Abnormal Psych

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argues that societies invent the concept of mental illness so that they can control people whose unusual patterns of functioning upset or threaten the social order.

Thomas Szasz

A person who suffered from the form of mass madness called lycanthropy may have believed him/herself to be possessed by:


A trephine is:

a stone instrument used to cut away a circular section of the skull.

All forms of therapy have which three essential features?

a sufferer, a healer, and a series of contacts between healer and sufferer

Behavior that is psychologically abnormal is called all but which of the following?

mental instability (it is called psychotherapy, mental illness, emotional disturbance)

General paresis, an irreversible disorder that causes physical and mental symptoms including paralysis and delusions of grandeur, was found to be caused by:


Judgments of abnormality depend on _______________ as well as on cultural norms.


The Boston schoolteacher who made humane care a public and political concern in 19th century America was:

Dorothea Dix

Insurance parity laws are concerned with:

providing equal coverage for mental and medical problems.

The policy of releasing patients from public mental hospitals was known as:


The role of a clinical practitioner in abnormal psychology is to:

detect, assess, and treat abnormal patterns of functioning.

Which was one of the different mental disorders described by ancient Greeks and Romans?


Before the 1950s, almost all outpatient care for psychological disturbances took the form of:

private psychotherapy

The treatment mechanism associated with touching a troubled area of a patient’s body with a special rod was:


Which of the following terms was the earliest used to describe those who we now refer to as "mentally ill?"


Which of the following is true regarding the "four Ds" of abnormality?

None of the "four Ds" is, by itself, an adequate gauge of psychological abnormality.

According to ancient views of abnormality, if a standard exorcism failed to rid a person of their abnormal behaviors, which of the following steps would be taken?

The shaman would perform a more extreme exorcism, such as whipping or starving the person.

Which of the following terms, which has come to mean "a chaotic uproar" derived its name from a London hospital where mentally ill patients were treated in horrendous ways?


The work of Dorothea Dix led to the establishment of many _____________ around the country.

state hospitals

The term "eugenics" refers to which of the following?

A political policy of preventing those who suffer from mental illness from reproducing.

The stated and unstated rules for proper conduct that a society establishes are referred to as:


Lady Gaga and other eccentrics are usually not considered to be experiencing a mental illness because:

they freely choose and enjoy their behavior

Defining abnormal behavior, using "the four Ds":

is still often vague and subjective

Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively?


Despite popular misconceptions, most people with psychological problems are not:


According to Thomas Szasz’s views, the deviations that some call mental illness are really:

problems in living

Which of the following BEST reflects the impact of deinstitutionalization?

Not so well; many people with severe disturbances are in jail or on the street.

Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of mental dysfunction by affecting the brain are called:


Which of the following is NOT a common feature of managed care programs?

patient choice in number of sessions that therapy can last

After medical school a psychiatrist receives three to four years of training in the treatment of abnormal functioning; this training is called a(n):


The MOST accurate summary of the field of abnormal psychology at the present time is that clinical psychologists generally:

do not accept one definition of abnormality, and practice more than one form of treatment.

Hippocrates believed that treatment for mental disorders should involve:

bringing the four body humors back into balance.

A flash mob is MOST similar to:

mass madness

If you are a typical person undergoing therapy in the United States, your therapy will last for

fewer than 5 sessions

If a person experienced anxiety or depression following a significant natural disaster, we would say that the person was:

exhibiting a typical reaction

Research shows that danger to self or others is found in:

some, not most, cases of abnormal functioning

Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of:


Clinical theorist Jerome Frank would say that all forms of therapy include all of the following EXCEPT a:

third-party payer

The specialty that presently has the largest number of practitioners is:

psychiatric social work

Treatment for mental illness in the early asylums tended to be:

harsh and cruel

If a study’s findings generalize beyond the immediate study to other persons and situations, then the study has:

external validity

In correlational research, external validity is established when:

the sample is representative of the larger population.

Case studies are useful for all of the following EXCEPT:

determining general laws of behavior

A study includes 60 people suffering from an ordinary headache. Twenty get aspirin, 20 get a sugar pill that looks like aspirin, and 20 get nothing at all. In 65 percent of the aspirin group, the headache disappears. In the other two groups the "cure" rates are 35 and 5 percent, respectively. Other than the drug condition, the participants are treated identically. This study:

is an experimental study

The principle of informed consent assumes that:

the participant can understand the explanation.

As a general rule, if the sample is large, the difference between the groups is large, and the range of scores within a group is small, then the results are likely to be:

statistically significant

There are many obstacles that hinder psychologists’ attempts to understand and treat disorders. All of the following are obstacles, EXCEPT:

the relatively rigid, unchangeable behavior and thought patterns of humans.

"Isn’t the ABAB design pretty much a case study?" asks a friend of yours in this class. Your BEST answer would be:

"They’re similar, but the ABAB design has greater internal validity."

Challenges faced by clinical researchers include all of the following EXCEPT:

there are very few graduate students trained in clinical research.

A therapist believes so strongly in her approach that she finds improvement even when none exists. Which design would prevent this problem?


The incidence of HIV+ results on campus tells you:

the number of new HIV+ cases measured in a time period.

Describing the number of cases of mental retardation in the children of older mothers in 2005 would be a legitimate goal for a(n) ______ study.


Imagine that a longitudinal study found that children raised by people with schizophrenia are more likely to commit crimes later. This result tells us that

children of people with schizophrenia are at higher risk for criminal behavior.

Which of the following is an aspect of the experimental approach?

the manipulation of a variable by the researcher

The statement or prediction that we make about a potential causal relationship in a proposed study is called the:


Which of the following might be an example of an analogue experiment?

exposing lab rats to high levels of stress and having human participants live in a simulated mental hospital would each be an example of an analogue experiment

If one were studying the hypothesis that people with high levels of stress are MORE likely to get cancer and wanted to include a matched control group, that group would:

have low levels of stress

The total number of cases of a disorder in the population is called the:


One of the problems with animal research is the question of whether the results can apply to human beings. This is a question of:

external validity

Factors other than the independent variable may also act on the dependent variable. If these factors vary systematically with the independent variable, they are called ______ variables.


Theory focused on learned responses to the environment is usually described as:


Evidence of the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy:

is generally limited to case studies

David Rosenhan sent "pseudopatients" to a mental hospital, where they pretended to be disturbed. The results led him to conclude that ______ greatly impacts mental illness.


In explaining why women are diagnosed with anxiety disorders and depression twice as often as men, multicultural therapists would focus on:

prejudice and discrimination faced by women

Providing treatment as soon as it is needed, so problems that are moderate or worse do not become long-term, is called:

tertiary prevention

Current multicultural perspectives are MOST likely to focus on:

the special external pressures faced by members of a culture.

The model or paradigm an investigator uses influences:

the questions and observations the investigator uses.

Imagine that you subscribe to the sociocultural model of abnormality. Which of the following would be a part of your paradigm?

The family-social perspective

Colin is asked to "free associate" about his mother’s new husband and he responds by changing the subject. A psychodynamic therapist would consider this an example of:


Animals and humans learn without reinforcement. They learn just by watching. This form of learning is called:


If you are being encouraged to see the link between the way you interpret your experiences and the way you feel, and to question the accuracy of your interpretations, you are probably receiving:

cognitive therapy

Systematic desensitization has been shown to be especially effective in the treatment of:


A child is bitten by a vicious dog in front of a park. The child is later very afraid of the park. According to classical conditioning, the park is a(n):

conditioned stimulus

In mindfulness-based therapy techniques, you would be MOST likely to find clients:

letting their thoughts flow, without judgment.

"Humans are born with freedom, yet do not ‘naturally’ strive to reach their full growth potential." The psychologist who would MOST closely agree with this statement would be:


If a mother seems excessively involved in her child’s life such that the two do not seem to be independent people, their relationship is said to be:


The model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the:

psychodynamic model

If you imagine biting into a big, juicy, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. The lemon is an example of a(n):

unconditioned stimulus

If you believe that you can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary, Bandura would say that you had a positive sense of:


Research on the relationship between religious beliefs and psychological health shows that people:

who are devout and see God as caring and helpful are the healthiest.

Compared to projective tests, personality inventories:

have higher validity

Of the following, who is MOST at risk for misinterpreting a cultural response as pathology?

a dominant-culture assessor

Personality assessment using projective tests is designed to:

learn about unconscious conflicts in the client.

Which of the following is NOT a concern that would call into question the reliability of clinical interviews?

Impressions formed on these interviews may not predict future outcomes.

An assessment tool asks individuals to record all the times they feel sad, in order to try to measure tendencies toward depression. However, individuals report wide variation from day to day in terms of the number of "sad" episodes they record. This assessment tool has:

low test-retest reliability, and high face validity.

Clinical interviews are the preferred assessment technique of many practitioners. One particular strength of the interview process is:

the chance to get a general sense of the client.

Imagine that you know you are being observed and you change your behavior in order to make a good impression. This is known as:


The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (presently DSM-5) was developed by:

the American Psychiatric Association.

Which category of clinical tests tends to have the BEST standardization, reliability, and validity?

intelligence tests

A friend of yours is required to take a polygraph test as part of a job application. This requirement is:

legal; in fact, in some employment categories, polygraph use may be on the increase.

An inventory that asks about one’s level of anxiety, depression, or anger is a(n) ______ inventory.


If a clinician begins by asking, "Would you tell me about yourself?" the clinician is MOST likely conducting a(n):

unstructured interview

Concerns about the reliability and validity of the DSM-5 diagnoses are MOST likely to center on which factors?

categories based on weak research, and reflecting bias (for example, gender or racial bias)

Which of the following is NOT a form of neuroimaging?

GSR (MRI, PET and CAT scan are)

The existence of disorders such as koro, susto, amok, and windigo remind us that:

classifications applied in one culture may not be appropriate in another.

The movement that has tried to find the common strategies that "good" therapists use is called:


"Let’s just do away with diagnosis," says a clinician, "all we do is make things worse." That clinician’s viewpoint is:

shared by SOME of those working in the area of abnormality.

Studies show that errors in diagnosis MOST commonly involve information gathered:

early in the assessment process, and in a hospital setting.

DSM-5 tried to ensure the validity of the new edition by using all of the following procedures EXCEPT:

substantially decreasing the number of diagnostic categories.

Support for the use of evidence-based forms of psychotherapy:

has increased in recent years.

One limitation of the sociocultural approach to understanding generalized anxiety disorders is that it cannot explain:

why everyone who experiences danger doesn’t experience generalized anxiety.

If the idea of "preparedness" is accurate, then:

some phobias should be acquired more easily than others.

Pairing the thought of feared objects and relaxation training is:

systematic desensitization.

Davon watched his father recoil from a snake in fear. Now he is afraid of snakes. This apparent acquisition of fear of snakes is an example of:


Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy:

receives support in therapy applications for a wide range of disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder.

In terms of cognitive theories explaining generalized anxiety disorder, a good deal of research supports:

both metacognitive theory and intolerance of uncertainty theory.

A person who believes that it is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way he or she would like them to be is displaying:

irrational assumptions

Which one of the following statements about the use of antidepressants, such as Xanax, to treat a panic disorder is MOST accurate?

For the drugs to be effective, one has to keep taking them, even when symptoms are lessened.

If you wanted a drug to improve the functioning of GABA, you would choose:

a benzodiazepine.

According to current research, using relaxation training to treat generalized anxiety disorder is:

better than nothing, and about as effective as meditation.

Of the following, those LEAST likely to experience specific phobias are:

white American males

A professor who puts on rubber gloves before grading papers and religiously avoids any contact with the hands of students is exhibiting a(n):

touching compulsion

Someone you know who has body dysmorphic disorder is considering plastic surgery. Based on available research, what is your BEST advice?

"Be careful. Often, people who have plastic surgery for body dysphoric disorder actually feel worse afterwards."

Betty has serious, persistent doubts as to whether her gas stove is turned off. This is an example of a(n)


Exposure and response prevention as treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder:

shows improvement that often continues indefinitely.

Which of the following is the BEST example of "reduced responsiveness" as it relates to posttraumatic stress disorder?

feeling detached or estranged from others and loss of interest in activities

Which of the following is most typical of posttraumatic stress disorder?

increased arousal, anxiety, and guilt

A friend says, "If we could just eliminate combat traumas, we could eliminate a great deal of posttraumatic stress disorder." Of the following choices, your MOST accurate answer would be:

"Yes—although civilian trauma causes many more cases of PTSD than combat trauma does."

Combat veterans in a therapy group express a great deal of guilt and rage. MOST likely, the veterans are in a(n):

rap group

The MOST accurate of the following statements about the effectiveness of psychological debriefing in the aftermath of a disaster (based on research studies) is:

Debriefing doesn’t work too well; it might even make victims worse.

Every time Miguel had a headache, his mother let him miss school. Now, as an adult, his headaches have become more frequent. His head pounds any time he is required to do something he would rather not do. This is a ______ explanation of conversion symptoms.


People who are unable to recall important information about themselves, especially of an upsetting nature, are MOST likely experiencing:

dissociative amnesia

After a major earthquake, television coverage showed survivors shuffling confusedly through the ruined buildings. If such victims later could not remember the days immediately after the earthquake, the victims would be suffering from what type of amnesia?


A person diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder receives treatment based upon exposure and response prevention. The person could reasonably expect to experience:

less concern about physical defects, and less avoidance of social interactions.

An individual who had suffered from dissociative fugue likely would have experienced all of the following EXCEPT:

a recurrence of the problem months or years later.

A personality change that often accompanies dissociative fugues is that people become:

more outgoing

Of the following disorders, the one for which an individual would least likely need therapy to avoid a recurrence and to recover lost memories is:

dissociative fugue

Abnormalities that are thought to have both biological and psychological causes are:

somatoform disorders

A 35-year-old woman hobbles into the office of a physician complaining of a debilitating illness that has robbed her of the use of her left leg and right arm. The physician finds no physical basis for her symptoms. She appears totally unaware that the cause of her symptoms may be psychological. The diagnosis would be:

conversion disorder

If the state-dependent learning explanation of dissociative disorders is correct, a person may not remember stressful events because he or she is:

at a different arousal level after the stress is over.

Which of the following is an example of malingering?

intentionally faking a back problem to avoid military service

A man appeared at the emergency room complaining of bloody diarrhea. The doctor who examined him found that the man was intentionally creating the diarrhea through use of laxatives and anticoagulant medication, and liked being a patient. The man is MOST likely:

experiencing a factitious disorder.

Juanita has multiple personality disorder. Big Tony and Smart Alice are two personalities who are aware of all of the others. None of her other personalities are aware of each other. This would be called a:

one-way amnesic relationship.

Laurent has three subpersonalities. Jackie emerges when Laurent is in an awkward social situation, Grace surfaces during sporting events, and Carlos appears when Laurent is angry. The therapist believes that the mood and conditions under which each subpersonality appears are critical to understanding this disorder, demonstrating a belief in:

state dependent learning

One very interesting study investigated the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder, and the physiological responses of the "subpersonalities" of those instructed to fake dissociative identity disorder. The study showed that the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder:

differed from one another, but the subpersonalities of those faking dissociative identity disorder did not.

One of the subpersonalities of a person receiving treatment for dissociative identity disorder has just become a "protector." How far along in therapy has the person probably progressed?

moderately far because a protector usually emerges before subpersonality integration

Someone who is experiencing "doubling" is:

feeling like his or her mind is floating above him or her.

"It seems to me that people with illness anxiety disorder simply model what they see others doing." A person with which theoretical view would be MOST likely to say this?


Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative amnesias and fugues result from:


Imagine that you have a body dysmorphic disorder centered around your feet. Your therapist keeps reminding you of your ugly feet and makes you wear sandals. What sort of treatment is your therapist MOST likely using?

exposure and response prevention

In the United States, the highest depression rate is found in:

divorced people

A young woman believes that everything negative that happens to her is her own fault, that she ruins everything, and always will. The therapist diagnoses her as suffering from a learned helplessness induced depression because she attributes negative events in her life to:

internal, global, stable factors

The dean of academic affairs visits a professor’s class as part of a tenure review. At the conclusion of the lecture, the dean exits hurriedly, without saying a word to the professor. The professor, who is prone to depression, concludes, "The dean hated my class so much he was too embarrassed to speak to me." This is an example of a(n):

arbitrary inference.

Recent research using genetic linkage studies has looked for possible patterns of inheritance of bipolar disorders. The results suggest that:

there may be several different genes that establish a predisposition to develop bipolar disorders.

A woman being treated for postpartum depression after the birth of her first child is most likely to:

have up to a 50% chance of experiencing postpartum depression with her next child.

Which theoretical model is supported by the finding that monkeys separated from their mothers at birth show signs of depression?


A state of breathless euphoria, or frenzied energy, in which individuals have an exaggerated belief in their power describes:


Sohila has been deteriorating for more than a year. She is always tired (she does not sleep), she is losing weight (she eats poorly), she is sad, feels terrible, and feels like it will never get any better. When asked, it is clear that nothing in particular has happened. Based on these data, the diagnosis MOST likely would be:

endogenous depression.

Biochemical explanations for bipolar disorder focus on all of the following EXCEPT:

hormonal functioning (do focus on genetic factors, ion activity, and neurotransmitter activity)

According to the DSM-5, all of the following are considered symptoms of a manic episode, EXCEPT:

suicidal ideation

If you wanted to be on the cutting edge of research regarding the causes of bipolar disorders as we understand them today, you would MOST likely do research on which of the following?

neurotransmitters in the brain

If you are a minority, you are:

likely to benefit from culturally sensitive therapy.

Which interpersonal problem area identified by interpersonal psychotherapists is MOST like the cause of depression suggested by psychoanalysis?

interpersonal loss

Which of the following is TRUE about the research on the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy in treating unipolar depression?

It nearly eliminates depressive symptoms in 50 to 60 percent of cases.

Second messengers are:

active inside the neuron

Electroconvulsive therapy would be MOST recommended when:

the patient has not responded to antidepressant drugs.

The effects of lithium were discovered during the investigation of:

the effect of toxic levels of uric acid.

The best treatment recommendation you could give someone experiencing bipolar disorder is:

drug therapy, perhaps accompanied by psychotherapy.

Apparently tricyclics work by:

blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.

What do ECT, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation have in common?

They suggest that brain stimulation is effective in treating severe forms of depression.

Retrospective analysis of suicide typically would include:

interviews with people who knew the person who committed suicide.

Knowing she was terminally ill, Bonnie swallowed a handful of barbiturates in order to save herself and her family from the final painful months of life. Bonnie is an example of what Edwin Shneidman refers to as a:

death initiator

According to Edwin Shneidman, how do death ignorers primarily differ from other categories?

They believe death will not end their existence.

Why might the suicide rate among elderly Native Americans be low?

the value the culture places on the elderly

Which of the following is the BEST example of dichotomous thinking?

There’s only one thing to do and nothing else matters.

"Cluster suicides" may involve high suicide rates among those:

living on certain Native-American reservations.

Research prompted by the "black box" controversy about using second-generation antidepressants with younger patients shows that taking second-generation antidepressants:

decreases younger patient suicide rates overall, although some individuals are more likely to commit suicide.

If you wanted to tailor a suicide prevention program to the racial group MOST at risk, of the following, you should target which of the following:

white americans

Immediate stressors particularly common among those who attempt suicide include all the following EXCEPT:

occupational stress

Research supporting a Freudian view of suicide has shown that later suicidal behavior is related to:

both real and symbolic losses in childhood.

Research indicates that suicides by people with schizophrenia are in response to:

feelings of demoralization

Media coverage that included the "Don’t do it" message, phone numbers for suicide prevention centers, and interviews with suicide experts, occurred after the suicide of:

Kurt Cobain

As a political protest, two activists leap from a bridge in a highly publicized double suicide. Those MOST at risk for modeling these suicides are:

people with a history of emotional problems.

If the psychodynamic explanation for suicide is correct, then suicide rates should:

be higher in nations with low murder rates.

A society that loses its basic family and religious core values, experiences large-scale immigration of people with very different values, and fails to provide meaning for the life of its people is in danger of an increase in what Durkheim calls:

anomic suicide

In research on the relationship between serotonin and suicide, serotonin seems MOST related to:


Based on the evidence about suicide rates, which of the following intervention strategies should prevent the MOST suicides?

intervention focused on middle-aged adults—they have a fairly high suicide rate, and it is rising relatively rapidly

The "typical" child who commits suicide is a:

boy who understands what death really is.

Adolescent suicides differ from suicides at other age levels in all of the following ways EXCEPT that:

many experience significant loss before the suicide.

Which of the following BEST supports the idea that teenagers who attempt suicide are more uncertain about killing themselves than elderly people are?

Teenagers succeed at suicide only in about 1 in 200 attempts.

During his first night in the detoxification unit, Quent developed what seemed like a case of the flu. He ached all over and had diarrhea. He was probably withdrawing from:


The drug that, when misused, would MOST quickly result in dependence or addiction would be:


Of the following, which has the LOWEST risks for drug dependency and long-term behavioral change?


Benzodiazepines primarily affect the neurotransmitter:


Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can damage the developing embryo and fetus, resulting in:

fetal alcohol syndrome

Studies attempting to relate personality traits to potential for developing substance abuse show that:

no single trait or combination of traits predicts substance abuse.

Which of the following combinations is MOST likely to result in antagonistic effects?

barbiturates and cocaine

Which of the following is a negative effect of cannabis use?

decrease in fertility

Of the following, the person who would probably have the highest blood alcohol level after an hour of drinking would be a:

200-pound woman who had drunk six cans of beer.

While under the influence of LSD, Matilda believes that she can feel the sounds around her. This effect is known as:


Methods of supplying nicotine to those who are trying to quit smoking include all of the following except:

the subcutaneous nicotine pump.

Jason, a recovering heavy drinker, has been trained to identify the situations that might cause him to drink and to be aware of when he should stop drinking. This approach is known as:

relapse-prevention training

Evidence for the effectiveness of self-help programs comes MOSTLY from:

testimonials from those who have gone through such a program.

Which hormone can cause decreased sexual desire when present in either low or high levels?


A young woman who formerly had a fairly high sex drive, and who reports no new medical problems, nonetheless experiences an unexpected drop in sex drive. What would be an important question to ask her, before recommending some sort of psychotherapy?

"Have you recently started taking birth control pills?"

Studies of patterns of teenage sexual behavior today compared to such behavior a generation ago show today’s teens having:

intercourse younger, and using condoms more.

A woman reports having vivid sexual fantasies, yet is unable to experience either clitoral or labial swelling, or vaginal lubrication. The MOST likely diagnosis for this woman would be:

sexual interest arousal disorder

What were once referred to as frigidity and impotence are dysfunctions that occur during the ______ phase of sexual arousal.


What is thought to be the cause of vaginismus (the involuntary contraction of vaginal muscles)?

conditioning of a fear response

Research shows that sexual dysfunctions among homosexual couples:

are the same as those seen in heterosexual couples.

Delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, heightened perceptions and hallucinations, and inappropriate affect are examples of ______ symptoms of schizophrenia.


Rosa is sure that her family is planning to kidnap her and take her inheritance. She has found her husband talking on the phone in whispers and seen her children looking at her strangely. Rosa is MOST likely suffering from:

delusions of persecution

Millie sees pretty colored butterflies on all the walls. She also hears gentle music, which is not actually there. The presence of these behaviors illustrates ______ symptoms of schizophrenia.


The finding that the HIGHEST rates of schizophrenia are found among people who are born during the winter supports which theory of schizophrenia?

viral theory

You have found enlarged ventricles during a postmortem analysis on a sample of brain tissue. This is MOST likely to be evidence of:

schizophrenia involving mainly negative symptoms.

Recently the dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia has been challenged because it has been discovered that:

effective new drugs suggest abnormal neurotransmitter activity of serotonin as well as dopamine.

Andrea Yates, showing symptoms of postpartum psychosis, drowned her five children in 2001. Assuming she was suffering from postpartum psychosis, her actions were:

atypical; less than 10 percent of women with postpartum psychosis harm or attempt to harm their offspring.

A middle-aged individual shows many of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and at the same time often appears profoundly depressed. The symptoms have lasted almost a year. This is an example of:

schizoaffective disorder

Which of the following statements about genetic factors in schizophrenia is accurate?

Close relatives of those with schizophrenia are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than distant relatives of those with schizophrenia.

According to the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia:

people with a biological predisposition for schizophrenia will develop it if certain psychosocial stressors are also present.

While Type I schizophrenia is dominated by ______ symptoms, Type II schizophrenia is dominated by ______ symptoms.

positive; negative

Which of the following would be the MOST common type of hallucination?

That dog is singing to me and asking me to sing along. (auditory)

Compared to those diagnosed with schizophrenia who live in developing countries, those diagnosed with schizophrenia who live in developed countries are:

less likely to recover fully, and more likely to be hospitalized.

Advantages of atypical antipsychotic drugs over conventional medications include:

newer medications produce fewer extrapyramidal effects.

What do Parkinson-like symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia have in common?

They all involve disruption of motor control.

The most successful way to eliminate tardive dyskinesia is:

to stop the antipsychotic medication.

If you went to a meeting of a group lobbying for better care for the mentally ill and made up primarily of family members of people with severe mental disorders, you would probably be attending:

the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill.

Several people with schizophrenia work at a recycling center, where on-time behavior is expected, and payment is made solely for work completed. The people do not compete with each other. MOST likely, this work takes place at a:

sheltered workshop

Helen was just discharged from a public mental health facility. She went to live with a group of other former patients in a group-living arrangement. There were staff members to help out but the former patients controlled most of the day-to-day activities. Helen’s living arrangement is a:

halfway house

Someone says to you, "Homeless people scare me. They’re all crazy." What is your BEST response?

Unfortunately, about a third of homeless people are mentally ill."

An individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. That individual is MOST likely to have a parent or sibling who has:


Based on a structured interview, Diagnostician A classifies an individual’s personality disorder in the "odd" cluster. Based on another structured interview of the same type, Diagnostician B classifies an individual’s personality disorder in the "dramatic" cluster. If what is described here is typical of what happens when that variety of structured interview is used, one would say the structured interview has:

low reliability and low validity

What aspect of dialectical behavior therapy relates to psychodynamic theory?

the emphasis on the patient-therapist relationship.

Lisa felt like she was on an emotional roller coaster. She felt angry and empty. Lisa’s feelings are MOST similar to those of someone with:

borderline personality disorder.

When the seat belt light in DiDi’s car stays on for a few extra seconds, she bursts into tears. She always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate show of emotion. She probably could receive a diagnosis of:

histrionic personality disorder.

"I am the greatest!" a famous boxer declared loudly and often. Had he in fact acted throughout his adult life as though he were the greatest, the most appropriate diagnosis would be:

narcissistic personality disorder.

If an individual has damage to the prefrontal cortex, which of the following symptoms would MOST likely be observed?

deficits in planning, self-control, and decision making

Currently, the "Big-Five" approach to personality disorders is:

the recipient of recognition, with a great amount of research being done on it.

Although lying, even compulsive lying, is not considered a psychological disorder, it is sometimes characteristic of people with:

narcissistic personality disorder.

Ty is fairly handsome, but not as handsome as he thinks he is. He doesn’t care about anyone but himself and is sure that everyone around him feels the same way. He is MOST likely experiencing:

narcissistic personality disorder.

Elena can’t seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or appearing foolish. She is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar situations. She may be experiencing:

avoidant personality disorder

Cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder focuses on:

increasing the client’s tolerance of emotional discomfort and building up his or her self- image.

When Selina sees a report of a train wreck on television, she thinks that it is a sign that she should not take the train to work the next day and so decides to take the bus instead. If she has a diagnosable personality disorder, it is MOST likely:

schizotypal personality disorder.

Comorbidity means that:

two disorders may occur together in an individual.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is MOST common among:

men with jobs

Which of the following would a phrenologist MOST likely have done?

assessed personality by feeling for bumps and indentations on the head

The consistencies of one’s characteristics are called:

personality traits

Ben set up an elaborate scheme to mine gold in the Rockies. He had a large town meeting and made a presentation of his stock. The shares were only $5 each, and everyone could afford them. He showed pictures of the mine and explained how the company expected to gross $100 million each month. As it turns out, he was a terrific con artist who had made several "successful" proposals such as this in towns across America in the last couple of years. He is MOST likely suffering from:

antisocial personality disorder.

Which of the following is MOST characteristic of mass murderers?

feelings of persecution and desire for revenge

The two childhood disorders that have been related to later antisocial personality disorder are:

conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

"What should I look for in an effective ADHD treatment program?" a friend asks. Your BEST answer among the following alternatives is:

"Drugs generally work best."

A child awakens suddenly to the sound of a bell, and heads for the bathroom. MOST likely the child is receiving:

behavioral therapy for enuresis.

Compared to white American children, African American and Hispanic American children with similar levels of activity and attention problems are:

less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD, and less likely to receive effective treatment.

From which of the following pairs of disorders is a child MOST likely to recover by adulthood?

enuresis and encopresis

Among the likely causes of ADHD are all of the following EXCEPT:

abnormal serotonin activity and parietal damage.

Pat does not follow what the teacher is doing and has difficulty focusing on the task at hand. His behavior in class is disruptive because he cannot sit still, which leads to poor grades in school. These symptoms MOST likely indicate:

attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder.

"Relational aggression" is a term used to describe a pattern of aggression MOST common among:

girls diagnosed with conduct disorder.

A child has autism spectrum disorder and does not like much variation in his life. He puts his toys on a shelf in a particular order and throws a tantrum if his mother moves any of them. Any one of several trivial changes in his daily routine can set him off. This is an example of:

a perseveration of sameness.

The mockingbird gets its name from the fact that it often imitates the call of other birds, without conveying any particular message. A child who imitates others’ speech without any sign of understanding it, MOST likely would be diagnosed with:


Assume that you are alone in a room with a child suffering from a disorder of childhood. If you didn’t know what the child’s diagnosis was, what behavior of the child’s might start to convince you that the disorder is autism spectrum disorder?

The child is not responsive to other people.

MOST children with intellectual developmental disorder live:

at home

Anoxia, one possible source of intellectual developmental disorder, involves brain damage resulting from:

lack of oxygen during or after delivery.

If a pregnant woman wishes to avoid having a child with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), what should she do?

avoid drinking alcohol, since no safe level of drinking while pregnant has been established.

An iodine deficiency in the diet of a pregnant woman may lead to a condition in which the baby has a dwarflike appearance and a defective thyroid gland. This disorder is called:


Shy and anxious children who have mild to moderate degrees of intellectual dysfunction, language impairments, and behavioral problems are MOST likely to be diagnosed with:

fragile x syndrome

The most common of the identified chromosomal causes of Down syndrome is:

trisomy 21

Early home intervention programs for those in the "mild" intellectual developmental disordercategory:

improve both overall functioning, and later performance in school and in adulthood.

MOST cases of mild intellectual developmental disorder seem to be related to:

sociocultural and psychological factors.

The specific symptoms associated with dyslexia include:

an impairment of the ability to recognize words and to comprehend what is being read.

The LEAP program for treating children with autism spectrum disorder is unique because it involves the use of:

typical children as models and "teachers."

Alzheimer’s is a brain _______ while stroke is a brain _______.

disease; injury

Research on the cause of Alzheimer’s disease has led to the conclusion that:

there appears to be a significant hereditary component, but this does not fully explain its onset.

An elderly person has been diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder, but the disorder is not Alzheimer’s disease. Among the elderly, such a diagnosis is:

fairly common—about a third of neurocognitive disorders are not Alzheimer’s disease.

The molecules that are found in sphere-shaped deposits in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are called:

beta-amyloid protein.

A person who has Alzheimer’s although there is no family history of the disease is said to be experiencing:

sporadic Alzheimer’s.

A person who has an excess of plaques due to Alzheimer’s would be likely to have:

cell breakdown and death

Depletion of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated as a:

critical factor in Alzheimer’s disease.

What generally happens in the thalamus and the hypothalamus of an individual with Alzheimer’s disease?

selected neurons shrink or die

The fact that Alzheimer’s disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease suggests that Alzheimer’s may be caused by:

a virus

Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from:

Korsakoff’s syndrome.

A person quite suddenly begins to show specific cognitive impairment and difficulty in speaking, yet other cognitive functions appear normal. MOST likely, that person is experiencing:

vascular neurocognitive disorder.

Which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes?

Pick’s disease

Someone who has AIDS is also at risk for developing:


A person with Alzheimer’s disease is taking a drug designed to affect acetylcholine and glutamate and may experience:

improvement both in short-term memory and in ability to cope under pressure.

Of the following alternatives, what would be the BEST advice to give someone who wants to retain good cognitive functioning as long as possible in old age?

"Exercise your body and your mind—use it or lose it."

"Triple jeopardy," as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to:

being old, a minority member, and a woman.

Women who want to reduce their risk of developing Alzheimer’s may benefit if they:

take estrogen for years after menopause.

One of the MOST frequent reasons for the institutionalization of Alzheimer’s patients is:

because home caregivers are overwhelmed.

A clouding of consciousness that develops over a short period of time and can often be reversed if its underlying cause can be found is called:


An individual with retrograde amnesia:

can learn new information but does not recall events of the past.

Among the brain areas most important to long-term memory are the _________ lobes and the __________.

frontal; cerebellum.

temporal; diencephalon

Which has not been associated with helping prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease?


Surveys find that approximately _________ percent of older people, particularly men, have alcohol-related disorders in a given year.

4 to 7

What is the most correct statement about anxiety disorders in later life?

Individuals over 85 report higher rates of the disorder than those between 65 and 84.

_________ is the ongoing inability to form new memories.

Anterograde amnesia

Symptoms of which disorder have been found to lessen in later life?


It is estimated that by the year 2050, _________ will make up the largest number of elderly ethnic minorities.

Hispanic Americans

Early onset Alzheimer’s disease may be brought on by all but:

orbital difficulties

As many as ________ percent of people over the age of 85 will develop some form of neurocognitive disorder.


__________ has been found to be caused by a slow-acting virus, and this has lent some weight to the viral theory of schizophrenia.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Alzheimer’s disease can only be diagnosed with certainty by means of a(n):


Twisted protein fibers are found within the cells of the ____________ and other brain areas of people who died from Alzheimer’s disease.


Which of the following psychotic disorders is described by your author as increasing in prevalence as people age?

delusional disorder

When new information is acquired and stored, certain _________ must be produced in key brain cells.


What percentage of all prescription drugs are purchased by elderly people?


Lisa Mosconi and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine have developed a special type of ___________ that may predict neurocognitive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease before symptoms develop.

PET scan

People over ___ represent the fastest-growing segment of the population in the United States and in most countries around the world.


Among the most important structures in short-term memory are the __________ lobes.

prefrontal lobes

The field of psychology that is dedicated to the mental health of the elderly is called:


At any given time in the United States, only about _____ percent of the elderly population actually live in nursing homes.


__________ can take a heavy toll on the close relatives of people with neurocognitive disorder.


Which of the following is true of older women and men?

Older women outnumber older men by 3 to 2,

The symptoms of vascular neurocognitive disorder:

begin suddenly

Clinicians now recognize that one of the most important aspects of treating Alzheimer?s disease and other forms of neurocognitive disorders is to focus on:

the emotional needs of the caregivers

__________ is associated with chronic alcoholism.

Korsakoff’s syndrome

Which group of older persons has the highest rate of problem drinking?

patients in nursing homes

Which group has the highest rate of depression?

aged persons who live in nursing homes

Drugs used to treat Alzheimer’s disease affect two neurotransmitters-glutamate and __________ -in the brain.


Incorrect diagnosis of _______ may contribute to a high rate of death for older people with the disorder.


___________ is an inherited progressive disease in which memory problems worsen over time, along with personality changes, mood difficulties, and movement problems such as severe twitching and spasms.

Huntington’s disease

According to the DSM-5, all but which of the following may be a part of a diagnosis of Neurocognitive Disorder due to Alzheimer’s Disease?

Symptoms must contain behavioral difficulties.

Problems in memory and related cognitive processes occurring without organic causes are known as:

dissociative disorders

____________ have been said to slow the cognitive decline of people suffering from neurocognitive disorders, while simultaneously enhancing their enjoyment of life.

assisted-living facilities

The most common form of neurocognitive disorder is:

Alzheimer’s disease.

_______ is a slowly progressive neurological disorder marked by tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness.

Parkinson’s disease

As many as ________ percent of elderly people will eventually wind up being placed in a nursing home.


Which of the following statements is true with regard to suicide and the elderly?

The rate of suicide for the elderly is approximately one-third higher than it is for the general population of the United States.

Which of the following is not true of the "oldest old," or those above the age of 95?

They often do more traveling than those in their 80s and early 90s.

The ________ explanation or theory for Alzheimer’s disease is linked to the resemblance of Alzheimer’s disease to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


Which of the following illnesses is least likely to develop in later life?


Which treatment approach is more likely to strengthen juvenile delinquent behavior than to help reduce it?


In ___________, people with intellectual developmental disorder are grouped together in a separate, specially designated educational program.

special education

Which is the most correct statement about IQ scores?

IQ scores have a high correlation with school performance.

When children reach school age, therapists often use a family intervention called parent management training to help treat which problem?

conduct disorder

What is the most accurate statement about child sexual abuse?

Child sexual abuse appears to be equally common across all socioeconomic classes, races, and ethnic groups.

At what age does conduct disorder usually appear?

between 7 and 15

Surveys throughout the world have repeatedly revealed that __________ ranks as a major problem in the minds of young people, often even more seriously than racism or AIDS.


Which two treatment modalities are most commonly applied for ADHD.

drug and behavioral therapy

Which would lead to the most reliable diagnosis of ADHD?

parent and teacher reports, clinical observations, interviews, psychological tests, and rating scales

Repeated involuntary bedwetting or wetting of one’s clothes is known as:


What percentage of children with autism spectrum disorder are boys?


Which is not one of the broad categories of an autism spectrum disorder?

delinquent type behaviors

As many as ___ percent of schoolchildren diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are boys.


What is a recidivist?

A person who is arrested who has a record of previous arrest.

The exact repetition of phrases spoken by others is known as:


When Mark, who suffers from an autism spectrum disorder, was hungry he looked at his mother and asked "Do you want dinner?" This reversal of pronouns is referred to as:

pronominal reversal

Which of the following abnormal chromosomal situations does not cause Down syndrome?

fragile x syndrome

When children or adolescents cause a peer to be socially isolated, spread rumors about them, and manipulate their friendships, they are engaging in __________ aggression.


If a child with conduct disorder displays openly aggressive and confrontational behaviors, which pattern of the disorder would that child be displaying?


________ is associated with the theory that personality characteristics of the parents were the cause of autism.

Leo Kanner

Theory of mind refers to:

an awareness that other people base their behaviors on their own beliefs, intentions, and other mental states.

Abnormality in this area of the brain has been associated with autism.


Among many clinicians, _______ is the preferred treatment for autism, because the gains from the treatment continue for a significant period of time.

behavioral therapy

In addition to having an IQ score of approximately _____ or below, to be diagnosed with intellectual developmental disorder a person must have poor adaptive behavior.


Which of the following have cases of conduct disorder NOT been linked to?

genetic and biological factors

What percentage of children and adolescents in North America suffer from a diagnosable psychological disorder?


Mild intellectual developmental disorder is linked mainly to:

sociocultural and psychological causes.

IQ score below _____ would indicate profound retardation.


The most common of the chromosomal disorders leading to intellectual developmental disorder is:

Down Syndrome

Symptoms associated with autism typically appear before the age of:


Repeated involuntary defecating into one’s clothing is known as:


Which of the following is a true statement regarding the childhood disorders covered in this chapter?

They are mostly more prevalent in boys than in girls.

The most common metabolic disorder to cause intellectual developmental disorder is:


Why is Asperger’s disorder no longer a diagnosis?

It is now diagnosed under the autism spectrum disorder or communication disorder label.

Approximately 1 in _______ children are born with phenylketonuria (PKU).


Which of the following statements about intellectual developmental disorder is not true?

Fewer than 10 percent of all people with even mild mental retardation eventually marry.

Children who argue repeatedly with adults, lose their temper, ignore rules and requests, and blame others for their mistakes and problems might best be diagnosed with:

oppositional defiant disorder.

Which of the following treatments for conduct disorder involves group therapy where children might work with others who have similar problems?

the Anger Coping and Coping Power Program

The "odd" cluster of personality disorders consists of which personality disorders?

paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal

The diagnostic features of which of the following personality disorder bear the greatest similarity to people who are diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (social phobia)?


Which is not an area listed in the DSM-5 as required to be affected by a personality disorder?


People with _________ personality disorder display great instability, major shifts in mood, an unstable self-image, and impulsivity.


According to a large body of research with diverse populations, how many "supertraits," or factors, may describe the basic structure of personality?


An enduring, rigid pattern of inner experience and outward behavior is known as a:

personality disorder

The lack of consensus about the correct diagnosis of personality disorders questions the _______ of the DSM categories.

validity and reliability

Freudian theorists suggest that people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are:

anal regressive

People with one of the "odd" clusters of personality disorders often qualify for an additional diagnosis of:


What is the primary distinction between the beliefs of someone with paranoid personality disorder and someone with paranoid schizophrenia?

The beliefs of someone with paranoid personality disorder are not usually delusional, while the beliefs of someone with paranoid schizophrenia are.

Which of the following is not a quality/skill that may shift in a sufferer of borderline personality disorder?

athletic ability

Psychodynamic theorists believe that people who develop antisocial personality disorder have failed to develop a sense of:


Which is not a description of the three clusters of DSM-5 personality disorders?

high degree of learned helplessness

People with _________ personality disorder display a range of interpersonal problems marked by extreme discomfort in close relationships, odd patterns of thinking and perceiving, and behavioral eccentricities.


The cluster of "dramatic" personality disorders includes which of the following personality disorders?

antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic

Which of the following treatment approaches is of limited help for sufferers of paranoid personality disorder?

drug therapy

Which of the personality disorders was once called "hysterical personality disorder" and involves individuals who are typically described as emotionally charged and seeking to be the center of attention?


Which of the following is not one of the biological factors that are common to people with schizophrenia and people with schizotypal personality disorder?

reduced activity of serotonin

DSM-5 stipulates that a person must be at least 18 years of age to receive the diagnosis of ___________ personality disorder.


Research has found that individuals with antisocial personality disorder often seem to experience less___________ than other people, a key ingredient to learning.


People with ___________ personality disorder are sometimes described as "psychopaths" or "sociopaths."


Children with _________ and an accompanying ________ disorder apparently have a heightened risk of developing antisocial personality disorder.

conduct disorder; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

People with _________ personality disorder persistently avoid and are removed from social relationships and demonstrate little in the way of emotion.


Which is not given as a theory for why people with antisocial personality disorder experience less anxiety than other people?

slow EKG waves

What is the primary reason that people with schizoid personality disorder avoid social contact?

preference to be alone

A personality disorder characterized by a pattern of clinging and obedience, fear of separation, and ongoing need to be taken care of is:

dependent personality disorder

Psychodynamic therapists believe that people with histrionic personality disorder are trying to defend against a deep-seated fear of:


_____________ , which helps clients increase their ability to tolerate distress, learn new social skills, and respond more effectively to life situations, is considered the treatment of choice in many clinical circles for borderline personality disorder.

Dialectical behavioral therapy

____________ personality disorder was formerly a name for histrionic personality disorder.


Psychodynamic explanations for dependent personality disorder are very similar to those for:


The cluster of "anxious" personality disorders includes avoidant, dependent, and __________ personality disorders.


Enduring and predictable behavioral consistencies are often called:

personality traits

Men are ________ as likely as women to display obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.


Personality disorders typically become recognizable in:

adolescence or early adulthood.

Which is not a personality tendency that would be included in the new DSM-5 diagnosis that is called personality disorder trait specified (PDTS), according to your chapter?

sexual promiscuity

Which of the following is not a problem with the DSM-5 categories of personality disorders?

All of the personality disorders are seen more in men than in women, suggesting a bias in diagnostic criteria.

Which of the following statements is true of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?

Researchers have not found a specific link between the two disorders.

Of the following groups of people, which receives the least trust from society?

congressional members

The basic structure of personality may consist of five "supertraits," which do not include:


People with ___________ personality disorder are generally grandiose, need much admiration, and feel no empathy with others.


Jeff’s left arm suddenly went numb. His physician was unable to find a physical cause of the problem. Jeff is apparently suffering from what the ancient Greek physicians called:


The practice of trephination was probably used to:

allow the release of evil spirits

Hippocrates’ model of mental illness would be described as:


Another term for a cluster of symptoms is


General principles that explain the underlying causes or nature of abnormal behavior are called:


A study of a single person used to explain the underlying causes or nature of abnormal behavior in that person is consistent with the ______ approach.


Which of the following is the best example of the nomothetic approach?

review of records to see if autism runs in families in general

Experiments are consistent with the ______ approach.


Internal validity reflects how well a study:

rules out the effects of all variables except those being studied.

The form of correlational research that seeks to find how many new cases of a disorder occur in a group in a given time period is termed:

epidemiological (incidence).

The incidence of HIV+ rates on campus tells you

the number of new HIV+ cases measured in a time period.

Not all participants are the same. Researchers use ______ to reduce the possibility that preexisting differences between groups are responsible for observed differences after experimental manipulation.

random assignment

What is the term for studies that have the structure of experiments except that they use groups that already exist, instead of randomly assigning participants to control and experimental groups?


A researcher works to reduce the amount of disruptive talking a child does in school. The researcher first measures the disruptive talking frequency, then institutes treatment, while continuing to measure the behavior. Later, treatment is removed, as measurement continues. Finally the researcher re-introduces the treatment. This type of study is a:

reversal design

The paradigm or model adopted by people in the Middle Ages to explain abnormal behavior would have been:


A mental health practitioner attempts to learn about the behavior and emotional state of each client. This approach to abnormal psychology is called:


Another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is:


The assumption behind the use of projective tests as assessment tools is that:

the responses come from the client’s unconscious.

The test with the highest validity in identifying psychological disturbances is the:


Which of the following is most likely to be used to assess psychological impairment following neurological damage?

the Luria-Nebraska Battery

While someone is watching, Jennifer actually eats fewer sweets than usual. This tendency to decrease a behavior while being observed is an example of:


Which of the following statements about the DSM-V, the most widely used classification system of mental disorders, is FALSE?

it uses dimensional information

Messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny spaces called:


Barney’s mother is taking cookies out of the oven. Which of the following would suggest most strongly that the id is firmly in control of Barney’s behavior?

Barney grabs some of the cookies and runs.

According to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, the part of the personality that is the conscience is the:


According to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, ineffective interaction of the id, ego, and superego can lead to entrapment at a developmental level. This is called:


If, after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone (without the unconditioned stimulus), it will eventually stop eliciting the conditioned response through a process called:


Apparently, people develop phobias more readily to such objects as spiders and the dark than they do to such objects as computers and radios. This observation supports the ______ explanation of phobias.


Madeline appeared at the clinic complaining of pain in her knee, shoulder, and abdomen, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and exhaustion. The patient history revealed that she had been going to clinics for years trying to get treatment for these complaints and a host of other physical symptoms. The diagnostic consensus was that Madeline suffered from:

somatic symptom disorder

What disorder has been described as a use of self-hypnosis?

multiple personality disorder

Darius thinks that his poor performance in math was due to a bad teacher, but he believes that he is good in language-based subjects. He is sure that he will do better next year. This is an example of ______ attribution.

external, specific, unstable

Which of the following is not true about suicide?

Suicide is more often associated with Alzheimer’s than with depression.

When he was five years old, Samir was almost struck by lightning while walking through a forest during a rainstorm. Today, he is extremely afraid of trees. A behaviorist would say that he has acquired this fear by:

classical conditioning

Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for unipolar depression. These studies have found:

high rates of unipolar depression among dizygotic twins but not among monozygotic twins.

The phobia most often associated with panic disorder is:


To receive a diagnosis of dysthymic disorder, an individual must have experienced symptoms for at least:

two years

Critics of the "reuptake theory" of tricyclic antidepressant action focus on ______ to explain the mechanism by which tricyclics alleviate depressive symptoms.

the 7- to 14-day lag between the start of its blocking reuptake and its effect on depressive symptoms

According to research studies, the success rate for interpersonal therapy is about the same as that for:

cognitive therapy

If a biochemical imbalance were the cause of a person’s depression, the latest research would lead us to expect to find that person to have:

an abnormality in the activity of certain neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and norepinephrine.

Which of the following is least likely to be a source of either low sexual desire, or sexual aversion?

biological reasons

A client being treated for alcohol abuse receives just enough of a drug called curare to produce temporary paralysis just as that client takes a swig of beer. Presumably, sufficient pairings of paralysis and alcohol will reduce the client’s desire for alcohol. This procedure is called:

aversion therapy

Hypoactive sexual desire may include all of the following except:

finding sexual activity repulsive

Which hormone can cause decreased sexual desire when present in low, but not high levels?


Antonio believes that the anchor on the evening news (TV) is speaking directly (and personally) to him. He even goes to the television studio to talk to the man. He is suffering from:

delusions of reference

The data from studies of the biological and adoptive parents of children who receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia as adults show that the concordance rate of schizophrenia with biological relatives is:

higher than with adoptive relatives

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