is giving one important messages about one’s behavior reflects:
A)
bodily illusions.
B)
ideas of reference.
C)
passive-aggressive disorder.
D)
backward masking.

B) ideas of reference.

Digressive and vague language with loose associations accompanied by attention and concentration problems are characteristic of:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
paranoid personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

D) schizotypal personality disorder.

The disorder that appears to be MOST closely related to the schizotypal personality disorder is:
A)
anxiety.
B)
schizophrenia.
C)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

B) schizophrenia.

A person who does poorly on a task called backward masking is MOST likely to be experiencing:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
paranoid personality disorder.
C)
borderline personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

D) schizotypal personality disorder.

A client has enlarged brain ventricles and a measurable loss of gray matter. These symptoms are:
A)
psychoneuroimmunological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder.
B)
psychoneuroimmunological, and the most likely diagnosis is antisocial personality disorder.
C)
biological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder.
D)
biological, and the most likely diagnosis is antisocial personality disorder.

C) biological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder.

Characteristics of the Virginia Tech shooter reveal that he:
A)
fit the diagnostic category of histrionic personality disorder.
B)
displayed a combination of features from many personality disorders.
C)
did not fit any of the personality disorders.
D)
did not appear to have a mental disorder.

B) displayed a combination of features from many personality disorders.

As part of their therapy, clients learn to evaluate their unusual thoughts, track the accuracy of "magical" predictions, and reconnect with the world and with their limitations. The diagnoses of these clients would MOST likely be in which of the following broad categories of personality disorder?
A)
"dependent"
B)
"dramatic"
C)
"anxious"
D)
"odd"

D) "odd"

Should drugs be used in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder?
A)
Maybe; in low doses, they seem to help some clients.
B)
Maybe; in high doses, they seem to help some clients.
C)
Yes; in low doses, they seem to help practically all clients.
D)
Yes; in high doses, they seem to help practically all clients.

A) Maybe; in low doses, they seem to help some clients.

Which category of personality disorder contains the disorders MOST commonly diagnosed?
A)
"odd"
B)
"dramatic"
C)
"anxious"
D)
There are no clear differences among the categories in terms of frequency of diagnosis.

B) "dramatic"

An adult has been jailed for the third time for fraud; each time it has been for persuading investors to put money into a phony silver mine. If the adult has received a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis, it is MOST likely either:
A)
schizotypal personality disorder or a stress disorder.
B)
schizotypal personality disorder or a substance-related disorder.
C)
antisocial personality disorder or a stress disorder.
D)
antisocial personality disorder or a substance-related disorder.

D) antisocial personality disorder or a substance-related disorder.

A friend of yours says, "A 15-year-old high schooler accused of shooting several classmates received a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder." Your MOST accurate reply would be:
A)
"Yes, that kind of behavior often is associated with that diagnosis."
B)
"I don’t think so; those with that diagnosis seldom engage in criminal activity."
C)
"Yes, and I’ll bet that wasn’t the only diagnosis, either."
D)
"No; the kid is too young for that diagnosis."

D) "No; the kid is too young for that diagnosis."

Cruelty to animals and people, destruction of property, and truancy before the age of 15:
A)
may be best diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder.
B)
are characteristic of those later diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.
C)
predict later antisocial disorder with virtual certainty.
D)
seem unrelated to antisocial personality disorder.

B) are characteristic of those later diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.

Which of these well-known people appears to have displayed symptoms of antisocial personality disorder?
A)
Mitt Romney
B)
Bernie Madoff
C)
Bill Clinton
D)
Martha Stewart

B) Bernie Madoff

Ben set up an elaborate scheme to mine gold in the Rockies. He had a large town meeting and made a presentation of his stock. The shares were only $5 each, and everyone could afford them. He showed pictures of the mine and explained how the company expected to gross $100 million each month. As it turns out, he was a terrific con artist who had made several "successful" proposals such as this in towns across America in the last couple of years. He is MOST likely suffering from:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) antisocial personality disorder.

Which of the following statements is NOT generally true of those with antisocial personality disorder?
A)
They lie very frequently.
B)
They are careless with money, and often do not pay their debts.
C)
They care for no one’s safety, except theirs and their children’s.
D)
They have little regard for their own safety or the safety of others.

C) They care for no one’s safety, except theirs and their children’s.

Sarah respects none of society’s boundaries and is insensitive to other people, frequently violating their rights. She does not consider the consequences of her actions. She MOST probably experiences:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

B) antisocial personality disorder.

A friend says to you, "He must have antisocial personality disorder; look how careful he is about his own well-being, but how careless he is about others’ safety." Your MOST accurate reply would be:
A)
"You’re right; those are classic characteristics of antisocial personality disorder."
B)
"You’re partly right; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careful about the safety of family members."
C)
"You’re partly right; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careless about their own safety, as well as the safety of others."
D)
"You’ve got it backwards; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careless of their own safety, but show at least some concern for others’ safety."

C) "You’re partly right; most people with antisocial personality disorder are careless about their own safety, as well as the safety of others."

If you wanted to write a book about a fictional character who is a "typical" example of antisocial personality disorder, you might have the character exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:
A)
incessant lying.
B)
periods of very high anxiety.
C)
persistent violation of others’ rights.
D)
lack of conscience after committing crimes.

B) periods of very high anxiety.

Which of the following statements BEST represents current knowledge about mass murderers?
A)
The mental health field has a clear understanding of what causes mass murderers to behave as they do.
B)
We really don’t know what causes mass murderers to act or how to treat them.
C)
We know how to treat mass murderers effectively; we just don’t have the funds to offer treatment to all who need it.
D)
The focus of the field is more on the feelings of mass murderers than on their diagnoses.

B) We really don’t know what causes mass murderers to act or how to treat them.

Which of the following marks an individual as a pseudocommando?
A)
wearing combat fatigues while committing mass murder
B)
expecting to be killed while committing mass murder
C)
forcing others to engage in mass murder
D)
previously serving as a member of the military in a noncombat zone

B) expecting to be killed while committing mass murder

Which of the following is MOST characteristic of mass murderers?
A)
a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder
B)
previous imprisonment
C)
feelings of persecution and desire for revenge
D)
being under the influence of illegal substances while killing

C) feelings of persecution and desire for revenge

The strong relationship between antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse means that:
A)
substance abuse causes individuals to develop antisocial personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder causes individuals to abuse substances.
C)
there are high rates of substance abuse among those with antisocial personality disorder.
D)
if individuals stop abusing substances, their antisocial personality disorder will be cured.

C) there are high rates of substance abuse among those with antisocial personality disorder.

The two childhood disorders that have been related to later antisocial personality disorder are:
A)
depression and withdrawal.
B)
schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
C)
mental retardation.
D)
conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

D) conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The absence of parental love results in emotional detachment and the use of power to form relationships. This is most likely a _____ personality disorder.
A)
cognitive
B)
biological
C)
behavioral
D)
psychodynamic

D) psychodynamic

The fact that children may learn antisocial behavior by modeling parental conflict and aggressiveness provides support for:
A)
psychodynamic theory.
B)
behavioral theory.
C)
both psychodynamic and behavioral theories.
D)
neither psychodynamic nor behavioral theories.

B) behavioral theory.

A young boy is constantly told by his parents to "Be a man!" whenever he is in conflict with friends. In turn, his parents themselves often act aggressively toward each other, and toward him. The theorist who would be BEST able to explain an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder for this boy would be a ______ theorist.
A)
behavioral
B)
cognitive
C)
biological
D)
psychodynamic

A) behavioral

Giving in to a child’s refusal to comply with a parental request may inadvertently reinforce stubborn and defiant behavior, setting the scene for the development of antisocial personality disorder. This is most like a ______ disorder.
A)
cognitive
B)
biological
C)
behavioral
D)
psychodynamic

C) behavioral

Biologically speaking, if one wanted to treat antisocial personality disorder, one would want to ______ the individual with the disorder.
A)
reduce the degree of interpersonal sensitivity in
B)
identify those who are modeling antisocial personality disorder for
C)
increase the anxiety level of
D)
decrease the rewards available for the antisocial behavior in

C) increase the anxiety level of

Assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they generally experience less anxiety than other people when they lie or "con" others. This outcome would most strongly support which theoretical position?
A)
behavioral
B)
psychodynamic
C)
cognitive
D)
biological

D) biological

Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding antisocial personality disorder?
A)
Most who have it are not treated, and most who are treated are not helped much.
B)
Most who have it are not treated, but most who are treated are helped substantially.
C)
Most who have it are treated, but most who are treated are not helped much.
D)
Most who have it are treated, and most who are treated are helped substantially.

A) Most who have it are not treated, and most who are treated are not helped much.

An individual with a diagnosed personality disorder is emotionally unstable, impulsive, and reckless. This person’s diagnosis is likely to be which of the following personality disorders?
A)
borderline
B)
schizotypal
C)
obsessive-compulsive
D)
avoidant

A) borderline

"There’s nothing out there for me. I can’t stand other people, and I can’t stand myself, either. I’m just really mad right now." Such a statement would most likely be made by someone with which personality disorder?
A)
borderline
B)
antisocial
C)
narcissistic
D)
paranoid

A) borderline

"That personality disorder has become so common, I encounter it almost every day in the emergency room." MOST likely, this doctor is talking about which personality disorder?
A)
borderline
B)
antisocial
C)
schizoid
D)
avoidant

A) borderline

Lisa felt like she was on an emotional roller coaster. She felt angry and empty. Lisa’s feelings are MOST similar to those of someone with:
A)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
B)
narcissistic personality disorder.
C)
borderline personality disorder.
D)
antisocial personality disorder.

C) borderline personality disorder.

What is a common reason for the hospitalization of people with borderline personality disorder?
A)
They may attempt suicide or otherwise hurt themselves.
B)
They finally cannot care for themselves.
C)
They voluntarily ask for hospitalization, out of desperation.
D)
They are so afraid of leaving their homes that they suffer social paralysis.

A) They may attempt suicide or otherwise hurt themselves.

Transported to the hospital after a suicide attempt, a man is later admitted to the hospital’s psychiatric wing. His history showed other self-destructive behaviors and recklessness. MOST likely, if the man is diagnosed with a personality disorder, it will be:
A)
paranoid.
B)
avoidant.
C)
narcissistic.
D)
borderline.

D) borderline.

Studies of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder show that:
A)
less than half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and almost none succeed.
B)
less than half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and over 5 percent succeed.
C)
over half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and almost none succeed.
D)
over half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and about 10 percent succeed.

D) over half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and about 10 percent succeed.

A therapist treating a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder came up with the following analysis: the parents probably did not want children in the first place; the child just was not accepted; the child developed low self-esteem, dependency, and an inability to cope with separation. The therapist’s theoretical orientation is probably:
A)
behavioral.
B)
biological.
C)
object relations theory.
D)
cognitive-behavioral theory.

C) object relations theory.

Gort’s parents never quite liked him, probably did not want children in the first place. He just was not accepted. It was clear early in school that Gort had a low opinion of himself and did not know how to interact with the other children. Now he cuts himself and has been to the ER several times. This is a description of the possible development of:
A)
histrionic personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
schizoid personality disorder.
D)
borderline personality disorder.

D) borderline personality disorder.

Which of the following has experienced "triggering"?
A)
an individual who posts YouTube videos of himself biting and cutting himself
B)
an individual who commits suicide by shooting himself while someone else films it
C)
an individual who is prompted to injure himself intentionally after watching someone else do it
D)
an individual who engages in intentional self-injury but encourages others not to do so

C) an individual who is prompted to injure himself intentionally after watching someone else do it

If an individual has damage to the prefrontal cortex, which of the following symptoms would MOST likely be observed?
A)
fear and other negative emotions
B)
a thought disorder
C)
odd but imaginative language
D)
deficits in planning, self-control, and decision making

D) deficits in planning, self-control, and decision making

Which of the following have sociocultural theorists suggested as a cause for the emergence of borderline personality disorder?
A)
rapid social change
B)
traditional family structures
C)
clinging and dependent parents
D)
nontraditional family structures

A) rapid social change

Which of the following would MOST clearly fit into the biosocial theory of the development of borderline personality disorder?
A)
an individual who has deficits in the functioning of both the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex
B)
an individual who has family members who display many of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder
C)
an individual who engages in self-injurious behavior while under the influence of illegal substances
D)
an individual who has difficulty controlling internal emotions and parents who mislabel those emotions

D) an individual who has difficulty controlling internal emotions and parents who mislabel those emotions

The inability to accurately interpret one’s internal biological emotional or physiological states is characteristic of both:
A)
schizophrenia and schizoid personality disorder.
B)
a mass murderer and self-injurious behavior.
C)
odd and dramatic personality disorders.
D)
borderline personality disorder and eating disorders.

D) borderline personality disorder and eating disorders.

"That’s it!" says your friend, the psychotherapist. "I can’t work with that client. As soon as I show any empathy at all, it becomes almost impossible to challenge the client, and the client keeps calling me at all hours of the day." MOST likely, this is a client with:
A)
borderline personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
D)
schizotypal personality disorder.

A) borderline personality disorder.

What aspect of dialectical behavior therapy relates to psychodynamic theory?
A)
the emphasis on anal retention
B)
the emphasis on social skills training
C)
the emphasis on multicultural influences on behavior
D)
the emphasis on the patient-therapist relationship.

D) the emphasis on the patient-therapist relationship.

A friend asks your advice about the MOST effective therapy to use for treating borderline personality disorder. Your BEST answer is:
A)
"There is no effective therapy for borderline personality disorder.
B)
"If you’re going to use a psychodynamic approach, avoid relational therapy.
C)
"Using drugs is a safe, effective way to treat the disorder."
D)
"Research suggests that dialectical behavior therapy is the most effective."

D) "Research suggests that dialectical behavior therapy is the most effective."

When dialectical behavior therapy is used with patients with borderline personality disorder, those patients, compared to patients receiving other forms of therapy, make:
A)
far fewer suicide attempts, and are hospitalized less often.
B)
far fewer suicide attempts, but are hospitalized about as often.
C)
about the same number of suicide attempts, but are hospitalized less often.
D)
about the same number of suicide attempts, and are hospitalized about as often.

A) far fewer suicide attempts, and are hospitalized less often.

Dr. Marsha Linehan, the developer of dialectical behavior therapy, would have diagnosed her young adult self with:
A)
antisocial personality disorder.
B)
borderline personality disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
dependent personality disorder.

B) borderline personality disorder.

A patient receiving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder experiences an emotion that he or she realizes is inappropriate. Immediately after, the patient acts in a very different, appropriate, way. This DBT procedure is called:
A)
reactive correction.
B)
counterbalancing.
C)
opposite action.
D)
"fine tuning."

C) opposite action.

Dialectical behavior therapy emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT:
A)
social skills training.
B)
mindfulness meditation (a Zen technique involving observing one’s emotions).
C)
the client-therapist relationship.
D)
the use of antipsychotic medications in an outpatient setting.

D) the use of antipsychotic medications in an outpatient setting.

A therapist states, "I seldom use drugs when I treat clients with borderline personality disorder." The therapist MOST likely says this because:
A)
the risk of suicide increases because using drugs may lead to overdose.
B)
in most cases, drugs seem to make aggressiveness even worse.
C)
in most cases, drugs seem to make emotional outbursts even more extreme.
D)
the therapist is unaware that drugs are always used in combination with dialectical behavior therapy, the most effective therapy for those with borderline personality disorder.

A) the risk of suicide increases because using drugs may lead to overdose.

A client is searching for the BEST treatment for borderline personality disorder. Will drug treatment be effective if it is the only intervention the client receives?
A)
Yes; drugs alone work at least as well as drugs plus psychotherapy, and are less expensive.
B)
Yes; drugs alone work at least as well as drugs plus psychotherapy, but are expensive.
C)
Maybe; but only if the client is nonsuicidal.
D)
No; they should be used along with psychotherapy, if used at all.

D) No; they should be used along with psychotherapy, if used at all.

"Beatlemania" gripped the United States in the 1960s when the British rock group The Beatles performed; adoring fans screamed, sometimes fainted, and shouted exaggerated, emotional praise at the group. These behaviors MOST closely resemble the characteristics of:
A)
histrionic personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
schizoid personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

A) histrionic personality disorder.

"You had one eye in the mirror as you watched yourself…/You’re so vain, you probably think this song is about you/You’re so vain…" sang Carly Simon in the 1973 #1 hit, "You’re So Vain." If the subject of the song were diagnosed with a personality disorder, which of the following would be the MOST likely diagnosis?
A)
antisocial
B)
histrionic
C)
schizoid
D)
schizotypal

B) histrionic

When the seat belt light in DiDi’s car stays on for a few extra seconds, she bursts into tears. She always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate show of emotion. She probably could receive a diagnosis of:
A)
obsessive personality disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

C) histrionic personality disorder.

A person constantly strives to be the center of attention, yet the ideas the person so eloquently expresses are usually shallow and changeable. If this person were diagnosed with a personality disorder, it MOST likely would be:
A)
histrionic.
B)
borderline.
C)
antisocial.
D)
obsessive-compulsive.

A) histrionic.

"The problem is that they assume they can’t take care of themselves, so they think others have to meet their needs. This pattern of thinking is not very helpful in trying to deal with histrionic personality disorder." A psychologist from which of the following perspectives would agree MOST strongly with this quote?
A)
biological
B)
sociocultural
C)
cognitive
D)
behavioral

C) cognitive

The type of therapist MOST likely to try to help people diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder to believe they are not helpless, and to teach them better thinking skills, is a ______ therapist:
A)
psychodynamic
B)
cognitive
C)
sociocultural
D)
behavioral

B) cognitive

"I am the greatest!" a famous boxer declared loudly and often. Had he in fact acted throughout his adult life as though he were the greatest, the most appropriate diagnosis would be:
A)
histrionic personality disorder.
B)
narcissistic personality disorder.
C)
antisocial personality disorder.
D)
impulse-control personality disorder.

B) narcissistic personality disorder.

The personality disorder that is characterized by the need for undying love and admiration is:
A)
borderline.
B)
histrionic.
C)
narcissistic.
D)
schizotypal.

C) narcissistic.

Ty is fairly handsome, but not as handsome as he thinks he is. He doesn’t care about anyone but himself and is sure that everyone around him feels the same way. He is MOST likely experiencing:
A)
schizoid personality disorder.
B)
narcissistic personality disorder.
C)
schizotypal personality disorder.
D)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

B) narcissistic personality disorder.

The "flower children" of the 1960s and 1970s have sometimes been called the "me" generation, reflecting the supposed self-centered individualism of the time. If this is true, a sociocultural theorist would predict a larger than usual percentage of which kind of personality disorder among the aging "me" generation?
A)
narcissistic
B)
antisocial
C)
obsessive-compulsive
D)
dependent

A) narcissistic

Behavioral and cognitive theorists propose that people who develop narcissistic personality disorder may have been treated:
A)
too positively in early life.
B)
too negatively in early life.
C)
either too positively or too negatively in early life.
D)
ambiguously and neglectfully in early life.

A) too positively in early life.

You might suspect an "era of narcissism" is approaching for a country when:
A)
there is increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness.
B)
preferences in women’s and men’s clothing undergo substantial shifts.
C)
there is a decline in materialism and individualism.
D)
the sale of "inspirational" DVDs, books, and tapes suddenly increases.

A) there is increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness.

Assume you have to give an in-class presentation about narcissistic personality disorder. What is the MOST accurate thing you can say about treatment for this disorder?
A)
"Cognitive therapy works best."
B)
"Behavioral therapy works best."
C)
"Psychodynamic therapy works best."
D)
"No form of therapy is clearly better than the others.

D) "No form of therapy is clearly better than the others.

A client is initially very resistant to therapy, cannot acknowledge weaknesses, and ignores feedback. MOST likely, the client is experiencing:
A)
schizoid personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy.
B)
schizoid personality disorder, and will make a great deal of progress in therapy.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder, and will make a great deal of progress in therapy.

C) narcissistic personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy.

Like those with paranoid personality disorder, those with avoidant personality disorder usually:
A)
are very sensitive to criticism.
B)
avoid close relationships.
C)
are very sensitive to criticism and avoid close relationships.
D)
are indifferent to criticism and seek out close relationships.

C) are very sensitive to criticism and avoid close relationships.

Elena can’t seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or appearing foolish. She is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar situations. She may be experiencing:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

B) avoidant personality disorder.

Avoidant personality disorder seems MOST closely related to:
A)
schizophrenia.
B)
social anxiety.
C)
mania.
D)
eating disorders.

B) social anxiety.

If a person primarily fears close social relationships, one would MOST likely conclude that the person is experiencing:
A)
social phobia.
B)
avoidant personality disorder.
C)
both social phobia and avoidance personality disorder.
D)
a personality disorder from the dramatic cluster.

B) avoidant personality disorder.

According to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of avoidant personality disorder is:
A)
an early sense of guilt.
B)
early experiences of shame.
C)
lack of development of trust.
D)
an inability to express anger.

B) early experiences of shame

A client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase the number of social contacts per day. The person, at the least, must greet others with the sentence, "Hello; how are you doing?" MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical background?
A)
psychodynamic
B)
cognitive
C)
behavioral
D)
sociocultural

C) behavioral

Group therapy is particularly useful in the treatment of avoidant personality disorder MAINLY because group therapy:
A)
allows those in the group to see that others have avoidant personality disorder, too.
B)
involves an eclectic combination of theoretical approaches.
C)
provides practice in social interactions.
D)
requires attendance at therapy sessions.

C) provides practice in social interactions.

Cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder focuses on:
A)
providing practice in social behaviors in a group setting.
B)
increasing the client’s tolerance of emotional discomfort and building up his or her self- image.
C)
providing social skills training and exposure treatment that requires clients to gradually increase their social contacts.
D)
helping patients uncover the origins of their symptoms and resolve the unconscious conflicts that may be operating.

B) increasing the client’s tolerance of emotional discomfort and building up his or her self- image.

A person who has an excessive need to be taken care of and is clingy is MOST likely to qualify for a diagnosis of:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
histrionic personality disorder.
C)
dependent personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

C) dependent personality disorder.

People with avoidant personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships, while people with dependent personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships.
A)
initiating; ending
B)
ending; initiating
C)
ending; beginning
D)
seeking; initiating

A) initiating; ending

A high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends for suggestions before deciding on a college to attend, and on an academic major. This student’s behavior is:
A)
typical of those with dependent personality disorder.
B)
typical of those who will develop dependent personality disorder.
C)
normal for those in high school.
D)
reflective of an anxiety disorder, not of dependent personality disorder.

C) normal for those in high school.

If parents excessively reinforce clinging and punish attempts at independence, the result might be the development of:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
borderline personality disorder.
C)
dependent personality disorder.
D)
narcissistic personality disorder.

C) dependent personality disorder.

A child who is severely criticized for acting independently, and who is praised for doing exactly what parents say to do, later develops dependent personality disorder. The therapist who would be LEAST surprised by this outcome would have which theoretical orientation?
A)
sociocultural
B)
behavioral
C)
cognitive
D)
psychodynamic

B) behavioral

"Be loyal to your family" was what the child heard all the time, along with "You shouldn’t— and can’t—do it on your own, so don’t even try." A behaviorist would say this kind of upbringing would be MOST likely to produce which of the personality disorders in the child, when he or she reached adulthood?
A)
narcissistic
B)
antisocial
C)
avoidant
D)
dependent

D) dependent

"Group therapy is a good option for those with dependent personality disorder; they’ll be able to observe others’ coping skills, and model them." This statement would MOST likely be made by a therapist having which of the following theoretical perspectives?
A)
psychodynamic
B)
behavioral
C)
sociocultural
D)
biological

B) behavioral

One especially good reason to use a form of group therapy in the treatment of dependent personality disorder is that:
A)
the therapist can still control the group, because the participants are so dependent.
B)
the group members will see how maladaptive the dependent behavior is when they observe it in the other group members.
C)
the group members can model appropriate behaviors and expression of feelings to one another.
D)
All of these alternatives are good reasons to use group therapy with those with dependent personality disorder.

C) the group members can model appropriate behaviors and expression of feelings to one another.

In the United States, most teenagers have cell phones and text. Which of the following MOST accurately describes adult cell phone usage?
A)
Most do not have cell phones, so most do not text.
B)
About half have cell phones, but most of them do not text.
C)
Most have cell phones, but most of them do not text.
D)
Most have cell phones, and most of them text.

D) Most have cell phones, and most of them text.

The TV show Monk features a detective who is very seldom happy, has few good friends, has a very rigid order and way in which he must do things, and who frequently has difficulty making up his mind about what to do. If he were diagnosed with a personality disorder, it would MOST likely be a ______ disorder.
A)
narcissistic
B)
obsessive-compulsive
C)
schizoptypal
D)
borderline

B) obsessive-compulsive

The TV show Saturday Night Live once featured a skit involving an "Anal Retentive Carpenter," who had to keep all his tools and work materials in just the "right" places, arranged "just so." He was very anxious any time tools and materials were not just as he wanted them. The MOST appropriate diagnosis for the carpenter would be:
A)
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
B)
borderline personality disorder.
C)
histrionic personality disorder.
D)
impulse-control personality disorder.

A) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is MOST common among:
A)
unemployed women.
B)
women with jobs.
C)
unemployed men.
D)
men with jobs.

D) men with jobs.

Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?
A)
You cannot suffer from both of them at the same time.
B)
Some people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder also experience obsessive- compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder).
C)
The most likely disorder comorbid with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is obsessive-compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder).
D)
The two obsessive-compulsive disorders are comorbid over half the time.

B) Some people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder also experience obsessive- compulsive disorder (an anxiety disorder)

Psychodynamic theorists explain obsessive-compulsive personality disorder as a fixation at the:
A)
oral stage.
B)
anal stage.
C)
phallic stage.
D)
genital stage.

B) anal stage.

"It is obvious that this case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder arises from an early childhood fixation." Which type of psychologist would MOST likely have made that statement?
A)
behavioral
B)
cognitive
C)
sociocultural
D)
psychodynamic

D) psychodynamic

With the help of a therapist, a client with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has experienced a dramatic decrease in both dichotomous thinking and worrying. The client’s behavior is:
A)
common; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy.
B)
common; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder seek help, and this person is most likely receiving psychodynamic therapy.
C)
uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy.
D)
uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving psychodynamic therapy.

C) uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy.

Those diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder appear MORE responsive to which kinds of therapy?
A)
cognitive and biological
B)
psychodynamic and biological
C)
psychodynamic and cognitive
D)
biological and behavioral

C) psychodynamic and cognitive

A group of diagnostic clinicians can’t agree with each other on appropriate personality disorder diagnoses for several clients. In fact, it is obvious that, in many cases, they have inaccurately made their diagnoses. Assuming they are competent clinicians, this situation would indicate the DSM-5 categories for personality disorder are:
A)
both reliable and valid.
B)
neither reliable nor valid.
C)
reliable, but not valid.
D)
not reliable, but valid.

B) neither reliable nor valid.

All of the following are problems in the use of the DSM-5 to diagnose personality disorders EXCEPT:
A)
the criteria are so restrictive that several categories rarely, if ever, are used.
B)
people who act very differently may require the same diagnosis.
C)
there is considerable overlap of symptoms across many categories.
D)
sometimes the diagnostician must try to figure out why a person does something.

A) the criteria are so restrictive that several categories rarely, if ever, are used.

Of the following statements, which one most accurately reflects up-to-date research on DSM- 5 categories of personality disorder?
A)
Diagnostic criteria for personality disorders have remained very consistent for many years.
B)
Passive-aggressive personality disorder remains the personality disorder easiest to diagnose and treat.
C)
Individuals do not necessarily have to have very similar personalities to receive the same diagnosis.
D)
Personality disorder "clusters" are quite distinct from one another.

C) Individuals do not necessarily have to have very similar personalities to receive the same diagnosis.

"Let’s try to figure out where clients fall on several key personality traits, rather than using a dichotomous classification system." Someone saying this would MOST likely favor which approach to classifying personality disorders?
A)
the traditional DSM-5 approach
B)
a psychodynamic approach
C)
a cognitive-behavioral approach
D)
a dimensional approach

D) a dimensional approach

DSM-5 has been described as functioning like a light switch, which can be "on" or "off." In other words, one either does or does not qualify for a personality disorder diagnosis. Some theorists suggest that degree of symptoms, not symptom absence or presence, is more important and similar to a:
A)
flashlight, running on batteries.
B)
dimmer switch, with the light adjustable from all the way off to all the way on.
C)
candle, which may be blown out at any time.
D)
capacitor, which builds up a charge slowly then discharges it all at once.

B) dimmer switch, with the light adjustable from all the way off to all the way on.

"The client scores low on extroversion and agreeableness, but high on neuroticism. Looks like schizoid personality disorder to me." The therapist being quoted is using what instrument to make the diagnosis?
A)
the "Big Five" personality test
B)
"supertrait" theory
C)
a 200-statement test, with each statement rated on a 1-to-7 scale
D)
a "dichotomizing" test

A) the "Big Five" personality test

If instruments such as the "Big Five" are used to describe personality, rather than relying on DSM-5, then diagnoses of psychological disorder would become:
A)
more categorical as well as more a matter of degree.
B)
more categorical and less a matter of degree.
C)
less categorical and more a matter of degree.
D)
less categorical as well as less a matter of degree.

C) less categorical and more a matter of degree.

Although lying, even compulsive lying, is not considered a psychological disorder, it is sometimes characteristic of people with:
A)
paranoid personality disorder.
B)
depressive disorder.
C)
narcissistic personality disorder.
D)
anxiety disorder.

C) narcissistic personality disorder.

Currently, the "Big-Five" approach to personality disorders is:
A)
the recipient of recognition, with a great amount of research being done on it.
B)
the focus of no research at all.
C)
the focus of a great amount of research, but there are no important results.
D)
the focus of a small amount of research, but there are no important results.

A) the recipient of recognition, with a great amount of research being done on it.

The authors of DSM-5 have designed their own dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders for possible inclusion in future revisions of the DSM. The idea is that individuals whose traits significantly impair their functioning should receive a diagnosis of:
A)
psychoticism disorder.
B)
personality disorder trait specified.
C)
negative affectivity disorder.
D)
detachment disorder.

B) personality disorder trait specified.

The five traits to be included in future revisions of the DSM-5 that utilize a dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders are:
A)
conscientiousness, negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition.
B)
disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism, agreeableness, extroversion.
C)
negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism.
D)
detachment, extroversion, neuroticism, antagonism, conscientiousness.

C) negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism.

If future editions of the DSM change to a dimensional approach in the diagnosis of personality disorders, clinicians will have to:
A)
not do anything differently then they are doing now in diagnosing personality disorders.
B)
utilize a GAF scale in diagnosing personality disorders.
C)
rate the degree of dysfunctioning caused by each person’s traits in diagnosing personality disorders.
D)
utilize categories versus a dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders.

C) rate the degree of dysfunctioning caused by each person’s traits in diagnosing personality disorders.

Only 23 percent of adults report openly expressing their anger. Should they?
A)
Yes. Venting is a healthy way to express anger.
B)
Yes. Otherwise, they will develop a personality disorder.
C)
Yes. Venting is better than walking away from an anger-producing situation.
D)
No. Ironically, venting appears to make people angrier.

D) No. Ironically, venting appears to make people angrier.

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