A&P2 Chapter 21

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1) An advantage to adaptive immunity is ________.

C) its memory cells that provide quicker, larger and more efficient immune response upon second exposure to an antigen

2) An advantage of innate immunity is ________.

A) its barriers that prevent pathogens from entering into the body

3) B-lymphocytes are categorized as part of the adaptive branch of the immune system for all of the following reason but one. Which of the following is not one of the reasons B-lymphocytes are considered part of the adaptive immunity?

B) They are a first line of defense that can begin killing pathogens immediately.

4) Overlap in the innate and adaptive immune system is seen in all of the following examples but one. Which of the following examples does not illustrate the overlap of innate and adaptive immune responses?

C) NK cells causing apoptosis of an abnormal host cell, lacking MHC proteins.

5) Which of the following examples below describes an autoimmune disease?

B) Antibody binding to acetylcholine receptors of the motor end plate resulting in muscle weakness.

6) Which of the following does not describe actions of interferon (IFN)?

B) IFN can penetrate the viral capsid and destroy the virus.

7) A vaccine is effective because ________.

B) the secondary response of the adaptive immunity is faster and more efficient than the primary response

8) A flu vaccine is needed seasonally to be effective but a polio vaccine is only needed once. The best explanation of this is ________.

D) the flu has several strains that change seasonally

9) All of the following are true of the classical pathway of complement activation except one. Select the one answer that does not describe the classical pathway of complement activation.

D) It activates T-helper cells by presenting antigen to them.

10) Vaccines work by ________.

D) priming the adaptive immunity with a relatively harmless primary exposure

11) Inflammation ________.

B) brings more leukocytes to the sight of infection

12) Membrane attack complex (MAC) kills by ________.

B) disrupting the selectively permeability of a bacteria’s plasma membrane

13) All but one of the following occur during the inflammatory response. Select the example below that does not describe the process of inflammation.

A) Vasoconstriction will prevent excessive blood loss due to injury.

14) During inflammation fluids will passively diffuse out of blood vessels into the nearby, infected tissues. This implies all of the following except ________.

A) B-lymphocytes will differentiate to become plasma cells

15) Choose the best description of an antigen.

B) a particle that triggers the adaptive immunity

16) Which of the following best describes the qualities of most antigens?

C) macromolecules that are foreign to the host

17) Allergens differ from antigens because ________.

D) allergens produce an abnormally large immune response to what is an otherwise harmless particle

18) Without the positive selection process in lymphocyte maturation ________.

C) T-cells would not be able to properly bind to APC’s and therefore not be activated by them

19) Select the best description of the negative selection process of lymphocyte maturation.

C) removal of lymphocytes that react with "self" cells

20) Plasma cells ________.

A) have a great deal of rough endoplasmic reticulum reflecting the fact that they secrete a tremendous amount of protein (antibody)

21) Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

D) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

22) Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

B) antigenic

23) B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

A) bone marrow

24) Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

C) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

25) The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

D) vasodilation

26) In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

A) antigen

27) Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

B) NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

28) Which of the following is not a role of activated complement?

B) prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions

29) Interferons ________.

D) interfere with viral replication within cells

30) Regulatory T cells ________.

B) may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

31) Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

A) Antigens only come from microbes.

32) Activated T cells and macrophages release ________ to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

A) cytokines

33) Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

D) reactivity with an antibody

34) T-cell activation requires ________.

B) antigen binding and co-stimulation

35) Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.

D) natural killer cells

36) Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.

A) opsonization

37) Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.

B) elevated blood glucose

38) Innate immune system defenses include ________.

D) phagocytosis

39) Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?

B) Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.

40) Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.

C) mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

41) Fever ________.

A) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body’s thermostat to a higher setting

42) Immunocompetence ________.

C) is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

43) Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

A) Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.

44) Cytotoxic T cells ________.

D) can directly attack and kill other cells of the body

45) Helper T cells ________.

A) function in the adaptive immune system activation

46) Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.

D) The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.

47) Natural killer (NK) cells ________.

A) can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

48) Select the correct statement about antigens.

C) One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

49) Clonal selection of B cells ________.

C) results in the formation of plasma cells

50) The primary immune response ________.

A) has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

51) Which of the following cells has the largest role and most widespread effect on immunity?

C) helper T cell

52) Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

D) a second exposure to an allergen

53) Which of the following is not a complement activation pathway?

C) lactate pathway

54) Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

B) cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

55) Which statement is true about T cells?

C) Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.

56) What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

A) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

57) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

B) After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.

58) Which immunoglobulin class is attached to the external surface of B cells and acts as an antigen receptor of the B cell?

B) IgD

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