A&P Physio Ex

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The driving force for diffusion is

the kinetic energy of the molecules in motion.

In diffusion, molecules move

from high concentration to low concentration.

Which of the following dialysis membranes has the largest pore size?

200 MWCO

Avogadro’s number is a constant for the number of


The reason sodium chloride didn’t diffuse left to right is that

the membrane pore size was too small.

Glucose is a six-carbon sugar. Albumin is a protein with 607 amino acids. The average molecular weight of a single amino acid is 135 g/mole. There is no reason to run these solutes at the 20 MWCO because

glucose and albumin are both too large to pass.

The rate of diffusion for urea

is slower than that for sodium because urea is a larger molecule.

The effect of increasing the concentration of sodium chloride from 9 mM to 18 mM in the left beaker was to

increase the rate of diffusion.

Describe the difference between the rate of diffusion seen for sodium and urea.

Urea diffused more slowly because it is larger than sodium.

Which of the following solutes did not pass through any of the membranes?


When diffusion stops, we say the solution has reached


Molecules need a carrier protein to help them move across a membrane because

they are lipid insoluble or they are too large.

Which of the following is true of facilitated diffusion?

Movement is passive and down a concentration gradient.

Which of the following would not affect the rate of facilitated diffusion?

the amount of intracellular ATP

What happened to the glucose transport rate when the glucose concentration was increased from 2 mM to 8 mM?

The glucose transport rate increased.

Describe the conditions that resulted in the fastest rate of glucose transport.

700 glucose carrier proteins and 8 mM glucose

Why do you think equilibrium wasn’t reached?

The membrane proteins were saturated.

For facilitated diffusion, increasing the concentration of glucose on one side of the membrane is the same as

making the concentration gradient steeper

When all of the membrane carriers are engaged, or busy, we say they are


Na+ Cl- had no effect on glucose transport because

sodium is not required for glucose transport in the simulation.

Which of the following is true of osmosis?

It is a type of diffusion

Which of the following occurs when a hypertonic solution is added to cells?

The cells shrink.

The variable that affects osmotic pressure is

the concentration of nondiffusing solutes.

The net movement of water would be into the cell in a

hypotonic solution.

Why do you think there is no pressure change?

Sodium is able to diffuse through the pores.

Why do you think there was no pressure change?

There is no net movement of water because the solute concentrations are the same.

If you double the concentration of a nondiffusible solute that is on one side of a membrane, the osmotic pressure will


Which membrane did not allow Na+ Cl- to pass through?


When a solute is able to diffuse through a membrane

equilibrium is reached.

water diffuses

towards solutes

The movement of sodium and potassium maintained by the Na+ -K+ pump

requires energy and is against a concentration gradient

The sodium-potassium pump is classified as a(n)


The sodium-potassium pump moves _____ sodium ions and _____ potassium ions simultaneously.

3, 2

Solutes that require active transport for movement might be too large to pass or might be

lipid insoluble.

Why did the sodium transport stop before the transport was completed?

The ATP was depleted.

Why was the equilibrium for the solutes reached earlier?

There were more pumps for transport.

What happened when you increased the amount of ATP dispensed with the same concentration of sodium and
potassium on either side of the membrane?

More ions were transported.

At what concentration of ATP were the sodium and potassium maximally transported?

3 mM ATP

What was the effect of adding more Na+ -K+ pumps to the simulated cell?

Transport of the ions was faster.

Describe the effect of adding glucose carriers to the sodium and potassium transport

There was no change in the transport rate because glucose is transported independently.

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