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In science, the perspectives used to explain phenomena are known as:


The model or paradigm an investigator uses influences:

the questions and observations the investigator uses

The paradigm or model adopted by people in the Middle Ages to explain abnormal behavior
would have been:


The model of abnormality that cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the:

biological model

The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the:

sociocultural model

The model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in
behavior is the:

psychodynamic model

"Understanding a person’s unconscious processes is critical in explaining abnormality." Which
model of abnormality does this quote MOST closely represent?


The model of abnormality that focuses on learning is the:

behavioral model

The model of abnormality that concentrates on thinking is the:

cognitive model

"Abnormal behaviors—indeed, all behaviors—are acquired through learning." Which model of
abnormality does this quote MOST closely represent?


The model of abnormality that focuses on the role of values and choices in behavior is the:

humanistic-existential model

Imagine that you subscribe to the sociocultural model of abnormality. Which of the following
would be a part of your paradigm?

the family-social perspective

One who believes the multicultural perspective is the correct way to think about abnormality
comes from which of the following paradigms?


Huntington’s disease, which has psychological as well as physical aspects, results from loss of
cells in the:

basal ganglia

Messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny spaces called:


Depression has been linked to which neurotransmitter abnormality?

low activity of serotonin

Abnormal chemical activity in the body’s endocrine system relates to the release of:


Identifying which genes help cause various human disorders rests with the ability to:

map or sequence genes

One who takes an evolutionary perspective with respect to abnormal behavior would be MOST
likely to agree that:

at one time what is now often seen as abnormal helped us survive

Critics of the evolutional perspective of abnormal behavior cite all of the following EXCEPT:

The perspective is overly precise

Current research suggests that schizophrenia may be related to:

viral infection in utero

An important factor to consider in using drugs for the treatment of abnormality would be that:

some people do not benefit from drug treatments

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used MOST often in the treatment of:


When a subject is participating in the final testing phase of a drug study, which of the following is
taking place?

The subject is helping to determine the drug’s efficacy and side effects

During the preclinical phase of a drug study, researchers are:

testing the drug on animals

An assumption of determinism is that abnormal behaviors:

are not accidental.

Which of the following is TRUE of psychological conflicts according to psychoanalysis?

They are tied to experiences early in life.

Freud believed that the three central forces that shape the personality were the:

instinctual needs, rational thinking, and moral standards

The ______ operates in accord with the pleasure principle.


Barney’s mother is taking cookies out of the oven. Which of the following would suggest most
strongly that the id is firmly in control of Barney’s behavior?

Barney grabs some of the cookies and runs.

Freud believed that the source of energy that fuels the id:

is the libido.

According to Freud, a woman’s pleasure from nursing her baby is reflected in which part of the


Infants tend to do things that feel good. This is in accord with what Freud called:

the pleasure principle

What is libido?

the sexual energy of the id

The part of the personality that guides us to know when we can and cannot express our impulses
is the:


According to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, the part of the personality that is the conscience is


What we would call "conscience" is MOST like what Freud would call the:


A woman has had an abortion for which she feels very guilty and as a result takes a strong pro-life
stance. The defense mechanism that BEST explains her behavior is:

reaction formation.

A patient’s initial reaction to being told she has an STI is to insist that the nurse made a mistake
with the test. The defense mechanism that BEST explains this behavior is:


You blame your poor performance on a test that you didn’t study for on all the other work you had
to do. The defense mechanism that BEST explains your behavior is:


According to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, ineffective interaction of the id, ego, and superego
can lead to entrapment at a developmental level. This is called:


According to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, at birth the child is in the:

oral stage

A general term used for theories such as Freud’s, Adler’s, and Jung’s is:


The motivation to form relationships with others is a central theme of:

object relations theory

"The force that operates on the ‘reality principle’ is an independent, powerful force in human
functioning." The kind of theorist who would agree MOST strongly with this statement would


The role of the unified personality is a central theme of:

self theory

The model MOST likely to suggest using free association to uncover unconscious processes is the _ model:


Colin is asked to "free associate" about his mother’s new husband and he responds by changing
the subject. A psychodynamic therapist would consider this an example of:


The model MOST likely to predict that transference will occur during therapy is the ______


The model MOST likely to use terms such as "resistance" and "transference" is the ______


According to psychoanalytic theory, which of the following is TRUE regarding dreams?

They reflect our unconscious desires and needs

According to Freud, another term for the symbolic meaning of dreams is:

latent content

If a patient relives past repressed feelings, that patient is said to have experienced ______,
according to psychoanalysts.


Teresa has been told that her course of therapy is likely to take a year or more because it involves
the reshaping of her personality and that takes many sessions. Her therapy is MOST likely:

psychodynamic therapy.

A patient participates in weekly therapy for several years, gradually becoming aware of the
impact of early life events on present functioning. The form of psychotherapy the patient is
receiving is called:

psychodynamic therapy

If a patient chose a dynamic focus for therapy, the patient would MOST likely be receiving:

short-term psychodynamic therapy.

Which of the following dreams is the MOST common?

being chased or pursued

Evidence in support of the psychodynamic model has come primarily from:

case studies

Evidence of the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy:

is limited to case studies.

Evidence that supports the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies has come from:

individual case studies.

Theory focused on learned responses to the environment is usually described as:


When a young child yells and throws toys ("temper tantrum"), the parents give the child a good
deal of attention. As time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. A
behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from:

operant conditioning

The only time that Timmy gets attention is when he misbehaves in a bizarre way. This is an
example of:

operant conditioning

Animals and humans learn without reinforcement. They learn just by watching. This form of
learning is called:


Jamal observed his parents’ generous behavior throughout his childhood. As a result, he developed
a positive and generous attitude toward the world. According to the behavioral model, Jamal has
acquired his lifestyle through the process of:


The model MOST likely to emphasize the importance of one’s history of conditioning as the
source of depression is the ______ model.


The model emphasizing the importance of conditioning in determining human actions is the
______ model


"When I was young, I met a large dog. I wasn’t afraid of the dog, but as I tried to pet it, the dog
snarled and jumped at me. I have been afraid of dogs ever since." A therapist who assumes that
this sentence describes a phobia acquired from classical conditioning MOST likely favors which
model of abnormality?


A child is bitten by a vicious dog in front of a park. The child is later very afraid of the park.
According to classical conditioning, the park is a(n):

conditioned stimulus

A previously neutral environmental event that becomes associated with the unconditioned
stimulus is called a(n):

conditioned stimulus

If you imagine biting into a big, juicy, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. The lemon is an
example of a(n):

unconditioned stimulus.

If you close your eyes and imagine biting into a big, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. The
salivation to this imagery is an example of

conditioned response

The first step in using the treatment called "systematic desensitization" is to:

teach the skill of relaxation over the course of several sessions

A client in a totally relaxed state vividly imagines formerly anxiety-arousing situations without
feeling any lingering anxiety. MOST likely, that client has just completed what type of therapy?

systematic desensitization

Systematic desensitization has been shown to be especially effective in the treatment of:


Today, ______ clinical psychology is the MOST popular theoretical orientation among
professional psychologists.


Behavior therapy:

can be tested in the lab.

If you believe that you can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary, Bandura
would say that you had a positive sense of:


"Thoughts, as well as overt behaviors, are acquired and modified by various forms of
conditioning." The orientation of the author of this quote MOST likely would be:


An athlete who is in fact well-prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, "I can’t do this! I
need to be perfect, and I know I’m going to fail!" The theorist who would focus on the athlete’s
illogical thinking process as a key factor in his subsequent poor performance MOST likely would
support which model of abnormality?


The form of therapy that helps clients recognize errors in logic, and to try out new interpretations
of events, is:


Henry goes into a fit of depression and self-abuse when anyone criticizes or expresses
disapproval. Much of what he does is for the purpose of getting people to like him. Cognitive
theorists would say that Henry’s depression results in large part from:

illogical thinking

When José did not get the job, he was sure that everything was going wrong, that his life was
completely off track. This thought is an example of:


If a patient is being guided to challenge irrational thinking and to try out new interpretations, the
patient is MOST likely being treated by a follower of:


If you are being encouraged to see the link between the way you interpret your experiences and
the way you feel, and to question the accuracy of your interpretations, you are probably receiving:

cognitive therapy

Regarding attitudes toward therapy, people are MOST likely to agree with which of the following

"It’s a good idea to seek therapy for a problem before it gets out of hand."

So-called "new wave of cognitive therapy" differs from traditional cognitive therapy in that it

accepting problematic thoughts

In mindfulness-based therapy techniques, you would be MOST likely to find clients:

letting their thoughts flow, without judgment.

"When we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal
with the meaning of life, and with the value they find in living." A psychologist from which
background would agree MOST strongly with this statement?


According to ______, the self-actualization motive plays an important part in human functioning.


A therapist who believes people often hide from their responsibilities, and therefore often feel
alienated, depressed, inauthentic—empty—would MOST likely be:


The model that proposes that humans strive to self-actualize is the ______ model.


Humanists would say that an individual who cares about others, is spontaneous, courageous, and
independent is:


"Humans are born with freedom, yet do not ‘naturally’ strive to reach their full growth potential."
The psychologist who would MOST closely agree with this statement would be:


The social upheaval and soul searching of the 1960s and 1970s in Western society gave rise to
which of the following approaches to therapy?

humanistic and existential

If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say that you have developed:

unconditional self-regard

The term for the form of psychotherapy pioneered by Carl Rogers is:


A therapist listens carefully to a client’s words, then attempts to show accurate empathy and
genuineness. The hope is that the client will self-examine with acceptance and honesty. MOST
likely, the therapist is:


If a client-centered therapist were treating a very anxious woman, the therapist would try to:

show unconditional positive regard for her statements.

"That’s all right. You are doing your best, don’t worry. I am here for you." A therapist who would
say this as a primary part of the therapy process would MOST probably be following the ______


The model with its roots in the philosophical idea that people are dynamic beings, giving meaning
to their existence through their actions, is the:

existential model.

Gestalt therapy is similar to mindfulness techniques in its emphasis on:

focusing on the here and now.

Which of the following would be MOST likely to use skillful frustration as a part of therapy?

Fritz Perls

Therapists who often deliberately frustrate and challenge their clients, and who often use role
playing and a "here and now" orientation, are:


The view that religious views are defense mechanisms created by people to make life tolerable is
MOST characteristic of:

classic Freudian psychotherapy

Research on the relationship between religious beliefs and psychological health shows that

who are devout and see God as caring and helpful are the healthiest.

The proper conclusion from research studies that show a relationship between devout religious
people who see God as warm and caring and psychological health is that:

people who are more devout are also psychologically healthier.

The MAIN concern with the various forms of cybertherapy that are currently being used is:

the quality of the treatment.

Which one of the following forms of therapy would you NOT currently expect to find in

use of tweet therapy

With its emphasis on abstract human values and responsibility, the humanistic-existential model
does all of the following EXCEPT:

lend itself easily to research

The model of abnormality that pays particular attention to a client’s family structure, societal
norms, and a client’s roles in society is:


Which model of abnormality would focus on factors such as norms, family structure, and support
systems, in particular?


David Rosenhan sent "pseudopatients" to a mental hospital, where they pretended to be disturbed.
The results led him to conclude that ______ greatly impacts mental illness.


If someone is isolated and lacks social support or intimacy in his or her life, that person is MORE
likely to ______ than someone who has social support and intimacy.

become depressed when under stress

Research would lead you to believe that students who have the MOST Facebook friends have:

many real friends and good relationships with them

According to family systems theory, families that show "disengagement" are characterized by:

rigid boundaries between family members.

If a mother seems excessively involved in her child’s life such that the two do not seem to be
independent people, their relationship is said to be:


Which of the following phrases would one be MOST likely to hear in a self-help group.

"Try this. It worked for me."

If a therapist advised you to pay attention to how you were communicating with family members
and to change harmful patterns, the therapist would MOST likely to be practicing:

conjoint family therapy.

A primary focus of the community treatment approach to abnormality is:


Providing treatment as soon as it is needed, so problems that are moderate or worse do not
become long-term, is called:

tertiary prevention.

Which of the following statements about couple therapy is MOST accurate?

There is no one theoretical approach used in couple therapy.

That many people with severe disturbances are not being treated appropriately is MOSTLY a
problem with which level of prevention?


Regarding the finding that there are more seriously disturbed people among those who are poor, a
multicultural theorist would focus on the way in which:

poverty is a stressor that contributes to dysfunction.

Current multicultural perspectives are MOST likely to focus on:

the special external pressures faced by members of a culture.

Multicultural theorists would explain the higher levels of mental illness among poor people as
MOST likely due to:

social factors leading to stress.

In explaining why women are diagnosed with anxiety disorders and depression twice as often as
men, multicultural therapists would focus on:

prejudice and discrimination faced by women.

A feminist therapist would MOST likely focus on:

how prejudice and discrimination impact women.

All of the following statements would be appropriate criticisms of the sociocultural model

Cultural factors might create a climate favorable for the development of certain disorders.

Which of the following statements is the BEST example of the biopsychosocial perspective?

Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences.

The diathesis-stress model of abnormality emphasizes that:

abnormality arises from an interaction between stress and predisposition.

Which of the following is NOT an example of diathesis in the diathesis-stress explanation of

Which of the following is NOT an example of diathesis in the diathesis-stress explanation of abnormality?

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