Abnormal Final

the enduring pattern of inner experiences behavior that is unique to each individual is termed

personality

the consistencies of one's personality are called

personality traits

what differentiates normal personality characteristics from personality disorders

flexibility

the most important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that

they are inflexible, maladaptive

by the DSM classification system, personality disorders are disorder on which axis

axis II

a person suffering from a personality disorder also suffers from an axis I disorder; this is called

comorbidity

one reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals

they are unaware they have a problem

the term comorbidity means that

the relationship that is common for a person with a personality disorder to also suffer from an acute axis I disorder

an individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. that individual is most likely to have a parent or sibling who has

schizophrenia

the category of "odd" personality disorders includes the traits of

extreme suspicion, social withdrawal, cognitive/perceptual peculiarities

an individual with a diagnosed personality disorder is emotionally unstable, as well as impulsive and reckless. this person's diagnosis is most likely to be which of the following personality disorders

borderline

reese is distrustful of others and reacts quickly to perceived threats. even though he has no evidence, he is sure his wife is unfaithful. he finds it almost impossible to forgive those he thinks have wronged him. reese displays the characteristic of the _____ personality disorder

paranoid

in role-playing situations, subjects with paranoid personality disorder generally interpret ambiguous behavior as

hostile

although those with paranoid personality disorder often are deeply suspicious, their suspicions usually do not

delusions

theorists explain the paranoid personality disorder as coping with inadequacy. this leads to the ideas that people are evil and will attack you if given the chance. these ideas are consistent with _____ orientation

cognitive

according to recent research, if a person living in the US is distrustful of both local TV news and the government, that type of person is

common

after suffering severe brain trauma, Phineas Gage appeared not to care about his friends and coworkers, and developed wild, grandiose plans he later had to abandon. these symptoms are most similar to the symptoms of which of the following personality disorders

schizoid

"even our negative emotions help us survive. for example, aren't our suspicious often justified?" most likely someone with a ______ theoretical perspective made this statement

evolutionary

one similarity of those experiencing paranoid personality disorder and those experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they tend

these individuals do not have close ties with others

the schizoid personality disorder differs from paranoid personality disorder in that

these people genuinely prefer to be alone; paranoid alone because of suspiciousness

wes has always been a loner. he has never much cared for being with other people. he does not form relationships easily. he appears to be without emotion. we may be exhibiting the _____ personality disorder

schizoid

the theorist who describes schizoid personality disorder as arising from an inability to perceive effectively what is going on in the environment, including emotions, reflects the _____ theoretical orientation

cognitive

cognitive theorists believe that because of their difficulty scanning the environment, perceiving accurately, and picking up emotional cues, those with schizoid personalities develop _____ very slowly

language and motor skills

a person who is least likely to be affected by criticism or praise from other people is one suffering from the ____ personality disorder

schizoid

there is a new game called "moods" where one acts out the mood listed on a card. being encouraged to play this game is most likely treatment ____ might use for those with schizoid disorders

cognitive

the type of therapy that generally provides the least help for those with schizoid personality disorder is

drug therapy

when Selina sees a report of a train wreck on TV, she thinks it is a sign that she should not take the train to work the next day. she takes the bus instead. if she has a diagnosable personality disorder, it is most likely

schizotypal personality disorder

a belief that the news anchor on CNN is giving one important message about one's behavior reflects

ideas of reference

digressive and vague language with loose associations accompanied by attention and concentration problems are characteristic of

schizotypal

the disorder that appears to be most closely related to the schizotypal personality disorder is

schizophrenia

a client being treated for schizotypal personality disorder must show up for therapy appointments on time, dress appropriately, and complete some social skills training. most likely the theoretical orientation of the therapist is

behavioral

the personality disorder that is most often associated with criminal behavior is the

antisocial personality disorder

sarah respects none of society's boundaries and is insensitive to other people, frequently violating their rights. she does not consider the consequences of her actions. she experiences

antisocial personality disorder

a recent movie details the activities of a serial killer who was subsequently diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. should law enforcement agencies worry about the possibility of "copycat" killings following the movie's release

yes as seen from natural born killer and a clockwork orange; copycat killings occur

the person most likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder is

american white males

the person most likely to abuse alcohol probably experiences _____ personality disorder

antisocial

the two childhood disorders that have been related to later antisocial personality disorder are

conduct disorder and ADHD

the absence of parental love results in emotional detachment and the use of power to form relationships. this is most like a _____ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder

psychodynamic

the fact that children learn antisocial behavior by modeling parental conflict and aggressiveness provides support for

behavioral

a young boy is constantly told by his parents to "be a man" whenever he is in conflict with friends. in turn, his parents themselves often act aggressively toward each other, and toward him. the theorist who would be best able to explain an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder for this boy would be

behavioral

giving in to a child's refusal to comply with a parental request may inadvertently reinforce stubborn and defiant behavior, setting the scene for the development of antisocial personality disorder. this is most like a _____ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder

behavioral

"what's the big deal? i just don't understand why that matters to you. why can't you just do what i do ?" this quote provides evidence that most strongly supports the _____ explanation for antisocial personality disorder

cognitive

which of the answers would complete the following sentence to support the idea that alcohol use and antisocial personality disorder are related because of their "risk taking" aspects. drug users with personality personality disorders often say they use drugs for

thrill, excitement, arousal; sensation seeking behavior to increase arousal

assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they generally experience less anxiety than other people when they lie or "con" others. this outcome would most strongly support which theoretical position

biological

researchers and clinicians have had little or no success in treating _____ , regardless of the treatment approach taken

antisocial personality disorder

Keira has an unstable self-image, major mood shifts, and is prone to depression and impulsive behavior. she most likely should be diagnosed as having a

borderline personality disorder

"there's nothing out there for me. i can't stand other people, and i can't stand myself, either. I am just really mad right now". such a statement would most likely be made by someone with which personality disorder

borderline personality disorder

everyone else is enjoying the warmth of the early spring day except one college student, who seems irritable, even angry. yesterday, when it was cold and dreary, the same student seemed unusually excitable. this student's behavior is most similar to that of someone with which personality disorder

borderline personality disorder

transported to the hospital after a suicide attempt, a man is later admitted to the hospital's psychiatric wing. most likely, if the man is diagnosed with a personality disorder, it will be

borderline personality disorder

the client is making practically no progress in therapy, and expresses several symptoms similar to those of someone with bipolar disorder. the client has been diagnosed with a personality disorder, most likely the disorder is

Narcissistic

the client is doing reasonably well in therapy, and expresses several symptoms similar to those of someone with social phobia. the client has been diagnosed with a personality disorder, most likely, the disorder is

avoidance

what is a common reason for the hospitalization of people with borderline personality disorder

attempted suicide or self mutilation

the most common impulse-control disorder is

borderline personality disorder

one who sets fires primarily for the pleasure or tension relief the fire setting provides is a(n)

pyromania

the frequent failure to resist the impulse to steal is called

kleptomania

bertha pulls her hair out of a spot on the top of her head. she appears to be bald there. this is a symptom of an impulse control disorder called

trichotillomania

the fact that those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder often were neglected, rejected, or sexually abused as children is best predicted by which view

psychodynamic therapists

Gort's parents never quite liked him. they probably did not want children in the first place. he just was not accepted. it was clear early in school that he had low opinion of himself. he also did not know how to interact with the other children. now he cuts himself and has been to the ER several times. this is a description of the possible development of

borderline personality disorder

a therapist treating a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder worked out the following analysis. the parents probably did not want children in the first place. the child just was not accepted. the child developed low self-esteem, dependency, and an inability to cope with separation. the therapists' theoretical orientation is probably

object relations

a biological cause implicated in borderline personality disorder is

decreased serotonin

a little girl has been discovered to be the victim of sexual abuse. when she becomes an adult, the probability that she will be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder is

much higher

a friend asks your advice about the best therapy to use for treating borderline personality disorder. your best answer is

dialectical behavior therapy

when the seat belt light in DiDi's car stays on for a few seconds, she bursts into tears. she always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate show of emotion. she probably could receive diagnosis of

histrionic personality disorder

a person constantly strives to be center of attention, yet the ideas the person so eloquently expresses are usually shallow and changeable. if this person were diagnosed with a personality disorder, it most likely would be

histrionic personality disorder

a "doctor" in a TV drama suggests using antidepressant medication in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. based on the most current research, you know

mediocre advice, may increase suicidal tendancies

historically, which of the theoretical orientations seems the most gender-based in its explanation of the development of histrionic personality disorder

psychodynamic

the type of therapist most likely to try to help people diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder to believe they are not helpless, and to teach them better thinking skills is

cognitive

the personality disorder that is characterized as undying love and admiration for oneself is

narcissistic personality disorder

ty is fairly handsome, but not as handsome as he thinks he is. he does not give a hoot about anyone but himself and is sure that everyone around him feels the same way. he is most likely experiencing

narcissistic personality disorder

the "flower children" of the 1960's and 1970's have sometimes been called the "me" generation, reflecting the supposed self-centered individualism of the time. if this is true, a sociocultural theorist would predict a larger than usual percentage of which kind of personality disorder among the aging "me" generation

narcissistic personality disorder

behavioral and cognitive theorists propose that people who develop narcissistic personality disorder may have been treated

too positively

you might suspect an "era of narcissism" is approaching for a country when

increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness

a person who is inhibited in social situations, feels inadequate, and is very sensitive to criticism may be experiencing

avoidant personality disorder

elena can not seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or appearing foolish. she is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar situations. she may be experiencing

avoidant personality disorder

avoidant personality disorder seems most closely related to

social phobia

according to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of avoidant personality disorder is

shame in childhood

a client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase the number of social contacts per day-- defined as people greeted with at least the phrase, "Hello. How are you?"-- in order to later engage in some desired activity. most likely, the therapist has which theoretical background

behavioral therapists

group therapy is particularly useful in the treatment of avoidant personality disorder primarily because group therapy

gradually increases social contacts

cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder focuses on

improving their self-image by changing their thought process

a person who has an excessive need to be taken care of and is clingy is most likely to qualify for a diagnosis of

dependent personality disorder

"someone's head resting on my knee,/ Warm and tender as he can be,/ Who takes good care of me,/ Oh wouldn't it be lovely?/ Lovely, lovely, lovely, lovely..."
-- are the approximate lyrics of a song from the musical "My fair Lady". these lyrics most closely reflect symptoms of which personality disorder

dependent personality disorder

a friend spends hours each day in chat rooms, and seems to rely increasingly on the approval and advice of "cyber-friends". in fact, your friend finds it harder and harder to leave the chat rooms; they control your friend's every decision. this behavior pattern is most similar to that of people with which of the following personality disorder

dependent personality disorder

a high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends for suggestions before deciding on a college to attend and on an academic major. this student's behavior is

normal

if parents excessively reinforce clinging and punish attempts at independence, the result might be the development of

dependent personality disorder

a child who is severely criticized for acting independently, and who is praised for doing exactly what parents say to do, later develops dependent personality disorder. the therapist who would be least surprised by this outcome would have which theoretical orientation

behavioral

the TV show Monk features a detective who is very seldom happy, has few good friends, has a very rigid order and way in which he must do things, and who frequently has difficulty making up his mind about what to do. if he were diagnosed with a personality disorder, most likely, it would be

obsessive-compulsive disorder

the TV show saturday night live once featured a skit involving an "anal retentive carpenter" who had to keep all his tools and work materials in just the "right" places, arranged "just so". he was very anxious any time tools and materials were not just as he wanted them. the most appropriate diagnosis for the carpenter would be which personality disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorder

"it is obvious that this case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder arises from an early childhood fixation." which type of psychologist would most likely have made that statement?

psychodynamic- Freudian

those diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder appear more responsive to which kinds of therapy

psychodynamic and cognitive therapy

"let's try to figure out where clients fall on several key personality traits, rather than using a dichotomous classification system." someone saying this would most likely favor which approach to classifying personality disorders?

dimensional approach

"the client scores low on extroversion and agreeableness, but high on neuroticism. Looks like schizoid personality disorder to me." the therapist being quoted is using what instrument to make the diagnosis

big five personality

the most feared psychological problem among the elderly is

Alzheimer's disease

the percentage of the US population aged 65 and older today is

13%

why is REM sleep referred to as paradoxical sleep

because the brain is active, unlike stage 4

children are more likely than the elderly to experience

sleep terrors

regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that

they respond to cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressants

what is the relationship between age and anxiety in the elderly

as age increases, rate of anxiety disorders increase

to date, research shows that anxiety among the elderly is related to

health

an elderly individual is suffering from agoraphobia. the form of therapy that person is least likely to receive is

psychodynamic

the class of drugs most often used to treat anxiety disorders in the elderly is

antidepressants

as people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse

increases

studies of the "oldest old" show that compared to those in their 80s and early 90s, the oldest old ar e

healthier, clearer minded and agile

those who begin unhealthy drinking patterns later in life typically begin as a response to

declining health or financial status

a particular problem often found more prominently in the elderly that is related to substance abuse is

they don't believe they have a problem

among the elderly, psychotic cognitive symptoms are usually due to

delirium

the case of John Nash, Nobel prize winner and schizophrenic, illustrates _______, which is often found in the elderly who have been schizophrenic

late life improvement

an elderly person who develops false beliefs that are not bizarre is most likely suffering from

delusional disorder

an elderly person who believes falsely that others are conspiring against her, cheating, or spying on her and behaves in angry, irritable and depressed ways is exhibiting

delusional disorder

a 65-year-old in otherwise very good health typically will experience occasional

memory dificulties

a clouding of consciousness that develops over a short period of time and can often be reversed if its underlying cause can be found is called

delirium

an 80-year-old individual has been functioning normally, but now has an infection. however, over the course of a few days, the person shows increasing confusion, and consistently misinterprets what others are trying to communicate. the most probable diagnosis for this condition would be

Alzheimer's disease

the criteria for the diagnosis of dementia include

significant memory loss as well as cognitive losses and abstract thinking language

Rosa has difficult remembering even where she is going. Maintaining friendships is difficult, and she loses her temper because she cannot remember things. her health has been deteriorating and she is clumsier than she was three years ago. she appears to be suffering from

dementia

Alzheimer's is a brain _____ while stroke is a brain ______

disease...injury

Alzheimer's is named for the first person to _____ the disease

identify

a 65-year-old is about what percent likely to be suffering some form of dementia

less than 5%

the most frequent cause of irreversible dementia in the elderly is

Alzheimer's disease

the typical patter of Alzheimer's for the patient is

denial, anxiety, withdrawal, dependency

your elderly grandfather is deteriorating. at first he seemed only mildly forgetful, but lately he has had trouble recalling the names of close relatives and cannot remember where he is. he used to be very loving and patient, but now he is irascible and very unpleasant at odd moments. this condition is getting worse. he is probably experiencing

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is diagnosed on the basis of

neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques

what are neurofibrillary tangles

twisted protein fibers in brain

older individuals with Alzheimer's disease differ from older individuals without Alzheimer's disease in that they

have an extra number of neurofibrillary tangles

sphere-shaped deposits of a certain molecule in space between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are called

senile plaques

the molecules that are found in sphere-shaped deposits in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are called

senile plaques

a person who has Alzheimer's although there is no family history of the disease is said to be experiencing

senile plaques

the best evidence we have to date suggests that Alzheimer's is transmitted genetically in families that

transmit mutations

research on the cause of Alzheimer's disease has led to the conclusion that

they don't know

a person who can grasp material immediately as it is presented, but who cannot remember it long-term, has difficult with

long-term memory

a person who has difficulty remembering how to use a key is having trouble with

procedural memory

a person who has an excess of plaques due to Alzheimer's would be likely to have

cell breakdown and death

a person with the sporadic version of Alzheimer's would be likely to have

family history and brain disease

someone with difficulty transforming short-term memory into long-term memory is most likely to have problems in the

diencephalon

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with short-term memory

prefrontal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with long-term memory

temporal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with transforming information from short-term memory to long-term memory

diencephalon

when new information is acquired and stored in memory, _______ are produced

protein

a client suffers from severe problems in remembering recent information, and has increasing difficulty using ordinary language and other cognitive skills. the resulting diagnosis probably will be

declarative memory problems

an individual with retrograde amnesia

can't remember things that happened in the long term

people with amnestic disorders

have often had an injury of some sort

an individual who demonstrates a severe anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of

retrograde amnesia

Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from

anterograde amnesia

what would the removal of both temporal lobes most likely cause

severe anterograde amnesia

about what fraction of severe head injuries result in some permanent memory and learning problems

50%

elevated levels of _____ in the brains of some Alzheimer's patients has led to the search for a heavy metal cause of the disease

zinc

recent research suggests that excessive levels of zinc in the brain

triggers a dumping of beta-amyloid protein

when an autoimmune response occurs, the body attacks

itself

the fact that Alzheimer's disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease suggests that Alzheimer's may be caused by

a slow acting virus

a 74-year-old man has experienced a very sudden decrement in attention, language production, and memory. CT scans show localized damage to specific areas of the brain. he has a history of cardiovascular disease. his diagnosis would most likely be

vascular dementia

Quincy suddenly developed a short-term memory problem and only two months later had problems speaking. Six months after that he lost speech and hearing, and the left side of his face became paralyzed. each change in functioning was abrupt. he probably is suffering from

multiple infractions

a person quite suddenly begins to show specific cognitive impairment; the person has difficulty speaking, yet other cognitive functions appear normal. most likely that person is experiencing

vascular dementia

which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes

picks disease

lucille experienced severe mood, personality, and movement changes. she most likely has

Huntington's disease

an individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning, but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. the most probable diagnosis is

Parkinson's disease

dementia is also associated with

AIDS

someone who has AIDS is also at risk for developing

dementia

if you had a PET scan at a relatively young age, to predict your likelihood of developing Alzheimer's, you would be most disturbed to find

reduced hypocampus activity

if you have unusually high level of AB42 beta-amyloid protein in your blood, you are more likely

to develop Alzheimer's disease or dementia

which treatment has been most promising and most commonly used with dementias

drugs

the theoretical perspective currently receiving the most focus for the treatment of dementias is the _____ perspective

biological

the drug tacrine acts through

preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine

recently the FDA banned those who had spent more than six months total time in Great Britain from the earl 1980s to the mid 1990s from donating blood in the US, because of the still-unconfirmed possibility that a form of "mad cow disease" might be in their blood from eating tainted meat. if humans could contract mad cow disease, they would have symptoms similar to those of

?

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is most similar to

dementia

if all a woman wanted was to reduce her risk of developing Alzheimer's she should

take estrogen for years after menopause

in order to control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over-the-counter drug containing ibuprofen. interestingly, recent research shows that person also may be reducing the risk of contracting which disease

Alzheimer's disease

one of the most frequent reasons for the institutionalization of Alzheimer's patients is

the caregivers can't keep them home

the term "double jeopardy" describes people who may develop psychological problems because they are

part of a minority group and are old

triple jeopardy, as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to

a woman who is elderly and part of a minority

sources of discrimination in the mental health care of the elderly include

language

a partially supervised apartment, a senior housing complex for mildly impaired elderly people, and a nursing home with round-the-clock care are all examples of

assisted living

the percentage of the elderly population living in nursing homes at any given time is about

5%

if you do things during your life that promote physical and psychological well-being, you are engaging in a _____ approach to aging

health maintenance

Oliver Sachs finds that music can help elderly people

move

those of us who do not develop Alzheimer's will nevertheless benefit from Alzheimer's research because

it will still keep the mind sharp

it is estimated that as many as _____ percent of the elderly could benefit from mental health services, but only _____ percent receives them

50...20

the misuse of prescription drugs by the elderly is a form of ____ disorder

substance abuse

if an elderly person was found to have dementia, your best guess about what was causing it would be

Alzheimer's/vascular disease

if someone asked you about the effectiveness of treatment for Alzheimer's you would have to say

even best treatments have limited success

the most feared psychological problem among the elderly is

Alzheimer's disease

the percentage of the US population aged 65 and older today is

13%

why is REM sleep referred to as paradoxical sleep

because the brain is active, unlike stage 4

children are more likely than the elderly to experience

sleep terrors

regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that

they respond to cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressants

what is the relationship between age and anxiety in the elderly

as age increases, rate of anxiety disorders increase

to date, research shows that anxiety among the elderly is related to

health

an elderly individual is suffering from agoraphobia. the form of therapy that person is least likely to receive is

psychodynamic

the class of drugs most often used to treat anxiety disorders in the elderly is

antidepressants

as people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse

increases

studies of the "oldest old" show that compared to those in their 80s and early 90s, the oldest old ar e

healthier, clearer minded and agile

those who begin unhealthy drinking patterns later in life typically begin as a response to

declining health or financial status

a particular problem often found more prominently in the elderly that is related to substance abuse is

they don't believe they have a problem

among the elderly, psychotic cognitive symptoms are usually due to

delirium

the case of John Nash, Nobel prize winner and schizophrenic, illustrates _______, which is often found in the elderly who have been schizophrenic

late life improvement

an elderly person who develops false beliefs that are not bizarre is most likely suffering from

delusional disorder

an elderly person who believes falsely that others are conspiring against her, cheating, or spying on her and behaves in angry, irritable and depressed ways is exhibiting

delusional disorder

a 65-year-old in otherwise very good health typically will experience occasional

memory dificulties

a clouding of consciousness that develops over a short period of time and can often be reversed if its underlying cause can be found is called

delirium

an 80-year-old individual has been functioning normally, but now has an infection. however, over the course of a few days, the person shows increasing confusion, and consistently misinterprets what others are trying to communicate. the most probable diagnosis for this condition would be

Alzheimer's disease

the criteria for the diagnosis of dementia include

significant memory loss as well as cognitive losses and abstract thinking language

Rosa has difficult remembering even where she is going. Maintaining friendships is difficult, and she loses her temper because she cannot remember things. her health has been deteriorating and she is clumsier than she was three years ago. she appears to be suffering from

dementia

Alzheimer's is a brain _____ while stroke is a brain ______

disease...injury

Alzheimer's is named for the first person to _____ the disease

identify

a 65-year-old is about what percent likely to be suffering some form of dementia

less than 5%

the most frequent cause of irreversible dementia in the elderly is

Alzheimer's disease

the typical patter of Alzheimer's for the patient is

denial, anxiety, withdrawal, dependency

your elderly grandfather is deteriorating. at first he seemed only mildly forgetful, but lately he has had trouble recalling the names of close relatives and cannot remember where he is. he used to be very loving and patient, but now he is irascible and very unpleasant at odd moments. this condition is getting worse. he is probably experiencing

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is diagnosed on the basis of

neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques

what are neurofibrillary tangles

twisted protein fibers in brain

older individuals with Alzheimer's disease differ from older individuals without Alzheimer's disease in that they

have an extra number of neurofibrillary tangles

sphere-shaped deposits of a certain molecule in space between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are called

senile plaques

the molecules that are found in sphere-shaped deposits in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are called

senile plaques

a person who has Alzheimer's although there is no family history of the disease is said to be experiencing

senile plaques

the best evidence we have to date suggests that Alzheimer's is transmitted genetically in families that

transmit mutations

research on the cause of Alzheimer's disease has led to the conclusion that

they don't know

a person who can grasp material immediately as it is presented, but who cannot remember it long-term, has difficult with

long-term memory

a person who has difficulty remembering how to use a key is having trouble with

procedural memory

a person who has an excess of plaques due to Alzheimer's would be likely to have

cell breakdown and death

a person with the sporadic version of Alzheimer's would be likely to have

family history and brain disease

someone with difficulty transforming short-term memory into long-term memory is most likely to have problems in the

diencephalon

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with short-term memory

prefrontal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with long-term memory

temporal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with transforming information from short-term memory to long-term memory

diencephalon

when new information is acquired and stored in memory, _______ are produced

protein

a client suffers from severe problems in remembering recent information, and has increasing difficulty using ordinary language and other cognitive skills. the resulting diagnosis probably will be

declarative memory problems

an individual with retrograde amnesia

can't remember things that happened in the long term

people with amnestic disorders

have often had an injury of some sort

an individual who demonstrates a severe anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of

retrograde amnesia

Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from

anterograde amnesia

what would the removal of both temporal lobes most likely cause

severe anterograde amnesia

about what fraction of severe head injuries result in some permanent memory and learning problems

50%

elevated levels of _____ in the brains of some Alzheimer's patients has led to the search for a heavy metal cause of the disease

zinc

recent research suggests that excessive levels of zinc in the brain

triggers a dumping of beta-amyloid protein

when an autoimmune response occurs, the body attacks

itself

the fact that Alzheimer's disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease suggests that Alzheimer's may be caused by

a slow acting virus

a 74-year-old man has experienced a very sudden decrement in attention, language production, and memory. CT scans show localized damage to specific areas of the brain. he has a history of cardiovascular disease. his diagnosis would most likely be

vascular dementia

Quincy suddenly developed a short-term memory problem and only two months later had problems speaking. Six months after that he lost speech and hearing, and the left side of his face became paralyzed. each change in functioning was abrupt. he probably is suffering from

multiple infractions

a person quite suddenly begins to show specific cognitive impairment; the person has difficulty speaking, yet other cognitive functions appear normal. most likely that person is experiencing

vascular dementia

which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes

picks disease

lucille experienced severe mood, personality, and movement changes. she most likely has

Huntington's disease

an individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning, but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. the most probable diagnosis is

Parkinson's disease

dementia is also associated with

AIDS

someone who has AIDS is also at risk for developing

dementia

if you had a PET scan at a relatively young age, to predict your likelihood of developing Alzheimer's, you would be most disturbed to find

reduced hypocampus activity

if you have unusually high level of AB42 beta-amyloid protein in your blood, you are more likely

to develop Alzheimer's disease or dementia

which treatment has been most promising and most commonly used with dementias

drugs

the theoretical perspective currently receiving the most focus for the treatment of dementias is the _____ perspective

biological

the drug tacrine acts through

preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine

recently the FDA banned those who had spent more than six months total time in Great Britain from the earl 1980s to the mid 1990s from donating blood in the US, because of the still-unconfirmed possibility that a form of "mad cow disease" might be in their blood from eating tainted meat. if humans could contract mad cow disease, they would have symptoms similar to those of

?

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is most similar to

dementia

if all a woman wanted was to reduce her risk of developing Alzheimer's she should

take estrogen for years after menopause

in order to control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over-the-counter drug containing ibuprofen. interestingly, recent research shows that person also may be reducing the risk of contracting which disease

Alzheimer's disease

one of the most frequent reasons for the institutionalization of Alzheimer's patients is

the caregivers can't keep them home

the term "double jeopardy" describes people who may develop psychological problems because they are

part of a minority group and are old

triple jeopardy, as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to

a woman who is elderly and part of a minority

sources of discrimination in the mental health care of the elderly include

language

a partially supervised apartment, a senior housing complex for mildly impaired elderly people, and a nursing home with round-the-clock care are all examples of

assisted living

the percentage of the elderly population living in nursing homes at any given time is about

5%

if you do things during your life that promote physical and psychological well-being, you are engaging in a _____ approach to aging

health maintenance

Oliver Sachs finds that music can help elderly people

move

those of us who do not develop Alzheimer's will nevertheless benefit from Alzheimer's research because

it will still keep the mind sharp

it is estimated that as many as _____ percent of the elderly could benefit from mental health services, but only _____ percent receives them

50...20

the misuse of prescription drugs by the elderly is a form of ____ disorder

substance abuse

if an elderly person was found to have dementia, your best guess about what was causing it would be

Alzheimer's/vascular disease

if someone asked you about the effectiveness of treatment for Alzheimer's you would have to say

even best treatments have limited success

courts ask for mental health professionals to help determine if defendants are

responsible for the crime and capable of defending themselves

if a court decides that a defendant is mentally unstable, the defendant will

sent to a mental institution in a process call criminal commitment

defendants who are actively hallucinating and experiencing delusions during the time of their trials are most likely to be

admitted for treatment until they are competent to stand trial

defendants who were acting irrationally and in disordered ways when they allegedly committed the crimes are most likely to

plead not guilty by reason of insanity

one important issue in the relationship between the legislative and judicial systems and the mental health profession is

regulating aspects of mental care

what must be true before a person may be tried for a crime and potentially found guilty

person must have been able to distinguish right from wrong at the time of the crime

who makes the final decision as to whether or not a person may be tried by the judicial system

courts

if a person accused of a crime is found not guilty by reason of insanity, he or she is committed to a psychiatric facility for treatment. this is called

criminal commitment

len killed a man in a fit of rage. his voices told him that the man was about to destroy the earth and the man must be stopped. len is likely to be sent to a mental institution because

mutually unstable at the time of the crime

merv got into a fight and killed his opponent. when he went to trial, he had a mental breakdown. he did not know where he was and had hallucinations. he was unable to answer questions. he is likely to be sent to a mental institution because

he is unstable to understand the trial procedure and defend himself

if someone was interested in pursuing a career in a field that combined mental health and the legal and judicial systems, you should direct that person toward

forensic psychology

the definition of "insanity" used in legal cases was written by

legislators, not clinicians

in using the insanity plea, the burden of proof to prove sanity or insanity ordinarily rests with the

defense

the version of the insanity defense that declares that a person can not be held responsible for his or her actions if they were the result of mental disease or mental defect is called the

Durham test

tony killed the guy he was fighting with. at his trial he claimed that he did not know what he was doing because he was drunk. under which "insanity" standard might he be found not guilty be reason of insanity

Durham test

the Durham test judges a person not to be criminally responsible if he or she has acted

if the action was the product of a mental disease or defect

Rex beat the guy to within an inch of his life. in court REX claimed that he was forced to do it. he just exploded. he was not in control of himself. under which "insanity" standard might he be found not guilty by reason of insanity

irresistible impulsive test

pat who was drunk as a skunk, got into a bar fight and killed his opponent. which legal test would most likely be used to find him not guilty by reason of insanity

Durham test

suffering from headaches, alcoholism, and ulcers would make one eligible for an insanity defense under the

Durham test

if a man walked in on his wife in bed with his best friend and killed the friend and the wife in a fit of "passion", that man would be eligible for an insanity defense under the

irresistible impulse test

if a person experiencing severe paranoid delusions committed a crime while saying, "I know this is wrong and i shouldn't be doing it", that person would be eligible for an insanity defense under the

American law institute test

in response to a recommendation by the american psychiatric association, current federal practice is most like the

M'Naughtear test

the most common diagnosis of those found not guilty by reason of insanity is

schizophrenia

the most common (and perhaps the most serious) objection to the insanity plea is that

the fundamental differences between law and the science of human behavior

about what percentage of defendants in the US are found not guilty by reason of insanity in a typical year

1 in 400 (.25%)

some states have adopted a verdict of "guilty but mentally ill". the sentence that must be given to those so convicted is

prison sentence along with needed treatment

currently in the US, patients who are criminally committed to a mental hospital can be released

when they are judged to no longer be insane

if a mentally ill person committed murder, was convicted and sent to prison, but was also given treatment while in prison, that person probably lived in a state that had a ____ option

guilty but mentally ill

if a mentally ill person committed murder, but was convicted of committing manslaughter, that person probably lived in a state that had a ____ option

guilty with diminished capacity

in the case of Foucha v. Louisiana , the supreme court ruled that the only acceptable basis for determining the release of hospitalized offenders is whether or not they are still

insane

recently states have begun to abolish their sex offender laws. among the reasons they are doing this is

racial bias can effect application of the law

many states have a category of "mentally disordered sex offenders", which assigns moral responsibility to the offender. this category, which is related to the insanity defense, is based on the premise that

people who are repeatedly found guilty of certain sex crimes have a mental disorder

one difficulty with the mentally disordered sex offender classification is that

racial bias appears to effect who is given this classification

a person who is accused of a crime can not be convicted if he or she is mentally unstable either at the time of the crime or at the time of the trail. competence to stand trial is important to ensure that the person

understands the charges and is capable of forming a defense

the majority of criminals institutionalized for psychological treatment in the US are there because

they suffer from personality disorders

civil commitment is for a person who

civil commitment allows certain people to be forced into mental health treatment

a person who had a serious mental illness and was in need of treatment could, nevertheless, not be civilly committed unless that person was also

dangerous to themselves or others

the process of forcing certain individuals to undergo mental health treatment is called

civil commitment

the aspect of state responsibility that promotes and protects the interests of individuals from themselves is called

parens patriae

the aspect of state responsibility that promotes and protects the interests of individuals from dangerous people is called

police powers

the principle of parens patriae (parent of the country) permits the state to make decisions that promote an individual's best interest. it has been used to support the process of

civil commitment

parens patriae refers to the state's rights to make decisions that are in the individual's best interest, and t the idea that police power gives the state the right to protect society from harm. these two principles have been used to support

civil commitment

Iris has had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. she mutters a lot about being possessed. lately she has been carving her arm with a knife. you think that she requires treatment before she hurts herself any more. the authorities have a right to commit her based on the principles of

parens patriae

in addington v. texas, a young man fought being involuntarily committed, arguing that the standard for showing that a person is mentally ill was unclear and unfair. as a result, the standard for committing a person was revised to

clear and convincing proof that the patient is mentally ill and meets the states minimum requirement

in addington v. texas, a young man fought being involuntarily committed, arguing that the standard for showing that a person is mentally ill was unclear and unfair. this case resulted in the courts setting a standard that commitment

can occur when 75% certainty that criteria for commitment has been met

in an emergency, if a person is clearly suicidal or homicidal because of hallucinations and delusions, that person can be involuntarily committed by

emergency commitment

the standard for "clear and convincing proof" according to the US supreme court is

75% certainty the criteria has been met

in the past, people with mental disorders were less likely than those without mental disorders to commit violent or dangerous acts. why do we think that is

many of these individuals lived in institutions

temporary commitment in an emergency situation is possible if

a life is at stake

what is the basis for making a 2 PC determination to commit on an emergency basis

when a person is a danger to themselves or others

Monahan's research on the relationship between violent behavior and sever mental disorder shows that

rate of violent behavior and is somewhat higher in those with sever mental disorders

what proportion of mental patients assault another patient during hospitalization

15%

what is the rate of assault for people who display a substance-abuse disorder

25% or more

how good are mental health professionals at predicting dangerousness

wrong more often than right

if you encountered someone convicted of a violent criminal offense, you could legitimately also expect to find that the person

substance abuse

John Brown and Abraham Lincoln were labeled by some as "insane" because of their views on

slavery

the wyatt v. stickney decision forced state hospitals to provide

adequate treatment to those who were committed involuntarily

the case of O'Connor v donaldson resulted in the ruling that

mental hospitals must review their patients' cases periodically

in recent years, public advocates for those with mental disorders have turned their attention to the rights of ____ to receive treatment

mental patients in community

the focus of the protection and Advocacy for Mentally Ill Individuals Act of 1986 was to

the right for patients to investigate possible abuse

the recent cases that have increased the patient's right to refuse treatment have focused largely on the right to refuse

biological treatment

if a patient is assigned to a community mental health center inpatient facility instead of a mental hospital, the decision makers are applying the principle of

patients should receive treatment from the least restrictive facility available

patienst who perform work in mental institutions, particularly private institutions, are guaranteed _____ for that work

minimum wage

"Litigaphobia" and "litigastress"

feat of being sued

an important current distinction between psychologists and psychiatrists that is changing is that

psychologists may admit patients to state hospitals and prescribe medicine with proper certification

one outcome due to the rise in malpractice suits related to hospitalization, based on actual hospitalization statistics is that

clinicians fear being sued

Research indicates that eyewitness testimony is:

often unreliable

research indicates that eyewitness testimony is

the jury is more likely to believe witness who is certain

imagine that a witness says he or she is absolutely certain that the defendant is the one who committed the crime. what is the most likely true about the witness's certainty

manipulative and highly intelligent

frequently, when a serial killer comes to trial, he or she makes the insanity plea. what usually happens

plea is usually overlooked

why is the plea of not guilty by reason of insanity generally unsuccessful for serial killers

they typically don't fit criteria of insanity

the APA code of ethics states that sexual relationships between a psychologist and client are

forbidden

a psychologist wanted to accept a client with whom he had previously had a sexual relationship. according to ethical guidelines, the psychologist

may not treat patient he or she has had sex with

if dr. phil were a psychologist (he is not), would he be ethically allowed to offer advice to people on TV

yes

imagine that you are a therapist working on the US-mexican border but don't speak spanish. what is proper ethical behavior for you

acknowledge limitations and seek further treatmetn

a therapist who broke confidentiality with a patient without the patient's consent because of fears that the person would harm someone else was acting according to the ethical principle of

duty to protect

psychologists are ethically bound to keep material about their patients confidential except

when a client is thought to be a danger to another person

a landmark california court case, Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, dramatically affected the right to confidentiality between client and therapist. this case led to the conclusion that

protected privilege ends where public peril begins

the current code of ethics declares that therapist should break confidentiality even without the client's consent

when the client or another person is threatened

if a therapist has a client who is threatening to kill another person, the therapist must inform that other person because of the ethical principle of

duty to protect

if you were an air traffic controller and your employer required you to attend a seminar on dealing in healthy ways with stress, you would be receiving

a problem-solving seminar

in the workplace, psychological problems are estimated to contribute most to

industrial accidents

if you were having marital problems that were affecting your work and your employer made mental health service available to you to deal with those problems, your employer would be providing you with

an EAP (employee assistance program)

Peter is having trouble coping with his financial problems and is getting depressed about them. he seeks out someone at his company who helps by counseling employees on such issues and tries to intercept problems before they get out of hand. peter is seeking help from

employee assistance program

today, the cost of direct mental health services is mostly paid by

individuals to private insurance companies

the type of system that many health insurance companies have set up to try to curtail expenses associated with providing treatment is referred to as

managed care programs

a therapist who was worried that patients would receive less costly short-term care rather than more promising long-term treatment, would have treatment monitored by an insurance employee rather than a therapist, and would have confidential treatment reports read by others, is concerned about

managed care programs

the rise of managed care programs for treating mental disorders has resulted in

prefer short term rather than long term improvement

imagine that you are a therapist treating another therapist for a disorder. what is the therapist most likely to exhibit

depression

a recent national mental health survey of psychotherapists found that more than three-quarters of them reported being in therapy themselves at least once, and that they

seeks therapy for problems that bother others

if you become a therapist and are like the majority of therapists, you will

feel threatened by patient and experience emotional distress

according to our legal system, what is necessary for a person to be punished for a crime

defendants must be responsible for a crime and capable of defending themselves

imagine that you are an attorney and that your client has been sentenced to prison with the proviso that he or she will also receive psychological treatment. your client has received a verdict known as

guilty but mentally ill

if you were interested in securing a civil commitment for someone you cared about, you would have to show clearly that the person

in need of treatment and dangerous to themselves or others

thanks to recent court emphases, mental patients who are hospitalized are guaranteed the right to

adequate treatment and periodical case reviews

Surveys show that ______ is a common experience for close to half of all children in the US

worry

Nellie is openly hostile toward her parents. she argues with them constantly and will not do anything they say. they can not control her. the diagnosis she is most likely to receive is

oppositional defiant disorder

xavier will not obey his mother. when threatened with punishment, he swears, throws things, and threatens to break everything in the house. his outbreaks seem to be restricted to his parents, but he is almost completely unmanageable. this is an example of

oppositional defiant disorder

a child has repeatedly engaged in shoplifting and in hitting neighborhood pets with rocks. the child frequently is aggressive, and has engaged in an increasing number of fights. the most reasonable diagnosis for this child is

conduct disorder

Bertie is extremely aggressive. she is always fighting with her peers and is frequently very cruel to them. she never tells the truth when a lie will do. her most likely diagnosis is

conduct disorder

a two-year old child is evaluated as "noncompliant" by a preschool teacher. most likely, that child's level of noncompliance at five years of age will be

lower whether child is boy or girl

a child sneaks out of the home every now and then, and goes through the neighborhood breaking lawn decorations and scratching car paint. these behaviors most closely fit which pattern of conduct disorder

covert-destructive pattern

at a parent-teacher conference, a child's parents are astounded to learn that their son has been showing up late for school, despite leaving home with more than enough time to get to school. this behavior most closely fits which pattern of conduct disorder

cover-nondestructive

"that kid is pleasant enough, but will lie about practically anything, even things that do not seem to matter much." this behavior most closely fits which pattern of conduct disorder

covert-nondestructive

perhaps the biggest problem facing school administrators who try to deal with bullying is that

too much bullying to tell who is dangerous

"relational aggression" is a term used to describe a pattern of aggression most common among

girls diagnosed with conduct disorders

Carl is a terrible bully. He is very aggressive and repeatedly takes advantage of his "friends" he will say anything to get his way or try to stay out of trouble. recently he was arrested for vandalism and ended up getting probation. he will most likely be labeled as displaying

juvenile delinquency

a 16-year-old has just been arrested for the third time for shoplifting. he would most likely be labeled a(n)

juvenile delinquents

conduct disorder has most often been associated with

ADHD

in effect, parents learn to do behavior therapy with their children diagnosed with conduct disorder-- targeting and rewarding desired behaviors, for instance-- in an intervention called

parent management training

Tamara's parents are down on her all the time. when they are not criticizing her, they ignore her. this is an example of

psychological abuse

the least effective way to deal with conduct disorder is

having them live in juvenile training center

"will that program really help? I keep hearing bad things about how kids act once they leave". based on research, the person who said this would be most accurate if she or he were expressing reservations about

having them live in juvenile training center

a preadolescent child has not received a clinical diagnosis participates in a program designed to stop the development of an antisocial pattern of behavior. most likely that program is

prevention program

a child's distracting behaviors occur only in a school setting, and include failure to follow instructions and finish work, answering questions before they have been completed, and a lot of seat squirming and fidgeting. could ADHD be a diagnosis of this child

no because it occurs only in one setting

pat does not follow what the teacher is doing and has difficulty focusing on the task at hand. his behavior in class is disruptive because he can not sit still. he gets poor grades in school. these symptoms indicate

ADHD

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is more common in _____ than_____

boys...girls

several decades ago, a child had a great deal of difficulty keeping on task in school. not only did the child frequently roam around the classroom and talk to others, the child frequently squirmed around while at a desk. at the time, the child was diagnosed as suffering from "minimal brain damage", today's likely diagnosis would be

ADHD

a parent of an infant asks what you would recommend specifically to reduce the chance of the infant developing ADHD. research-based responses would include

make sure child doesn't watch too much tv

the drug Ritalin is classified as a

stimulant drug

the two most common treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have been

Ritalin and behavioral therapy

recent research suggests that the most effective ways to treat ADHD are

drugs and behavioral therapy

most Ritalin manufactured each year is used by

90% used by Americans

"i'm concerned about Ritalin use; its possible effects on children's growth, and its increasing heart-attack risk in hypertensive adults" an acquaintance worries. your best reply, based on the most recent research is

right to worry, more research needed to quantify risk

a child diagnosed with ADHD displays comorbidity, and receives both stimulant medication and a form of behavior therapy. according to research, the comorbidity is most likely

both conduct and disorders

Compared to white american children, African American and hispanic american children similar levels of activity and attention problems are

less likely to be diagnosed or assessed for ADHD

when asked, a parent says, "why does my kid had ADHD? I guess it is in the genes." given this very limited information, your research-based guess would be that the parent is

white American

a 3-year-old child is wetting the bed at night. the bed wetting apparently is beyond the child's control. the best diagnosis is

enuresis

joey has been wetting his bed since he was a baby. he is 10 years old now. as a result, he will not stay over at his friend's house or go to camp. his condition is called

enuresis

a child awakens suddenly to the sound of a bell, and heads for the bathroom. most likely the child is receiving

bell-and-battery technique

a child is awakened during the night, goes to and uses the toilet, and receives a sticker and praise from a parent. later in the week accumulated stickers may be turned in for a highly desired toy. this child is undergoing

dry-bed training

"I knew right after we got home from the hospital that our kid had a problem," the parents said. unless the parent is using 20-20 hindsight, the child's diagnosis most likely is

autism

the most common and successful treatments for encopresis are

behavioral and medical

assume that you are alone in a room with a child suffering from a disorder of childhood. if you did not know what the child's diagnosis was, what behavior of the child's might start to convince you that the disorder is autism

child not responsive to others

when a child with autism says "you want a drink" when he really means that he wants a drink, he is displaying

pronominal reversal

the mockingbird gets its name from the fact that it often imitates the call of other birds, without conveying any particular message. a human who imitates others' speech without really communicating most likely would be diagnosed with

autism

one speech problem displayed by many autistic children is that they repeat everything said to them. this is called

echolalia

ralphie is autistic and does not like much variation in his life. he puts his toys on a shelf in a particular order and throws a tantrum if his mother moves any of them. any one of several trivial changes in his daily routine can set him off. this is an example of

preservation of sameness

when a child with autism jumps, flaps her arms, twists her hands and fingers and makes unusual, faces the child is engaging in

self-stimulatory behaviors

a person diagnosed with autism listens to a piano piece at a concert. later at home, the person plays the piano piece without the music, and without making a mistake. this behavior is best described as

a "savant"

a person diagnosed with Asperger's disorder is extremely curious about why other people think what they think, and has zero tolerance for others' occasionally illogical thinking. according to one classification system, the term for this individual would be

logic boy

according to one psychological view of autism, the inability to take another's perspective is not developed in autistic children. this ability is called

therapy of mind

most recent research has provided evidence that the primary causes of autism include

brain abnormalties

recent studies show that autistic children are more likely than other children to have abnormalities in which section of the brain

cerbellum

a therapist works with an autistic child, providing praise and a small spoonful of ice cream whenever the child imitates a specific sound the therapist makes. the therapist is using what type of therapy

behavioral therapy

studies of the use of behavioral techniques in the treatment of autism have shown that behavioral techniques can produce

new, more functional behavior

recent work has revealed that the most effective treatment for autism has been the use of

behavioral therapy

a child with autism points to a picture of a fork in order to say, "I want food." this child is using

augmentative communication systems

a child diagnosed with Asperger's disorder learns to make choices, and learns that rules are not necessarily rigid. Facing change and being flexible are other parts of the therapy. most likely, the child is experiencing

cognitive social integration therapy

"what is over there?" asks the child, pointing to a distant object, "Does it belong to you?" the child asks the therapist. the therapist answers the child in detail, and praises the child's efforts at communication. most likely, the child is receiving

child-initiated interactions training for autism

Fred has an IQ of 65 and cannot do school work. he lives on the streets by begging, is usually dirty, and is always hungry. he would probably be labeled

mentally retarded

Quentin is 25, has an IQ of 60, and never did well at schoolwork. however, now he lives on his own, has a job, and is able to perform the routine chores of life. he would not be considered mentally retarded because

he has adequate adaptive behavior

intelligence test results should not be the only things used to determine mental retardation, because intelligence test scores

display general intellectual functioning

if you knew that a child had recently been administered the Vineland and AAMR, you could be reasonably sure the childhood disorder being tested for was

mental retardation

Seth does well in some school subjects. however, the only way that he can read is slowly, one word at a time. he must direct his gaze with his index finger. even with great efforts, he makes many errors and has poor comprehension. this is a description of.

reading disorder

the specific symptoms associated with dyslexia include

great difficulty recognizing words and comprehending as they read

Selina displays normal behavior and intelligence, but she does not seem to be able to explain her actions and intentions as well as you would expect. if the deficit is severe enough, she might be diagnosed with

communication disorder- expressive language disorder

mild mental retardation is most common in which socioeconomic class

lower

about what percentage of those diagnosed with mental retardation fall in the DSM "mild retardation" category

80-85%

Isabelle was born into a very poor family. her mother and father were barely able to sustain themselves. they had below-average IQs. Isabelle's nutrition and health care were never very good. she is at risk for

mild mental retardation

the most consistent and important difference between retarded and non-retarded people is that a retarded person

learns slower

biological factors appear not to be the most important causes of which level of mental retardation

mild

if one knew nothing more than that the person with mental retardation also had extensive and severe medical problems and physical handicaps, the best estimate of that person''s level of mental retardation would be

sever or profound

most diagnosed cases of Down syndrome are of the ______ type

trisomi 21

Paula is moderately retarded, and has a small head and flat face. she also has short fingers. her condition seems to be

down syndrome

the most common of the identifies chromosomal causes of Down syndrome is

...

an infant is diagnosed with a biological disorder. as the infant ages, its physical and mental conditions deteriorate steadily so that the infant loses vision and motor control, and at the age of 3, the child dies. most likely, the child was suffering from

trisomi 21

if a pregnant woman wishes to avoid having a child with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), what should she do

not drink alcohol prior to conceiving or during pregnancy

Hanna could not metabolize phenylalanine properly when she was born. she is displaying

phenylketonuria

an iodine deficiency in the diet of a pregnant woman may lead to a condition in which the baby has a dwarf-like appearance and a defective thyroid gland. this disorder is called

cretinism

at the end of the year the criteria for remaining in the state school changed, and Henry was simply released into the community. this is an example of

deinstitutinalization

anoxia, one possible source of mental retardation, involved brain damage resulting from

lack of oxygen during or after

in poor inner-city neighborhoods, children sometimes eat paint that is flaking off walls. this can lead to mental retardation because of

lead poisoning

most children with mental retardation live

at home

nations that pioneered "normalization" in the treatment of mental retardation include

Denmark and Sweden

Glenda is in a facility for the mentally retarded. she gets up in her apartment, dresses, and goes to the dining room, where she orders breakfast off a menu. she goes to work in a sheltered workshop. at the end of the day she goes home to her apartment and cleans up for dinner. this arrangement is part of

normalization process

Fredrick is in public school, but he is grouped with lower-IQ children like him. he and his classmates have a specifically designed program that is different from that of the other children in the school. this is most likely an example of

special education

the technique that is often used to teach individuals with mental retardation is

behavioral

self-help and communication skills of the mentally retarded are improved most often by the use of

behavioral techniques

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the enduring pattern of inner experiences behavior that is unique to each individual is termed

personality

the consistencies of one’s personality are called

personality traits

what differentiates normal personality characteristics from personality disorders

flexibility

the most important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that

they are inflexible, maladaptive

by the DSM classification system, personality disorders are disorder on which axis

axis II

a person suffering from a personality disorder also suffers from an axis I disorder; this is called

comorbidity

one reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals

they are unaware they have a problem

the term comorbidity means that

the relationship that is common for a person with a personality disorder to also suffer from an acute axis I disorder

an individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. that individual is most likely to have a parent or sibling who has

schizophrenia

the category of "odd" personality disorders includes the traits of

extreme suspicion, social withdrawal, cognitive/perceptual peculiarities

an individual with a diagnosed personality disorder is emotionally unstable, as well as impulsive and reckless. this person’s diagnosis is most likely to be which of the following personality disorders

borderline

reese is distrustful of others and reacts quickly to perceived threats. even though he has no evidence, he is sure his wife is unfaithful. he finds it almost impossible to forgive those he thinks have wronged him. reese displays the characteristic of the _____ personality disorder

paranoid

in role-playing situations, subjects with paranoid personality disorder generally interpret ambiguous behavior as

hostile

although those with paranoid personality disorder often are deeply suspicious, their suspicions usually do not

delusions

theorists explain the paranoid personality disorder as coping with inadequacy. this leads to the ideas that people are evil and will attack you if given the chance. these ideas are consistent with _____ orientation

cognitive

according to recent research, if a person living in the US is distrustful of both local TV news and the government, that type of person is

common

after suffering severe brain trauma, Phineas Gage appeared not to care about his friends and coworkers, and developed wild, grandiose plans he later had to abandon. these symptoms are most similar to the symptoms of which of the following personality disorders

schizoid

"even our negative emotions help us survive. for example, aren’t our suspicious often justified?" most likely someone with a ______ theoretical perspective made this statement

evolutionary

one similarity of those experiencing paranoid personality disorder and those experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they tend

these individuals do not have close ties with others

the schizoid personality disorder differs from paranoid personality disorder in that

these people genuinely prefer to be alone; paranoid alone because of suspiciousness

wes has always been a loner. he has never much cared for being with other people. he does not form relationships easily. he appears to be without emotion. we may be exhibiting the _____ personality disorder

schizoid

the theorist who describes schizoid personality disorder as arising from an inability to perceive effectively what is going on in the environment, including emotions, reflects the _____ theoretical orientation

cognitive

cognitive theorists believe that because of their difficulty scanning the environment, perceiving accurately, and picking up emotional cues, those with schizoid personalities develop _____ very slowly

language and motor skills

a person who is least likely to be affected by criticism or praise from other people is one suffering from the ____ personality disorder

schizoid

there is a new game called "moods" where one acts out the mood listed on a card. being encouraged to play this game is most likely treatment ____ might use for those with schizoid disorders

cognitive

the type of therapy that generally provides the least help for those with schizoid personality disorder is

drug therapy

when Selina sees a report of a train wreck on TV, she thinks it is a sign that she should not take the train to work the next day. she takes the bus instead. if she has a diagnosable personality disorder, it is most likely

schizotypal personality disorder

a belief that the news anchor on CNN is giving one important message about one’s behavior reflects

ideas of reference

digressive and vague language with loose associations accompanied by attention and concentration problems are characteristic of

schizotypal

the disorder that appears to be most closely related to the schizotypal personality disorder is

schizophrenia

a client being treated for schizotypal personality disorder must show up for therapy appointments on time, dress appropriately, and complete some social skills training. most likely the theoretical orientation of the therapist is

behavioral

the personality disorder that is most often associated with criminal behavior is the

antisocial personality disorder

sarah respects none of society’s boundaries and is insensitive to other people, frequently violating their rights. she does not consider the consequences of her actions. she experiences

antisocial personality disorder

a recent movie details the activities of a serial killer who was subsequently diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. should law enforcement agencies worry about the possibility of "copycat" killings following the movie’s release

yes as seen from natural born killer and a clockwork orange; copycat killings occur

the person most likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder is

american white males

the person most likely to abuse alcohol probably experiences _____ personality disorder

antisocial

the two childhood disorders that have been related to later antisocial personality disorder are

conduct disorder and ADHD

the absence of parental love results in emotional detachment and the use of power to form relationships. this is most like a _____ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder

psychodynamic

the fact that children learn antisocial behavior by modeling parental conflict and aggressiveness provides support for

behavioral

a young boy is constantly told by his parents to "be a man" whenever he is in conflict with friends. in turn, his parents themselves often act aggressively toward each other, and toward him. the theorist who would be best able to explain an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder for this boy would be

behavioral

giving in to a child’s refusal to comply with a parental request may inadvertently reinforce stubborn and defiant behavior, setting the scene for the development of antisocial personality disorder. this is most like a _____ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder

behavioral

"what’s the big deal? i just don’t understand why that matters to you. why can’t you just do what i do ?" this quote provides evidence that most strongly supports the _____ explanation for antisocial personality disorder

cognitive

which of the answers would complete the following sentence to support the idea that alcohol use and antisocial personality disorder are related because of their "risk taking" aspects. drug users with personality personality disorders often say they use drugs for

thrill, excitement, arousal; sensation seeking behavior to increase arousal

assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they generally experience less anxiety than other people when they lie or "con" others. this outcome would most strongly support which theoretical position

biological

researchers and clinicians have had little or no success in treating _____ , regardless of the treatment approach taken

antisocial personality disorder

Keira has an unstable self-image, major mood shifts, and is prone to depression and impulsive behavior. she most likely should be diagnosed as having a

borderline personality disorder

"there’s nothing out there for me. i can’t stand other people, and i can’t stand myself, either. I am just really mad right now". such a statement would most likely be made by someone with which personality disorder

borderline personality disorder

everyone else is enjoying the warmth of the early spring day except one college student, who seems irritable, even angry. yesterday, when it was cold and dreary, the same student seemed unusually excitable. this student’s behavior is most similar to that of someone with which personality disorder

borderline personality disorder

transported to the hospital after a suicide attempt, a man is later admitted to the hospital’s psychiatric wing. most likely, if the man is diagnosed with a personality disorder, it will be

borderline personality disorder

the client is making practically no progress in therapy, and expresses several symptoms similar to those of someone with bipolar disorder. the client has been diagnosed with a personality disorder, most likely the disorder is

Narcissistic

the client is doing reasonably well in therapy, and expresses several symptoms similar to those of someone with social phobia. the client has been diagnosed with a personality disorder, most likely, the disorder is

avoidance

what is a common reason for the hospitalization of people with borderline personality disorder

attempted suicide or self mutilation

the most common impulse-control disorder is

borderline personality disorder

one who sets fires primarily for the pleasure or tension relief the fire setting provides is a(n)

pyromania

the frequent failure to resist the impulse to steal is called

kleptomania

bertha pulls her hair out of a spot on the top of her head. she appears to be bald there. this is a symptom of an impulse control disorder called

trichotillomania

the fact that those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder often were neglected, rejected, or sexually abused as children is best predicted by which view

psychodynamic therapists

Gort’s parents never quite liked him. they probably did not want children in the first place. he just was not accepted. it was clear early in school that he had low opinion of himself. he also did not know how to interact with the other children. now he cuts himself and has been to the ER several times. this is a description of the possible development of

borderline personality disorder

a therapist treating a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder worked out the following analysis. the parents probably did not want children in the first place. the child just was not accepted. the child developed low self-esteem, dependency, and an inability to cope with separation. the therapists’ theoretical orientation is probably

object relations

a biological cause implicated in borderline personality disorder is

decreased serotonin

a little girl has been discovered to be the victim of sexual abuse. when she becomes an adult, the probability that she will be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder is

much higher

a friend asks your advice about the best therapy to use for treating borderline personality disorder. your best answer is

dialectical behavior therapy

when the seat belt light in DiDi’s car stays on for a few seconds, she bursts into tears. she always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate show of emotion. she probably could receive diagnosis of

histrionic personality disorder

a person constantly strives to be center of attention, yet the ideas the person so eloquently expresses are usually shallow and changeable. if this person were diagnosed with a personality disorder, it most likely would be

histrionic personality disorder

a "doctor" in a TV drama suggests using antidepressant medication in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. based on the most current research, you know

mediocre advice, may increase suicidal tendancies

historically, which of the theoretical orientations seems the most gender-based in its explanation of the development of histrionic personality disorder

psychodynamic

the type of therapist most likely to try to help people diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder to believe they are not helpless, and to teach them better thinking skills is

cognitive

the personality disorder that is characterized as undying love and admiration for oneself is

narcissistic personality disorder

ty is fairly handsome, but not as handsome as he thinks he is. he does not give a hoot about anyone but himself and is sure that everyone around him feels the same way. he is most likely experiencing

narcissistic personality disorder

the "flower children" of the 1960’s and 1970’s have sometimes been called the "me" generation, reflecting the supposed self-centered individualism of the time. if this is true, a sociocultural theorist would predict a larger than usual percentage of which kind of personality disorder among the aging "me" generation

narcissistic personality disorder

behavioral and cognitive theorists propose that people who develop narcissistic personality disorder may have been treated

too positively

you might suspect an "era of narcissism" is approaching for a country when

increasing emphasis on self-expression and competitiveness

a person who is inhibited in social situations, feels inadequate, and is very sensitive to criticism may be experiencing

avoidant personality disorder

elena can not seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or appearing foolish. she is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar situations. she may be experiencing

avoidant personality disorder

avoidant personality disorder seems most closely related to

social phobia

according to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of avoidant personality disorder is

shame in childhood

a client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase the number of social contacts per day– defined as people greeted with at least the phrase, "Hello. How are you?"– in order to later engage in some desired activity. most likely, the therapist has which theoretical background

behavioral therapists

group therapy is particularly useful in the treatment of avoidant personality disorder primarily because group therapy

gradually increases social contacts

cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder focuses on

improving their self-image by changing their thought process

a person who has an excessive need to be taken care of and is clingy is most likely to qualify for a diagnosis of

dependent personality disorder

"someone’s head resting on my knee,/ Warm and tender as he can be,/ Who takes good care of me,/ Oh wouldn’t it be lovely?/ Lovely, lovely, lovely, lovely…"
— are the approximate lyrics of a song from the musical "My fair Lady". these lyrics most closely reflect symptoms of which personality disorder

dependent personality disorder

a friend spends hours each day in chat rooms, and seems to rely increasingly on the approval and advice of "cyber-friends". in fact, your friend finds it harder and harder to leave the chat rooms; they control your friend’s every decision. this behavior pattern is most similar to that of people with which of the following personality disorder

dependent personality disorder

a high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends for suggestions before deciding on a college to attend and on an academic major. this student’s behavior is

normal

if parents excessively reinforce clinging and punish attempts at independence, the result might be the development of

dependent personality disorder

a child who is severely criticized for acting independently, and who is praised for doing exactly what parents say to do, later develops dependent personality disorder. the therapist who would be least surprised by this outcome would have which theoretical orientation

behavioral

the TV show Monk features a detective who is very seldom happy, has few good friends, has a very rigid order and way in which he must do things, and who frequently has difficulty making up his mind about what to do. if he were diagnosed with a personality disorder, most likely, it would be

obsessive-compulsive disorder

the TV show saturday night live once featured a skit involving an "anal retentive carpenter" who had to keep all his tools and work materials in just the "right" places, arranged "just so". he was very anxious any time tools and materials were not just as he wanted them. the most appropriate diagnosis for the carpenter would be which personality disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorder

"it is obvious that this case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder arises from an early childhood fixation." which type of psychologist would most likely have made that statement?

psychodynamic- Freudian

those diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder appear more responsive to which kinds of therapy

psychodynamic and cognitive therapy

"let’s try to figure out where clients fall on several key personality traits, rather than using a dichotomous classification system." someone saying this would most likely favor which approach to classifying personality disorders?

dimensional approach

"the client scores low on extroversion and agreeableness, but high on neuroticism. Looks like schizoid personality disorder to me." the therapist being quoted is using what instrument to make the diagnosis

big five personality

the most feared psychological problem among the elderly is

Alzheimer’s disease

the percentage of the US population aged 65 and older today is

13%

why is REM sleep referred to as paradoxical sleep

because the brain is active, unlike stage 4

children are more likely than the elderly to experience

sleep terrors

regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that

they respond to cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressants

what is the relationship between age and anxiety in the elderly

as age increases, rate of anxiety disorders increase

to date, research shows that anxiety among the elderly is related to

health

an elderly individual is suffering from agoraphobia. the form of therapy that person is least likely to receive is

psychodynamic

the class of drugs most often used to treat anxiety disorders in the elderly is

antidepressants

as people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse

increases

studies of the "oldest old" show that compared to those in their 80s and early 90s, the oldest old ar e

healthier, clearer minded and agile

those who begin unhealthy drinking patterns later in life typically begin as a response to

declining health or financial status

a particular problem often found more prominently in the elderly that is related to substance abuse is

they don’t believe they have a problem

among the elderly, psychotic cognitive symptoms are usually due to

delirium

the case of John Nash, Nobel prize winner and schizophrenic, illustrates _______, which is often found in the elderly who have been schizophrenic

late life improvement

an elderly person who develops false beliefs that are not bizarre is most likely suffering from

delusional disorder

an elderly person who believes falsely that others are conspiring against her, cheating, or spying on her and behaves in angry, irritable and depressed ways is exhibiting

delusional disorder

a 65-year-old in otherwise very good health typically will experience occasional

memory dificulties

a clouding of consciousness that develops over a short period of time and can often be reversed if its underlying cause can be found is called

delirium

an 80-year-old individual has been functioning normally, but now has an infection. however, over the course of a few days, the person shows increasing confusion, and consistently misinterprets what others are trying to communicate. the most probable diagnosis for this condition would be

Alzheimer’s disease

the criteria for the diagnosis of dementia include

significant memory loss as well as cognitive losses and abstract thinking language

Rosa has difficult remembering even where she is going. Maintaining friendships is difficult, and she loses her temper because she cannot remember things. her health has been deteriorating and she is clumsier than she was three years ago. she appears to be suffering from

dementia

Alzheimer’s is a brain _____ while stroke is a brain ______

disease…injury

Alzheimer’s is named for the first person to _____ the disease

identify

a 65-year-old is about what percent likely to be suffering some form of dementia

less than 5%

the most frequent cause of irreversible dementia in the elderly is

Alzheimer’s disease

the typical patter of Alzheimer’s for the patient is

denial, anxiety, withdrawal, dependency

your elderly grandfather is deteriorating. at first he seemed only mildly forgetful, but lately he has had trouble recalling the names of close relatives and cannot remember where he is. he used to be very loving and patient, but now he is irascible and very unpleasant at odd moments. this condition is getting worse. he is probably experiencing

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed on the basis of

neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques

what are neurofibrillary tangles

twisted protein fibers in brain

older individuals with Alzheimer’s disease differ from older individuals without Alzheimer’s disease in that they

have an extra number of neurofibrillary tangles

sphere-shaped deposits of a certain molecule in space between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are called

senile plaques

the molecules that are found in sphere-shaped deposits in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are called

senile plaques

a person who has Alzheimer’s although there is no family history of the disease is said to be experiencing

senile plaques

the best evidence we have to date suggests that Alzheimer’s is transmitted genetically in families that

transmit mutations

research on the cause of Alzheimer’s disease has led to the conclusion that

they don’t know

a person who can grasp material immediately as it is presented, but who cannot remember it long-term, has difficult with

long-term memory

a person who has difficulty remembering how to use a key is having trouble with

procedural memory

a person who has an excess of plaques due to Alzheimer’s would be likely to have

cell breakdown and death

a person with the sporadic version of Alzheimer’s would be likely to have

family history and brain disease

someone with difficulty transforming short-term memory into long-term memory is most likely to have problems in the

diencephalon

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with short-term memory

prefrontal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with long-term memory

temporal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with transforming information from short-term memory to long-term memory

diencephalon

when new information is acquired and stored in memory, _______ are produced

protein

a client suffers from severe problems in remembering recent information, and has increasing difficulty using ordinary language and other cognitive skills. the resulting diagnosis probably will be

declarative memory problems

an individual with retrograde amnesia

can’t remember things that happened in the long term

people with amnestic disorders

have often had an injury of some sort

an individual who demonstrates a severe anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of

retrograde amnesia

Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from

anterograde amnesia

what would the removal of both temporal lobes most likely cause

severe anterograde amnesia

about what fraction of severe head injuries result in some permanent memory and learning problems

50%

elevated levels of _____ in the brains of some Alzheimer’s patients has led to the search for a heavy metal cause of the disease

zinc

recent research suggests that excessive levels of zinc in the brain

triggers a dumping of beta-amyloid protein

when an autoimmune response occurs, the body attacks

itself

the fact that Alzheimer’s disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease suggests that Alzheimer’s may be caused by

a slow acting virus

a 74-year-old man has experienced a very sudden decrement in attention, language production, and memory. CT scans show localized damage to specific areas of the brain. he has a history of cardiovascular disease. his diagnosis would most likely be

vascular dementia

Quincy suddenly developed a short-term memory problem and only two months later had problems speaking. Six months after that he lost speech and hearing, and the left side of his face became paralyzed. each change in functioning was abrupt. he probably is suffering from

multiple infractions

a person quite suddenly begins to show specific cognitive impairment; the person has difficulty speaking, yet other cognitive functions appear normal. most likely that person is experiencing

vascular dementia

which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes

picks disease

lucille experienced severe mood, personality, and movement changes. she most likely has

Huntington’s disease

an individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning, but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. the most probable diagnosis is

Parkinson’s disease

dementia is also associated with

AIDS

someone who has AIDS is also at risk for developing

dementia

if you had a PET scan at a relatively young age, to predict your likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s, you would be most disturbed to find

reduced hypocampus activity

if you have unusually high level of AB42 beta-amyloid protein in your blood, you are more likely

to develop Alzheimer’s disease or dementia

which treatment has been most promising and most commonly used with dementias

drugs

the theoretical perspective currently receiving the most focus for the treatment of dementias is the _____ perspective

biological

the drug tacrine acts through

preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine

recently the FDA banned those who had spent more than six months total time in Great Britain from the earl 1980s to the mid 1990s from donating blood in the US, because of the still-unconfirmed possibility that a form of "mad cow disease" might be in their blood from eating tainted meat. if humans could contract mad cow disease, they would have symptoms similar to those of

?

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is most similar to

dementia

if all a woman wanted was to reduce her risk of developing Alzheimer’s she should

take estrogen for years after menopause

in order to control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over-the-counter drug containing ibuprofen. interestingly, recent research shows that person also may be reducing the risk of contracting which disease

Alzheimer’s disease

one of the most frequent reasons for the institutionalization of Alzheimer’s patients is

the caregivers can’t keep them home

the term "double jeopardy" describes people who may develop psychological problems because they are

part of a minority group and are old

triple jeopardy, as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to

a woman who is elderly and part of a minority

sources of discrimination in the mental health care of the elderly include

language

a partially supervised apartment, a senior housing complex for mildly impaired elderly people, and a nursing home with round-the-clock care are all examples of

assisted living

the percentage of the elderly population living in nursing homes at any given time is about

5%

if you do things during your life that promote physical and psychological well-being, you are engaging in a _____ approach to aging

health maintenance

Oliver Sachs finds that music can help elderly people

move

those of us who do not develop Alzheimer’s will nevertheless benefit from Alzheimer’s research because

it will still keep the mind sharp

it is estimated that as many as _____ percent of the elderly could benefit from mental health services, but only _____ percent receives them

50…20

the misuse of prescription drugs by the elderly is a form of ____ disorder

substance abuse

if an elderly person was found to have dementia, your best guess about what was causing it would be

Alzheimer’s/vascular disease

if someone asked you about the effectiveness of treatment for Alzheimer’s you would have to say

even best treatments have limited success

the most feared psychological problem among the elderly is

Alzheimer’s disease

the percentage of the US population aged 65 and older today is

13%

why is REM sleep referred to as paradoxical sleep

because the brain is active, unlike stage 4

children are more likely than the elderly to experience

sleep terrors

regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that

they respond to cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressants

what is the relationship between age and anxiety in the elderly

as age increases, rate of anxiety disorders increase

to date, research shows that anxiety among the elderly is related to

health

an elderly individual is suffering from agoraphobia. the form of therapy that person is least likely to receive is

psychodynamic

the class of drugs most often used to treat anxiety disorders in the elderly is

antidepressants

as people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse

increases

studies of the "oldest old" show that compared to those in their 80s and early 90s, the oldest old ar e

healthier, clearer minded and agile

those who begin unhealthy drinking patterns later in life typically begin as a response to

declining health or financial status

a particular problem often found more prominently in the elderly that is related to substance abuse is

they don’t believe they have a problem

among the elderly, psychotic cognitive symptoms are usually due to

delirium

the case of John Nash, Nobel prize winner and schizophrenic, illustrates _______, which is often found in the elderly who have been schizophrenic

late life improvement

an elderly person who develops false beliefs that are not bizarre is most likely suffering from

delusional disorder

an elderly person who believes falsely that others are conspiring against her, cheating, or spying on her and behaves in angry, irritable and depressed ways is exhibiting

delusional disorder

a 65-year-old in otherwise very good health typically will experience occasional

memory dificulties

a clouding of consciousness that develops over a short period of time and can often be reversed if its underlying cause can be found is called

delirium

an 80-year-old individual has been functioning normally, but now has an infection. however, over the course of a few days, the person shows increasing confusion, and consistently misinterprets what others are trying to communicate. the most probable diagnosis for this condition would be

Alzheimer’s disease

the criteria for the diagnosis of dementia include

significant memory loss as well as cognitive losses and abstract thinking language

Rosa has difficult remembering even where she is going. Maintaining friendships is difficult, and she loses her temper because she cannot remember things. her health has been deteriorating and she is clumsier than she was three years ago. she appears to be suffering from

dementia

Alzheimer’s is a brain _____ while stroke is a brain ______

disease…injury

Alzheimer’s is named for the first person to _____ the disease

identify

a 65-year-old is about what percent likely to be suffering some form of dementia

less than 5%

the most frequent cause of irreversible dementia in the elderly is

Alzheimer’s disease

the typical patter of Alzheimer’s for the patient is

denial, anxiety, withdrawal, dependency

your elderly grandfather is deteriorating. at first he seemed only mildly forgetful, but lately he has had trouble recalling the names of close relatives and cannot remember where he is. he used to be very loving and patient, but now he is irascible and very unpleasant at odd moments. this condition is getting worse. he is probably experiencing

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed on the basis of

neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques

what are neurofibrillary tangles

twisted protein fibers in brain

older individuals with Alzheimer’s disease differ from older individuals without Alzheimer’s disease in that they

have an extra number of neurofibrillary tangles

sphere-shaped deposits of a certain molecule in space between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are called

senile plaques

the molecules that are found in sphere-shaped deposits in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are called

senile plaques

a person who has Alzheimer’s although there is no family history of the disease is said to be experiencing

senile plaques

the best evidence we have to date suggests that Alzheimer’s is transmitted genetically in families that

transmit mutations

research on the cause of Alzheimer’s disease has led to the conclusion that

they don’t know

a person who can grasp material immediately as it is presented, but who cannot remember it long-term, has difficult with

long-term memory

a person who has difficulty remembering how to use a key is having trouble with

procedural memory

a person who has an excess of plaques due to Alzheimer’s would be likely to have

cell breakdown and death

a person with the sporadic version of Alzheimer’s would be likely to have

family history and brain disease

someone with difficulty transforming short-term memory into long-term memory is most likely to have problems in the

diencephalon

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with short-term memory

prefrontal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with long-term memory

temporal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with transforming information from short-term memory to long-term memory

diencephalon

when new information is acquired and stored in memory, _______ are produced

protein

a client suffers from severe problems in remembering recent information, and has increasing difficulty using ordinary language and other cognitive skills. the resulting diagnosis probably will be

declarative memory problems

an individual with retrograde amnesia

can’t remember things that happened in the long term

people with amnestic disorders

have often had an injury of some sort

an individual who demonstrates a severe anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of

retrograde amnesia

Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from

anterograde amnesia

what would the removal of both temporal lobes most likely cause

severe anterograde amnesia

about what fraction of severe head injuries result in some permanent memory and learning problems

50%

elevated levels of _____ in the brains of some Alzheimer’s patients has led to the search for a heavy metal cause of the disease

zinc

recent research suggests that excessive levels of zinc in the brain

triggers a dumping of beta-amyloid protein

when an autoimmune response occurs, the body attacks

itself

the fact that Alzheimer’s disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease suggests that Alzheimer’s may be caused by

a slow acting virus

a 74-year-old man has experienced a very sudden decrement in attention, language production, and memory. CT scans show localized damage to specific areas of the brain. he has a history of cardiovascular disease. his diagnosis would most likely be

vascular dementia

Quincy suddenly developed a short-term memory problem and only two months later had problems speaking. Six months after that he lost speech and hearing, and the left side of his face became paralyzed. each change in functioning was abrupt. he probably is suffering from

multiple infractions

a person quite suddenly begins to show specific cognitive impairment; the person has difficulty speaking, yet other cognitive functions appear normal. most likely that person is experiencing

vascular dementia

which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes

picks disease

lucille experienced severe mood, personality, and movement changes. she most likely has

Huntington’s disease

an individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning, but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. the most probable diagnosis is

Parkinson’s disease

dementia is also associated with

AIDS

someone who has AIDS is also at risk for developing

dementia

if you had a PET scan at a relatively young age, to predict your likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s, you would be most disturbed to find

reduced hypocampus activity

if you have unusually high level of AB42 beta-amyloid protein in your blood, you are more likely

to develop Alzheimer’s disease or dementia

which treatment has been most promising and most commonly used with dementias

drugs

the theoretical perspective currently receiving the most focus for the treatment of dementias is the _____ perspective

biological

the drug tacrine acts through

preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine

recently the FDA banned those who had spent more than six months total time in Great Britain from the earl 1980s to the mid 1990s from donating blood in the US, because of the still-unconfirmed possibility that a form of "mad cow disease" might be in their blood from eating tainted meat. if humans could contract mad cow disease, they would have symptoms similar to those of

?

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is most similar to

dementia

if all a woman wanted was to reduce her risk of developing Alzheimer’s she should

take estrogen for years after menopause

in order to control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over-the-counter drug containing ibuprofen. interestingly, recent research shows that person also may be reducing the risk of contracting which disease

Alzheimer’s disease

one of the most frequent reasons for the institutionalization of Alzheimer’s patients is

the caregivers can’t keep them home

the term "double jeopardy" describes people who may develop psychological problems because they are

part of a minority group and are old

triple jeopardy, as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to

a woman who is elderly and part of a minority

sources of discrimination in the mental health care of the elderly include

language

a partially supervised apartment, a senior housing complex for mildly impaired elderly people, and a nursing home with round-the-clock care are all examples of

assisted living

the percentage of the elderly population living in nursing homes at any given time is about

5%

if you do things during your life that promote physical and psychological well-being, you are engaging in a _____ approach to aging

health maintenance

Oliver Sachs finds that music can help elderly people

move

those of us who do not develop Alzheimer’s will nevertheless benefit from Alzheimer’s research because

it will still keep the mind sharp

it is estimated that as many as _____ percent of the elderly could benefit from mental health services, but only _____ percent receives them

50…20

the misuse of prescription drugs by the elderly is a form of ____ disorder

substance abuse

if an elderly person was found to have dementia, your best guess about what was causing it would be

Alzheimer’s/vascular disease

if someone asked you about the effectiveness of treatment for Alzheimer’s you would have to say

even best treatments have limited success

courts ask for mental health professionals to help determine if defendants are

responsible for the crime and capable of defending themselves

if a court decides that a defendant is mentally unstable, the defendant will

sent to a mental institution in a process call criminal commitment

defendants who are actively hallucinating and experiencing delusions during the time of their trials are most likely to be

admitted for treatment until they are competent to stand trial

defendants who were acting irrationally and in disordered ways when they allegedly committed the crimes are most likely to

plead not guilty by reason of insanity

one important issue in the relationship between the legislative and judicial systems and the mental health profession is

regulating aspects of mental care

what must be true before a person may be tried for a crime and potentially found guilty

person must have been able to distinguish right from wrong at the time of the crime

who makes the final decision as to whether or not a person may be tried by the judicial system

courts

if a person accused of a crime is found not guilty by reason of insanity, he or she is committed to a psychiatric facility for treatment. this is called

criminal commitment

len killed a man in a fit of rage. his voices told him that the man was about to destroy the earth and the man must be stopped. len is likely to be sent to a mental institution because

mutually unstable at the time of the crime

merv got into a fight and killed his opponent. when he went to trial, he had a mental breakdown. he did not know where he was and had hallucinations. he was unable to answer questions. he is likely to be sent to a mental institution because

he is unstable to understand the trial procedure and defend himself

if someone was interested in pursuing a career in a field that combined mental health and the legal and judicial systems, you should direct that person toward

forensic psychology

the definition of "insanity" used in legal cases was written by

legislators, not clinicians

in using the insanity plea, the burden of proof to prove sanity or insanity ordinarily rests with the

defense

the version of the insanity defense that declares that a person can not be held responsible for his or her actions if they were the result of mental disease or mental defect is called the

Durham test

tony killed the guy he was fighting with. at his trial he claimed that he did not know what he was doing because he was drunk. under which "insanity" standard might he be found not guilty be reason of insanity

Durham test

the Durham test judges a person not to be criminally responsible if he or she has acted

if the action was the product of a mental disease or defect

Rex beat the guy to within an inch of his life. in court REX claimed that he was forced to do it. he just exploded. he was not in control of himself. under which "insanity" standard might he be found not guilty by reason of insanity

irresistible impulsive test

pat who was drunk as a skunk, got into a bar fight and killed his opponent. which legal test would most likely be used to find him not guilty by reason of insanity

Durham test

suffering from headaches, alcoholism, and ulcers would make one eligible for an insanity defense under the

Durham test

if a man walked in on his wife in bed with his best friend and killed the friend and the wife in a fit of "passion", that man would be eligible for an insanity defense under the

irresistible impulse test

if a person experiencing severe paranoid delusions committed a crime while saying, "I know this is wrong and i shouldn’t be doing it", that person would be eligible for an insanity defense under the

American law institute test

in response to a recommendation by the american psychiatric association, current federal practice is most like the

M’Naughtear test

the most common diagnosis of those found not guilty by reason of insanity is

schizophrenia

the most common (and perhaps the most serious) objection to the insanity plea is that

the fundamental differences between law and the science of human behavior

about what percentage of defendants in the US are found not guilty by reason of insanity in a typical year

1 in 400 (.25%)

some states have adopted a verdict of "guilty but mentally ill". the sentence that must be given to those so convicted is

prison sentence along with needed treatment

currently in the US, patients who are criminally committed to a mental hospital can be released

when they are judged to no longer be insane

if a mentally ill person committed murder, was convicted and sent to prison, but was also given treatment while in prison, that person probably lived in a state that had a ____ option

guilty but mentally ill

if a mentally ill person committed murder, but was convicted of committing manslaughter, that person probably lived in a state that had a ____ option

guilty with diminished capacity

in the case of Foucha v. Louisiana , the supreme court ruled that the only acceptable basis for determining the release of hospitalized offenders is whether or not they are still

insane

recently states have begun to abolish their sex offender laws. among the reasons they are doing this is

racial bias can effect application of the law

many states have a category of "mentally disordered sex offenders", which assigns moral responsibility to the offender. this category, which is related to the insanity defense, is based on the premise that

people who are repeatedly found guilty of certain sex crimes have a mental disorder

one difficulty with the mentally disordered sex offender classification is that

racial bias appears to effect who is given this classification

a person who is accused of a crime can not be convicted if he or she is mentally unstable either at the time of the crime or at the time of the trail. competence to stand trial is important to ensure that the person

understands the charges and is capable of forming a defense

the majority of criminals institutionalized for psychological treatment in the US are there because

they suffer from personality disorders

civil commitment is for a person who

civil commitment allows certain people to be forced into mental health treatment

a person who had a serious mental illness and was in need of treatment could, nevertheless, not be civilly committed unless that person was also

dangerous to themselves or others

the process of forcing certain individuals to undergo mental health treatment is called

civil commitment

the aspect of state responsibility that promotes and protects the interests of individuals from themselves is called

parens patriae

the aspect of state responsibility that promotes and protects the interests of individuals from dangerous people is called

police powers

the principle of parens patriae (parent of the country) permits the state to make decisions that promote an individual’s best interest. it has been used to support the process of

civil commitment

parens patriae refers to the state’s rights to make decisions that are in the individual’s best interest, and t the idea that police power gives the state the right to protect society from harm. these two principles have been used to support

civil commitment

Iris has had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. she mutters a lot about being possessed. lately she has been carving her arm with a knife. you think that she requires treatment before she hurts herself any more. the authorities have a right to commit her based on the principles of

parens patriae

in addington v. texas, a young man fought being involuntarily committed, arguing that the standard for showing that a person is mentally ill was unclear and unfair. as a result, the standard for committing a person was revised to

clear and convincing proof that the patient is mentally ill and meets the states minimum requirement

in addington v. texas, a young man fought being involuntarily committed, arguing that the standard for showing that a person is mentally ill was unclear and unfair. this case resulted in the courts setting a standard that commitment

can occur when 75% certainty that criteria for commitment has been met

in an emergency, if a person is clearly suicidal or homicidal because of hallucinations and delusions, that person can be involuntarily committed by

emergency commitment

the standard for "clear and convincing proof" according to the US supreme court is

75% certainty the criteria has been met

in the past, people with mental disorders were less likely than those without mental disorders to commit violent or dangerous acts. why do we think that is

many of these individuals lived in institutions

temporary commitment in an emergency situation is possible if

a life is at stake

what is the basis for making a 2 PC determination to commit on an emergency basis

when a person is a danger to themselves or others

Monahan’s research on the relationship between violent behavior and sever mental disorder shows that

rate of violent behavior and is somewhat higher in those with sever mental disorders

what proportion of mental patients assault another patient during hospitalization

15%

what is the rate of assault for people who display a substance-abuse disorder

25% or more

how good are mental health professionals at predicting dangerousness

wrong more often than right

if you encountered someone convicted of a violent criminal offense, you could legitimately also expect to find that the person

substance abuse

John Brown and Abraham Lincoln were labeled by some as "insane" because of their views on

slavery

the wyatt v. stickney decision forced state hospitals to provide

adequate treatment to those who were committed involuntarily

the case of O’Connor v donaldson resulted in the ruling that

mental hospitals must review their patients’ cases periodically

in recent years, public advocates for those with mental disorders have turned their attention to the rights of ____ to receive treatment

mental patients in community

the focus of the protection and Advocacy for Mentally Ill Individuals Act of 1986 was to

the right for patients to investigate possible abuse

the recent cases that have increased the patient’s right to refuse treatment have focused largely on the right to refuse

biological treatment

if a patient is assigned to a community mental health center inpatient facility instead of a mental hospital, the decision makers are applying the principle of

patients should receive treatment from the least restrictive facility available

patienst who perform work in mental institutions, particularly private institutions, are guaranteed _____ for that work

minimum wage

"Litigaphobia" and "litigastress"

feat of being sued

an important current distinction between psychologists and psychiatrists that is changing is that

psychologists may admit patients to state hospitals and prescribe medicine with proper certification

one outcome due to the rise in malpractice suits related to hospitalization, based on actual hospitalization statistics is that

clinicians fear being sued

Research indicates that eyewitness testimony is:

often unreliable

research indicates that eyewitness testimony is

the jury is more likely to believe witness who is certain

imagine that a witness says he or she is absolutely certain that the defendant is the one who committed the crime. what is the most likely true about the witness’s certainty

manipulative and highly intelligent

frequently, when a serial killer comes to trial, he or she makes the insanity plea. what usually happens

plea is usually overlooked

why is the plea of not guilty by reason of insanity generally unsuccessful for serial killers

they typically don’t fit criteria of insanity

the APA code of ethics states that sexual relationships between a psychologist and client are

forbidden

a psychologist wanted to accept a client with whom he had previously had a sexual relationship. according to ethical guidelines, the psychologist

may not treat patient he or she has had sex with

if dr. phil were a psychologist (he is not), would he be ethically allowed to offer advice to people on TV

yes

imagine that you are a therapist working on the US-mexican border but don’t speak spanish. what is proper ethical behavior for you

acknowledge limitations and seek further treatmetn

a therapist who broke confidentiality with a patient without the patient’s consent because of fears that the person would harm someone else was acting according to the ethical principle of

duty to protect

psychologists are ethically bound to keep material about their patients confidential except

when a client is thought to be a danger to another person

a landmark california court case, Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, dramatically affected the right to confidentiality between client and therapist. this case led to the conclusion that

protected privilege ends where public peril begins

the current code of ethics declares that therapist should break confidentiality even without the client’s consent

when the client or another person is threatened

if a therapist has a client who is threatening to kill another person, the therapist must inform that other person because of the ethical principle of

duty to protect

if you were an air traffic controller and your employer required you to attend a seminar on dealing in healthy ways with stress, you would be receiving

a problem-solving seminar

in the workplace, psychological problems are estimated to contribute most to

industrial accidents

if you were having marital problems that were affecting your work and your employer made mental health service available to you to deal with those problems, your employer would be providing you with

an EAP (employee assistance program)

Peter is having trouble coping with his financial problems and is getting depressed about them. he seeks out someone at his company who helps by counseling employees on such issues and tries to intercept problems before they get out of hand. peter is seeking help from

employee assistance program

today, the cost of direct mental health services is mostly paid by

individuals to private insurance companies

the type of system that many health insurance companies have set up to try to curtail expenses associated with providing treatment is referred to as

managed care programs

a therapist who was worried that patients would receive less costly short-term care rather than more promising long-term treatment, would have treatment monitored by an insurance employee rather than a therapist, and would have confidential treatment reports read by others, is concerned about

managed care programs

the rise of managed care programs for treating mental disorders has resulted in

prefer short term rather than long term improvement

imagine that you are a therapist treating another therapist for a disorder. what is the therapist most likely to exhibit

depression

a recent national mental health survey of psychotherapists found that more than three-quarters of them reported being in therapy themselves at least once, and that they

seeks therapy for problems that bother others

if you become a therapist and are like the majority of therapists, you will

feel threatened by patient and experience emotional distress

according to our legal system, what is necessary for a person to be punished for a crime

defendants must be responsible for a crime and capable of defending themselves

imagine that you are an attorney and that your client has been sentenced to prison with the proviso that he or she will also receive psychological treatment. your client has received a verdict known as

guilty but mentally ill

if you were interested in securing a civil commitment for someone you cared about, you would have to show clearly that the person

in need of treatment and dangerous to themselves or others

thanks to recent court emphases, mental patients who are hospitalized are guaranteed the right to

adequate treatment and periodical case reviews

Surveys show that ______ is a common experience for close to half of all children in the US

worry

Nellie is openly hostile toward her parents. she argues with them constantly and will not do anything they say. they can not control her. the diagnosis she is most likely to receive is

oppositional defiant disorder

xavier will not obey his mother. when threatened with punishment, he swears, throws things, and threatens to break everything in the house. his outbreaks seem to be restricted to his parents, but he is almost completely unmanageable. this is an example of

oppositional defiant disorder

a child has repeatedly engaged in shoplifting and in hitting neighborhood pets with rocks. the child frequently is aggressive, and has engaged in an increasing number of fights. the most reasonable diagnosis for this child is

conduct disorder

Bertie is extremely aggressive. she is always fighting with her peers and is frequently very cruel to them. she never tells the truth when a lie will do. her most likely diagnosis is

conduct disorder

a two-year old child is evaluated as "noncompliant" by a preschool teacher. most likely, that child’s level of noncompliance at five years of age will be

lower whether child is boy or girl

a child sneaks out of the home every now and then, and goes through the neighborhood breaking lawn decorations and scratching car paint. these behaviors most closely fit which pattern of conduct disorder

covert-destructive pattern

at a parent-teacher conference, a child’s parents are astounded to learn that their son has been showing up late for school, despite leaving home with more than enough time to get to school. this behavior most closely fits which pattern of conduct disorder

cover-nondestructive

"that kid is pleasant enough, but will lie about practically anything, even things that do not seem to matter much." this behavior most closely fits which pattern of conduct disorder

covert-nondestructive

perhaps the biggest problem facing school administrators who try to deal with bullying is that

too much bullying to tell who is dangerous

"relational aggression" is a term used to describe a pattern of aggression most common among

girls diagnosed with conduct disorders

Carl is a terrible bully. He is very aggressive and repeatedly takes advantage of his "friends" he will say anything to get his way or try to stay out of trouble. recently he was arrested for vandalism and ended up getting probation. he will most likely be labeled as displaying

juvenile delinquency

a 16-year-old has just been arrested for the third time for shoplifting. he would most likely be labeled a(n)

juvenile delinquents

conduct disorder has most often been associated with

ADHD

in effect, parents learn to do behavior therapy with their children diagnosed with conduct disorder– targeting and rewarding desired behaviors, for instance– in an intervention called

parent management training

Tamara’s parents are down on her all the time. when they are not criticizing her, they ignore her. this is an example of

psychological abuse

the least effective way to deal with conduct disorder is

having them live in juvenile training center

"will that program really help? I keep hearing bad things about how kids act once they leave". based on research, the person who said this would be most accurate if she or he were expressing reservations about

having them live in juvenile training center

a preadolescent child has not received a clinical diagnosis participates in a program designed to stop the development of an antisocial pattern of behavior. most likely that program is

prevention program

a child’s distracting behaviors occur only in a school setting, and include failure to follow instructions and finish work, answering questions before they have been completed, and a lot of seat squirming and fidgeting. could ADHD be a diagnosis of this child

no because it occurs only in one setting

pat does not follow what the teacher is doing and has difficulty focusing on the task at hand. his behavior in class is disruptive because he can not sit still. he gets poor grades in school. these symptoms indicate

ADHD

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is more common in _____ than_____

boys…girls

several decades ago, a child had a great deal of difficulty keeping on task in school. not only did the child frequently roam around the classroom and talk to others, the child frequently squirmed around while at a desk. at the time, the child was diagnosed as suffering from "minimal brain damage", today’s likely diagnosis would be

ADHD

a parent of an infant asks what you would recommend specifically to reduce the chance of the infant developing ADHD. research-based responses would include

make sure child doesn’t watch too much tv

the drug Ritalin is classified as a

stimulant drug

the two most common treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have been

Ritalin and behavioral therapy

recent research suggests that the most effective ways to treat ADHD are

drugs and behavioral therapy

most Ritalin manufactured each year is used by

90% used by Americans

"i’m concerned about Ritalin use; its possible effects on children’s growth, and its increasing heart-attack risk in hypertensive adults" an acquaintance worries. your best reply, based on the most recent research is

right to worry, more research needed to quantify risk

a child diagnosed with ADHD displays comorbidity, and receives both stimulant medication and a form of behavior therapy. according to research, the comorbidity is most likely

both conduct and disorders

Compared to white american children, African American and hispanic american children similar levels of activity and attention problems are

less likely to be diagnosed or assessed for ADHD

when asked, a parent says, "why does my kid had ADHD? I guess it is in the genes." given this very limited information, your research-based guess would be that the parent is

white American

a 3-year-old child is wetting the bed at night. the bed wetting apparently is beyond the child’s control. the best diagnosis is

enuresis

joey has been wetting his bed since he was a baby. he is 10 years old now. as a result, he will not stay over at his friend’s house or go to camp. his condition is called

enuresis

a child awakens suddenly to the sound of a bell, and heads for the bathroom. most likely the child is receiving

bell-and-battery technique

a child is awakened during the night, goes to and uses the toilet, and receives a sticker and praise from a parent. later in the week accumulated stickers may be turned in for a highly desired toy. this child is undergoing

dry-bed training

"I knew right after we got home from the hospital that our kid had a problem," the parents said. unless the parent is using 20-20 hindsight, the child’s diagnosis most likely is

autism

the most common and successful treatments for encopresis are

behavioral and medical

assume that you are alone in a room with a child suffering from a disorder of childhood. if you did not know what the child’s diagnosis was, what behavior of the child’s might start to convince you that the disorder is autism

child not responsive to others

when a child with autism says "you want a drink" when he really means that he wants a drink, he is displaying

pronominal reversal

the mockingbird gets its name from the fact that it often imitates the call of other birds, without conveying any particular message. a human who imitates others’ speech without really communicating most likely would be diagnosed with

autism

one speech problem displayed by many autistic children is that they repeat everything said to them. this is called

echolalia

ralphie is autistic and does not like much variation in his life. he puts his toys on a shelf in a particular order and throws a tantrum if his mother moves any of them. any one of several trivial changes in his daily routine can set him off. this is an example of

preservation of sameness

when a child with autism jumps, flaps her arms, twists her hands and fingers and makes unusual, faces the child is engaging in

self-stimulatory behaviors

a person diagnosed with autism listens to a piano piece at a concert. later at home, the person plays the piano piece without the music, and without making a mistake. this behavior is best described as

a "savant"

a person diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder is extremely curious about why other people think what they think, and has zero tolerance for others’ occasionally illogical thinking. according to one classification system, the term for this individual would be

logic boy

according to one psychological view of autism, the inability to take another’s perspective is not developed in autistic children. this ability is called

therapy of mind

most recent research has provided evidence that the primary causes of autism include

brain abnormalties

recent studies show that autistic children are more likely than other children to have abnormalities in which section of the brain

cerbellum

a therapist works with an autistic child, providing praise and a small spoonful of ice cream whenever the child imitates a specific sound the therapist makes. the therapist is using what type of therapy

behavioral therapy

studies of the use of behavioral techniques in the treatment of autism have shown that behavioral techniques can produce

new, more functional behavior

recent work has revealed that the most effective treatment for autism has been the use of

behavioral therapy

a child with autism points to a picture of a fork in order to say, "I want food." this child is using

augmentative communication systems

a child diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder learns to make choices, and learns that rules are not necessarily rigid. Facing change and being flexible are other parts of the therapy. most likely, the child is experiencing

cognitive social integration therapy

"what is over there?" asks the child, pointing to a distant object, "Does it belong to you?" the child asks the therapist. the therapist answers the child in detail, and praises the child’s efforts at communication. most likely, the child is receiving

child-initiated interactions training for autism

Fred has an IQ of 65 and cannot do school work. he lives on the streets by begging, is usually dirty, and is always hungry. he would probably be labeled

mentally retarded

Quentin is 25, has an IQ of 60, and never did well at schoolwork. however, now he lives on his own, has a job, and is able to perform the routine chores of life. he would not be considered mentally retarded because

he has adequate adaptive behavior

intelligence test results should not be the only things used to determine mental retardation, because intelligence test scores

display general intellectual functioning

if you knew that a child had recently been administered the Vineland and AAMR, you could be reasonably sure the childhood disorder being tested for was

mental retardation

Seth does well in some school subjects. however, the only way that he can read is slowly, one word at a time. he must direct his gaze with his index finger. even with great efforts, he makes many errors and has poor comprehension. this is a description of.

reading disorder

the specific symptoms associated with dyslexia include

great difficulty recognizing words and comprehending as they read

Selina displays normal behavior and intelligence, but she does not seem to be able to explain her actions and intentions as well as you would expect. if the deficit is severe enough, she might be diagnosed with

communication disorder- expressive language disorder

mild mental retardation is most common in which socioeconomic class

lower

about what percentage of those diagnosed with mental retardation fall in the DSM "mild retardation" category

80-85%

Isabelle was born into a very poor family. her mother and father were barely able to sustain themselves. they had below-average IQs. Isabelle’s nutrition and health care were never very good. she is at risk for

mild mental retardation

the most consistent and important difference between retarded and non-retarded people is that a retarded person

learns slower

biological factors appear not to be the most important causes of which level of mental retardation

mild

if one knew nothing more than that the person with mental retardation also had extensive and severe medical problems and physical handicaps, the best estimate of that person”s level of mental retardation would be

sever or profound

most diagnosed cases of Down syndrome are of the ______ type

trisomi 21

Paula is moderately retarded, and has a small head and flat face. she also has short fingers. her condition seems to be

down syndrome

the most common of the identifies chromosomal causes of Down syndrome is

an infant is diagnosed with a biological disorder. as the infant ages, its physical and mental conditions deteriorate steadily so that the infant loses vision and motor control, and at the age of 3, the child dies. most likely, the child was suffering from

trisomi 21

if a pregnant woman wishes to avoid having a child with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), what should she do

not drink alcohol prior to conceiving or during pregnancy

Hanna could not metabolize phenylalanine properly when she was born. she is displaying

phenylketonuria

an iodine deficiency in the diet of a pregnant woman may lead to a condition in which the baby has a dwarf-like appearance and a defective thyroid gland. this disorder is called

cretinism

at the end of the year the criteria for remaining in the state school changed, and Henry was simply released into the community. this is an example of

deinstitutinalization

anoxia, one possible source of mental retardation, involved brain damage resulting from

lack of oxygen during or after

in poor inner-city neighborhoods, children sometimes eat paint that is flaking off walls. this can lead to mental retardation because of

lead poisoning

most children with mental retardation live

at home

nations that pioneered "normalization" in the treatment of mental retardation include

Denmark and Sweden

Glenda is in a facility for the mentally retarded. she gets up in her apartment, dresses, and goes to the dining room, where she orders breakfast off a menu. she goes to work in a sheltered workshop. at the end of the day she goes home to her apartment and cleans up for dinner. this arrangement is part of

normalization process

Fredrick is in public school, but he is grouped with lower-IQ children like him. he and his classmates have a specifically designed program that is different from that of the other children in the school. this is most likely an example of

special education

the technique that is often used to teach individuals with mental retardation is

behavioral

self-help and communication skills of the mentally retarded are improved most often by the use of

behavioral techniques

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