A+P II- Exam 1

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A hormone is a ______ and the target cell is __________.
A. protein that stimulates other cells; the source of hormone secretions
B. regulatory molecule that controls secretions of other cells; a cell that synthesizes hormones
C. molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for specific hormones
D. molecule; a cell that does not have receptors.
E. none of the above

C. molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for specific hormones

Secretions that affect only nearby cells are termed
A. endocrine.
B. pericrine.
C. exocrine.
D. autocrine.
E. paracrine.

E. paracrine

Exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands in that exocrine glands
A. secrete only into the bloodstream.
B. secrete only local hormones.
C. secrete through ducts or tubes to the body’s exterior.
D. only secrete salts.
E. secrete only into the urine.

C. secrete through ducts or tubes to the body’s exterior

A sweat gland is an example of a(n) _______ gland.
A. exocrine
B. paracrine
C. endocrine
D. autocrine
E. anal

A. exocrine

"Endocrine" means
A. hormone synthesis.
B. internal secretion.
C. acts upon target cells.
D. fast-acting compound.
E. in the blood.

B. internal secretion

The specificity of hormone action derives from
A. target cell receptors that are unique for the hormone type.
B. target cell receptors that are unique for all steroid hormones.
C. target cell receptors that are unique for all nonsteroid hormones.
D. target cell receptors that bind only certain neurotransmitters.
E. the pattern of target cell receptors.

A. target cell receptors that are unique for the hormone type

Hormones
A. regulate metabolism.
B. aid membrane transport.
C. help regulate water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure.
D. have functions in growth, reproduction, and development.
E. do all of the above.

E. do all of the above

Compared to the nervous system, the endocrine system
A. does not use receptors.
B. may have a longer lasting effect.
C. takes only seconds.
D. is not essential to life.
E. none of the above.

B. may have a longer lasting effect

All hormones are
A. steroids.
B. proteins.
C. inorganic compounds.
D. organic compounds.
E. very large molecules.

D. organic compounds

Steroid hormones
A. are soluble in lipids.
B. combine with protein receptor molecules.
C. cause messenger RNA synthesis.
D. consist of complex organic rings.
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Nonsteroid hormones cause _________________ in their target cells.
A. cyclic AMP to become ATP
B. cyclic AMP to be decomposed
C. activation of adenylate cyclase
D. inactivation of adenylate cyclase
E. breakdown of ADP

C. activation of adenylate cyclase

A nonsteroid hormone acts on a target cell by
A. causing synthesis of a second messenger.
B. stimulating cell division.
C. promoting phagocytosis.
D. directly causing protein synthesis.
E. promoting DNA replication.

A. causing synthesis of a second messenger

A steroid hormone acts on a target cell by
A. causing a second messenger to be formed.
B. causing the cell to divide.
C. promoting phagocytosis.
D. directly causing protein synthesis.
E. directly causing lipid synthesis.

D. directly causing protein synthesis

Hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes are synthesized in the
A. posterior pituitary.
B. hypothalamus.
C. thalamus.
D. anterior pituitary.
E. cerebrum.

B. hypothalamus

An up-regulated cell has an increase in
A. the amount of DNA in the nucleus.
B. the number of molecules the cell secretes.
C. the concentration of ligands that bind to the receptors.
D. the number of receptors available for binding.
E. the number of nuclei.

D. the number of receptors available for binding

Up-regulation of a target cell can occur in response to
A. prolonged decrease in the level of a hormone.
B. prolonged increase in the level of a hormone.
C. signals from antagonistic hormone products.
D. signals from the posterior pituitary.
E. none of the above.

A. prolonged decrease in the level of a hormone

Down-regulation of a target cell can occur in response to
A. prolonged decrease in the level of a hormone.
B. prolonged increase in the level of a hormone.
C. signals from antagonistic hormone products.
D. signals from the posterior pituitary.
E. none of the above.

B. prolonged increase in the level of a hormone

__________ controls hormone concentrations.
A. Positive feedback
B. Negative feedback
C. A thermostat
D. DNA
E. Neutral feedback.

B. negative feedback

A hormone with an effect that lasts for days would have a
A. short half-life.
B. no half-life.
C. long half-life.
D. whole life.
E. none of the above.

C. long half-life

A hormone has a half-life of 20 minutes. After an hour, ___ percent of the original number of molecules remains.
A. 0
B. 12.5
C. 25
D. 50
E. nearly 100

B. 12.5

Tropic hormones
A. only function in the tropics.
B. function in only one sex.
C. stimulate certain endocrine glands to secrete hormones.
D. block the actions of hormones that endocrine glands secrete.
E. function only under certain environmental conditions.

C. stimulate certain endocrine glands to secrete hormones

Nerve fibers in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete
A. thyroid-stimulating hormone.
B. adrenocorticotropic hormone.
C. growth hormone.
D. antidiuretic hormone.
E. acetylcholine.

D. antidiuretic hormone

Growth hormone
A. enhances the movement of amino acids into cells.
B. increases the rate of protein synthesis.
C. increases the rate of fat metabolism.
D. enlarges cells.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

Which of the following hormones primarily affects the reproductive organs?
A. Follicle-stimulating hormone
B. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
C. Prolactin-releasing factor
D. Thyrotropin
E. Growth hormone

A. follicle-stimulating hormone

Target cells for releasing hormones are in the
A. hypothalamus.
B. anterior pituitary gland.
C. posterior pituitary gland.
D. thyroid gland.
E. testes.

B. anterior pituitary gland

Which of the following hormones requires a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus for its secretion?
A. Oxytocin
B. Prolactin
C. Antidiuretic hormone
D. Calcitonin
E. Melatonin.

B. prolactin

Another name for antidiuretic hormone is
A. intermedin.
B. oxytocin.
C. vasopressin.
D. aldosterone.
E. viagra

C. vasopressin

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which regulates the formation of melanin, is produced by the
A. intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland.
B. anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
C. pineal gland.
D. adrenal gland.
E. the hypothalamus.

A. intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland

The blood concentration of growth hormone
A. rises in females after menopause.
B. varies greatly in males during adulthood.
C. drops at puberty and rises after adolescence.
D. rises at puberty and levels off after adolescence.
E. remains uniform throughout life.

D. rises a puberty and levels off after adolescence

Jerry drinks a few beers and soon has to urinate. The alcohol has
A. inhibited secretion of ADH.
B. stimulated secretion of ADH.
C. inhibited secretion of ICSH.
D. stimulated secretion of ICSH.
E. created extra kidney tubules.

A. inhibited secretion of ADH

Diabetes insipidus is caused by
A. insulin deficiency.
B. excess insulin.
C. ADH deficiency.
D. excess ADH.
E. an infection.

C. ADH deficiency

Oxytocin is administered to women following childbirth to stimulate
A. less milk production.
B. uterine contractions.
C. uterine relaxation.
D. ACTH production.
E. the resumption of the menstrual cycle.

B. uterine contractions

ADH and oxytocin are secreted by
A. neuromuscular cells.
B. neurons.
C. neuroendocrine cells.
D. neurosecretory cells.
E. neuroglia.

D. neuroendocrine cells

Growth hormone signals the release of IGF-1 from the
A. pancreas.
B. liver
C. spleen.
D. pituitary gland.
E. kidneys.

B. liver

Growth hormone signals the release of
A. TGF.
B. PTH.
C. IGF-1.
D. FSH.
E. DNA.

C. IGF-1

_________ inhibits secretion of prolactin.
A. Serotonin
B. Insulin
C. Norepinephrine
D. Growth hormone
E. Dopamine from the hypothalamus

E. dopamine from the hypothalamus

What percentage of T4 is converted to T3 in peripheral tissues?
A. 25%
B. 33%
C. 50%
D. 67%
E. 75%

B. 33%

One of the hallmarks of Graves disease is
A. weight gain.
B. increased thirst.
C. decreased appetite.
D. goiter.
E. increased sweating.

D. goiter

The _______ secretes triiodothyronine.
A. adrenal gland
B. pancreas
C. parathyroid gland
D. thyroid gland
E. pineal gland

D. thyroid gland

Cretinism is caused by
A. hypothyroidism.
B. hyperthyroidism.
C. hypoparathyroidism.
D. hyperparathyroidism.
E. a vitamin deficiency.

A. hypothyroidism

Maxwell has a very high metabolic rate, is skinny, and has protruding eyes. These are symptoms of
A. hypothyroidism.
B. hyperthyroidism.
C. hypoparathyroidism.
D. hyperparathyroidism
E. heterothyroidism.

B. hyperthyroidism

Graves disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism, is caused by
A. a lack of iodine.
B. an excess of iodine.
C. an improper diet.
D. an autoimmune disorder.
E. an infection.

D. an autoimmune disorder

Thyroxine
A. reduces the rate at which carbohydrates are utilized.
B. enhances the rate at which proteins are synthesized.
C. inhibits responses of the nervous system.
D. inhibits the rate at which calcium enters body fluids.
E. inhibits protein synthesis.

B. enhances the rate at which proteins are synthesized

Simple goiter is most prevalent where the soil lacks
A. organic matter.
B. vitamins.
C. iodine.
D. potassium.
E. excrement.

C. iodine

Cretinism results from
A. a deficiency of thyroid hormones at birth.
B. hyperthyroidism in an adult.
C. hypothyroidism in an adult.
D. lack of prolactin.
E. none of the above.

A. a deficiency of thyroid hormones at birth

Hyperparathyroidism
A. stimulates excessive osteoclast activity.
B. softenes bones
C. increases risk of spontaneous fractures.
D. is most often caused by a tumor.
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

In addition to a drop in blood calcium concentration, a symptom of hypoparathyroidism is
A. a rise in vitamin D concentration.
B. increased PTH secretion.
C. muscle cramps.
D. kidney stones.
E. a fibrous liver.

C. muscle cramps

The secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled primarily by the
A. hypothalamus.
B. concentration of blood calcium.
C. thyroid gland.
D. pituitary gland.
E. adrenal glands.

B. concentration of blood calcium

The hormone that stimulates calcium deposition into bone is
A. calcitonin.
B. parathyroid hormone.
C. thyroxine.
D. insulin.
E. FSH.

A. calcitonin

A type of hormone that the adrenal medulla secretes is a
A. mineralocorticoid.
B. glucocorticoid.
C. aldosterone.
D. melatonin.
E. none of the above.

E. none of the above

Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions by causing the kidneys to
A. conserve sodium and excrete potassium.
B. excrete sodium and conserve potassium.
C. excrete sodium and potassium.
D. conserve sodium and potassium.
E. develop greater filtering ability.

A. conserve sodium and excrete potassium

Cortisol
A. increases the permeability of capillary walls.
B. increases the permeability of lysosomal membranes.
C. stimulates the production of glucose from noncarbohydrates
D. promotes the storage of amino acids in the form of proteins.
E. stimulates storage of glucose as glycogen.

C. stimulates the production of glucose from noncarbonhydrates

Hormones from the adrenal medulla increase
A. blood pressure.
B. heart rate.
C. breathing rate.
D. force of cardiac muscle contraction.
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Cortisol is useful in controlling inflammation reactions because it
A. decreases the permeability of capillaries.
B. increases synthesis of prostaglandins.
C. destabilizes lysosomal membranes.
D. decreases blood flow.
E. does all of the above.

A. decreases the permeability of capillaries

Hyposecretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex leads to
A. Cushing syndrome.
B. Addison disease.
C. buffalo hump.
D. moon face.
E. Kennedy disease.

B. Addison disease

Addison disease
A. is caused by hyposecretion of cortical hormones.
B. decreases blood sodium levels.
C. increases blood potassium levels.
D. lowers blood pressure.
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Cushing syndrome
A. is caused by hypersecretion of cortical hormones.
B. elevates blood glucose
C. elevates sodium concentrations.
D. decreases tissue protein.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

Secretion of insulin causes
A. a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose.
B. a decrease in the permeability of cell membranes to glucose.
C. an increase in the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose.
D. an increase in the concentration of blood glucose.
E. none of the above.

A. a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose

Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
A. Pancreas
B. Anterior pituitary
C. Liver
D. Thyroid gland
E. Pineal gland

A. pancreas

The pineal gland is located
A. in the thyroid gland.
B. attached to an adrenal gland.
C. attached to the thalamus.
D. along with digestive tissue in the pancreas.
E. in the spinal cord.

C. attached to the thalamus

The hormone that the pineal gland secretes is
A. melanoma.
B. melatonin.
C. myostatin.
D. pinealin.
E. beta endorphin.

B. melatonin

The thymus gland secretes hormones called _____ that _______.
A. thyroxines; control metabolism.
B. melatonins; control circadian rhythms.
C. prostaglandins; control strength.
D. thymosins; control production and differentiation of white blood cells
E. endocannabinoids; create a euphoric state.

D. thymosins; control production and differentiation of white blood cells

David Vedder was known as the "bubble boy." He was born without a thymus gland. After he had a bone marrow transplant, he left his protective bubble – a set-up that kept him free of infection – but soon died of infection. He died because
A. the thymus produces hormones that control metabolism.
B. the thymus produces white blood cells, which protect against infection.
C. his body could not produce insulin.
D. his body could not manufacture norepinephrine.
E. his body could not produce cortisol.

B. the thymus produces white blood cells, which protect against infection

As a result of the general stress response, blood concentrations of epinephrine
A. rise and cortisol fall.
B. fall and cortisol rise.
C. and cortisol rise.
D. and cortisol fall.
E. none of the above.

C. and cortisol rise

A person who is stressed usually has increased
A. activity of the spleen and other lymphatic organs.
B. number of lymphocytes in the blood.
C. resistance to infections.
D. blood pressure.
E. parasympathetic impulses.

D. blood pressure

With age,
A. levels of GH increase but of ADH decrease.
B. levels of GH decrease but of ADH increase.
C. levels of GH and ADH both decrease.
D. levels of GH and ADH both increase.
E. levels of GH and ADH do not change.

B. levels of GH decrease but ADH increase

Pheromones differ from hormones in that
A. they are only found in plants and fungi.
B. they act only within an individual.
C. they are transmitted between members of the same species.
D. they are transmitted between members of different species.
E. none of the above.

C. they are transmitted between members of the same species

Athletes abuse erythropoietin (EPO) because this hormone
A. decreases the number of red blood cells.
B. increases the number of white blood cells.
C. increases the number of red blood cells.
D. adds protein to plasma
E. increases the amount of iron in red blood cells.

C. increases the number of red blood cells

Irving, who is 78 years old, takes human growth hormone supplements to regain the strength of his youth. He may be disappointed, because the hormone has been shown only to
A. increase the red blood cell supply.
B. decrease fat and increase muscle mass, but not improve strength.
C. make him urinate more often.
D. increase his risk of cancer.
E. work in women.

B. decrease fat and increase muscle mass, but not improve strength

President John F. Kennedy had
A. Cushing syndrome.
B. diabetes mellitus.
C. diabetes insipidus.
D. Addison disease.
E. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

D. Addison disease

In diabetes mellitus,
A. fatty acids and ketone bodies accumulate in the blood.
B. weight is lost.
C. the pancreas cannot produce insulin or the body cannot respond to it.
D. insulin must be taken or drugs given that help the body to utilize insulin.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by
A. excess sugar in the diet.
B. obesity.
C. a disorder of the immune system.
D. an effect of aging.
E. an infection.

C. a disorder of the immune system

Diabetes mellitus results in
A. protein in the urine.
B. urine with high osmotic pressure.
C. reduced urinary output.
D. low blood sugar.
E. all of the above.

B. urine with high osmotic pressure

Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from
A. a deficiency of insulin.
B. insensitivity of cells to insulin.
C. a deficiency of insulin and insensitivity of cells to insulin.
D. an infection.
E. insufficient exercise.

B. insensitivity of cells to insulin

The Edmonton protocol is
A. a way to replace the thyroid gland.
B. an infusion of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
C. a pancreatic islet transplant.
D. a type of insulin.
E. none of the above.

C. a pancreatic islet transplant

Treatment of type 2 diabetes usually includes
A. restricting dietary carbohydrates to those high in fiber.
B. exercising regularly.
C. maintaining desirable body weight.
D. drugs.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

A hormone is a secreted molecule that is carried in the bloodstream to where it acts on target cells that bear specific receptors for that hormone.

True

An autocrine secretion affects cells far away.

False

The nervous system releases hormones at synapses and the endocrine system releases neurotransmitters into the bloodstream.

False

Nonsteroid hormones include peptides, proteins, glycoproteins, and amines.

True

Steroid hormones diffuse through cell membranes, then bind with receptors, whereas nonsteroid hormones bind receptors on the target cell membrane.

True

A tropic hormone prevents endocrine glands from releasing their hormones, thereby maintaining homeostasis.

False

The target cells of releasing hormones are in the anterior pituitary gland.

True

The thalamus controls secretion of pituitary hormones.

False

Oxytocin stimulates the kidneys to conserve water.

False

The extrafollicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete calcitonin.

True

Parathyroid hormone stimulates the activity of bone-resorbing osteoblasts.

False

Cells of the adrenal medulla are closely associated with preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

False

The hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla are amines.

True

The sex hormones from the adrenal cortex are primarily androgens.

True

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are amines.

True

Glucagon is also called hypoglycemic factor.

False

A person under stress may have a lowered resistance to infection.

True

_______ secretions affect the cell that secretes them.

Autocrine

The nervous system releases neurotransmitters into synapses. In contrast, the endocrine system releases _______ into the bloodstream.

Hormones

Adenylate cyclase causes ATP molecules to become ______ _______ molecules.

Cyclic AMP

A group of lipids called ______ have powerful, regulating effects on a variety of cells.

Prostaglandins

A hormone whose effects last a long time has a ____ half-life.

Long

The hormone that stimulates the release of growth hormone is called ______ ______-______ ______.

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

The thyroid gland has a special ability to remove the element ______ from the blood.

Iodine

Calcitonin is produced in the ______ gland

Thyroid

The central region of the adrenal gland is the adrenal ______.

Medulla

The pancreas functions as part of the endocrine system and as a part of the ______ system.

Digestive

The ______ gland is located deep between the cerebral hemispheres attached to the roof of the third ventricle.

Pineal

The condition produced by factors that tend to cause changes in the body’s internal environment and threaten its survival is called ______.

Stress

The percentage of red blood cells in a sample of human blood is normally about
A. 15%.
B. 30%.
C. 45%.
D. 60%.
E. 80%

C. 45%

Hematocrit is
A. the percent of red blood cells in a blood sample.
B. a disease.
C. a clotting factor.
D. the color of plasma.
E. none of the above.

A. the percent of red blood cells in a blood sample

"Formed elements" are
A. sodium and potassium.
B. blood cells and platelets.
C. serum and plasma.
D. blood and lymph.
E. tiny clots.

B. blood cells and platelets

Blood volume varies with
A. amount of adipose tissue.
B. changes in electrolyte concentration.
C. changes in fluid concentrations.
D. body size.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

The formed elements in the blood are
A. mostly red blood cells.
B. mostly white blood cells.
C. mostly platelets.
D. about equal numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
E. only in the buffy coat.

A. mostly red blood cells

The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature are the
A. white blood cells.
B. red blood cells.
C. platelets.
D. macrophages.
E. plasma cells.

B. red blood cells

Which of the following is an agranulocyte?
A. A basophil
B. An eosinophil
C. A neutrophil
D. A polymorphonuclear leukocyte
E. A monocyte

E. a monocyte

The normal white blood cell count is
A. 500-1,000 cells per microliter of blood.
B. 4,500-10,000 cells per microliter of blood.
C. 45,000-100,000 cells per microliter of blood.
D. 5,000,000-10,000,000 cells per microliter of blood.
E. none of the above.

B. 4,500-10,000 cells per microliter of blood.

Platelets are best described as
A. giant, multinucleated cells.
B. immature leukocytes.
C. cytoplasmic fragments of cells.
D. lymphoid cells.
E. immature red blood cells.

C. cytoplasmic fragments of cells

Which is the correct sequence for differentiation of a red blood cell?
A. Hematopoietic stem cell, erythrocyte, hematoblast, erythroblast
B. Hematopoietic stem cell, erythroblast, erythrocyte, reticulocyte
C. Hematopoietic stem cell, hemocytoblast, erythrocyte, erythroblast
D. Hematopoietic stem cell, erythroblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte
E. Reticulocyte, erythroblast, hematopoietic stem cell

D. hematopoietic stem cell, erythroblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte

A primary function of lymphocytes is to
A. phagocytize damaged cells.
B. produce enzymes that dissolve blood clots.
C. release substances that initiate blood clots.
D. stimulate formation of red blood cells.
E. act against foreign substances.

E. act against foreign substances

Vitamin B12 is poorly absorbed in the absence of
A. folic acid
B. erythropoietin.
C. intrinsic factor.
D. erythroblasts.
E. extrinsic factor.

C. intrinsic factor

Biliverdin and bilirubin are pigments that result from the breakdown of red blood cells. Biliverdin is ______ in color and bilirubin is ______ in color.
A. greenish; purple
B. greenish; orange
C. black; red
D. brownish; orange
E. black; orange

B. greenish; orange

Which two mature blood cell types descend from myeloblasts?
A. T cells and B cells
B. Erythrocytes and platelets.
C. Neutrophils and basophils.
D. Monocytes and lymphocytes.
E. Erythrocytes and plasma cells.

C. neutrophils and basophils

Heme released from hemoglobin in aged red blood cells is decomposed in the liver into
A. iron and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is eventually converted to bilirubin.
B. iron and the bile pigment bilirubin, which is eventually converted to biliverdin.
C. iron and interleukins.
D. serum and plasma proteins.
E. magnesium and chlorophyll.

A. iron and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is eventually converted to bilirubin

Which of the following formed elements releases serotonin?
A. Erythrocytes
B. Platelets
C. Neutrophils
D. Basophils
E. Plasma cells

B. platelets

Which of the following are most active as phagocytes?
A. Erythrocytes
B. Neutrophils
C. Platelets
D. Eosinophils
E. Basophils

B. neutrophils

Heparin prevents blood clotting by
A. binding to calcium ions.
B. interfering with the formation of thrombin and fibrinogen.
C. inhibiting the formation of prothrombin activator and the action of thrombin on fibrinogen.
D. depleting the blood of platelets.
E. none of the above

C. inhibiting the formation of prothrombin activator and the action of thrombin on fibrinogen

Cyanosis is caused by an increased blood concentration of
A. deoxyhemoglobin.
B. oxyhemoglobin.
C. carbon dioxide.
D. carbon monoxide.
E. oxygen

A. deoxyhemoglobin

Sickle cell disease is caused by
A. a lack of dietary iron.
B. a lack of intrinsic factor.
C. an excess of hemoglobin.
D. a mutation.
E. a virus.

D. a mutation

Hydroxyurea treats sickle cell disease by
A. activating a gene that normally functions only in a fetus.
B. removing sickled cells.
C. stimulating hematopoietic stem cells.
D. transfusing new blood.
E. none of the above.

A. activating a gene that normally functions only in a fetus

The form of anemia caused by lack of dietary iron is
A. pernicious anemia.
B. aplastic anemia.
C. hemolytic anemia.
D. iron deficiency anemia.
E. sickle cell anemia.

D. iron deficiency anemia

The proteins that B cells produce that attack foreign cells are
A. MHC complexes.
B. interleukins.
C. lymphocytes.
D. antibodies.
E. antigens.

D. antibodies

Pus is composed of
A. neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
B. bacteria, white blood cells, and damaged cells.
C. mucus, sputum, and platelets.
D. water, serum, and fibers.
E. none of the above.

B. bacteria, white blood cells, and damaged cells

Diapedesis is
A. the formation of platelets from megakaryocytes.
B. a brand of adult diaper.
C. movements of white blood cells out of the circulation.
D. squeezing of red blood cells through narrow capillaries.
E. filling of red blood cells with hemoglobin.

C. movements of white blood cells out of the circulation

Oxyhemoglobin is ______ in color, whereas deoxyhemoglobin is ______ in color.
A. bright red; bluish
B. bright orange; bright red
C. purple; bluish
D. brownish; bluish
E. dull red; bright red

A. bright red; bluish

Blood vessel spasms following an injury are stimulated by
A. parasympathetic impulses.
B. the formation of a fibrin clot.
C. serotonin released from platelets.
D. the release of heparin from eosinophils.
E. norepinephrine released from leukocytes.

C. serotonin released from platelets

Athletes abuse erythropoeitin (EPO) because it
A. increases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells.
B. decreases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells.
C. increases the red blood cell supply, which depletes oxygen from muscle cells.
D. increases the white blood cell supply, which prevents infection.
E. increases the platelet supply, which prevents bleeding.

A. increases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells

Which of the following drinks reduces the amount of iron absorbed from food?
A. Milk
B. Tea
C. Coffee
D. Wine
E. Diet Dr. Pepper

B. tea

What is the substance in tea that binds iron, reducing the amount absorbed?
A. Ascorbic acid
B. Caffeine
C. Folic acid
D. Tannic acid
E. Glucosamine

D. tannic acid

Blood platelets
A. lack nuclei.
B. release serotonin.
C. number from 130,000 – 360,000 per microliter blood.
D. form from megakaryocytes.
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Nonprotein nitrogenous substances include
A. amino acids.
B. urea.
C. uric acid
D. creatinine.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

As a result of starvation or a protein-deficient diet, blood protein concentration
A. increases and water accumulates in tissue spaces.
B. decreases and water accumulates in tissue spaces.
C. increases and water accumulates in cells.
D. decreases and water accumulates in cells.
E. increases and the person urinates uncontrollably.

B. decreases and water accumulates in tissue spaces

Which plasma protein is accurately described?
A. albumin-blood clot formation
B. gamma globulin-maintaining blood osmotic pressure
C. fibrinogen-transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
D. beta globulins-transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
E. alpha globulin-determination of blood type

D. beta globulins-transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins

In edema
A. the body withers from dehydration.
B. tissues swell with fluid.
C. blood clots inappropriately.
D. monocytes dominate the blood.
E. a clot forms in the pulmonary artery.

B. tissues swell with fluid

Plasma electrolytes include
A. bicarbonate, magnesium, chloride, and potassium ions.
B. monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils.
C. T cells and B cells.
D. urea and uric acid.
E. fibrinogen, globulins, and albumin.

A. bicarbonate, magnesium, chloride, and potassium ions

Which of the following is not required for the formation of a blood clot?
A. Calcium
B. Fibrinogen
C. Prothrombin
D. Albumin
E. Vitamin K

D. albumin

What is the difference between serum and plasma?
A. Plasma contains calcium; serum does not.
B. Plasma does not have blood cells; serum does.
C. Plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not.
D. Plasma contains albumin; serum does not.
E. Plasma is a solid; serum is a liquid.

C. plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not

A blood clot that forms abnormally in a blood vessel is a(n)
A. aneurysm.
B. embolus.
C. thrombus.
D. stroke.
E. myocardial infarction.

C. thrombus

Prothrombin time is a blood test used to evaluate
A. intravascular clotting.
B. the Hageman factor.
C. extrinsic clotting mechanism.
D. intrinsic clotting mechanism.
E. mismatched blood types.

C. extrinsic clotting mechanism

A pulmonary embolism is most likely caused by a clot reaching
A. a lung through a pulmonary artery.
B. a lung through a pulmonary vein.
C. the heart through a pulmonary artery.
D. the heart through a pulmonary vein.
E. the liver through a pulmonary artery.

A. a lung through a pulmonary artery

Thrombocytopenia is due to a deficiency of
A. vitamin K.
B. platelets.
C. von Willebrand factor.
D. factor VII.
E. leukocytes.

B. platelets

As a platelet plug forms, platelets release
A. collagen.
B. creatine.
C. serotonin.
D. fibrin.
E. acetylcholine.

C. serotonin

The release of tissue thromboplastin initiates
A. the intrinsic clotting mechanism.
B. the extrinsic clotting mechanism.
C. platelet plug formation.
D. hemolysis.
E. none of the above.

B. the extrinsic clotting mechanism

The basic event in the formation of a blood clot is the change of
A. fibrinogen to fibrin.
B. fibrin to fibrinogen.
C. thrombin to prothrombin.
D. vitamin K to prothrombin.
E. red blood cells to platelets.

A. fibrinogen to fibrin

The final step in the formation of a blood clot is
A. the formation of prothrombin activator.
B. that thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
C. that prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin.
D. tissue damage.
E. activation of factor XI.

B. that thrombin converts to fibrinogen to fibrin

Vitamin K
A. is essential for the synthesis of prothrombin.
B. is used to make hemoglobin.
C. requires intrinsic factor to be absorbed.
D. is a clotting factor.
E. is all of the above.

A. is essential for the synthesis of prothrombin

Petechiae are a symptom of
A. anemia.
B. thrombocytopenia.
C. ischemia.
D. hemophilia.
E. leukemia.

B. thrombocytopenia

Marianne has small, bruise-like spots on her skin and a low platelet count. These blemishes are most likely
A. pinpricks.
B. blood blisters.
C. petechiae.
D. hematomas.
E. anal fissures.

C. petechiae

The red blood cells of type AB blood have on their surfaces
A. antigens A and B.
B. antigen A only.
C. antigen B only.
D. neither antigens A nor B.
E. different A and B antigens depending upon circumstances.

A. antigens A and B

Which is the most rare ABO blood type in the US?
A. A
B. B
C. AB
D. O
E. Rh

C. AB

The distribution of ABO blood types among Korean Americans differs markedly from that of Native Americans in that
A. Native Americans have about equal frequency of types O, A, and B, with 10% AB, whereas Korean Americans have mostly type O, with type AB very rare.
B. nearly all Korean Americans are blood types A or B.
C. nearly all Native Americans are type AB, with very few type O.
D. Korean Americans have about equal frequency of types O, A, and B, with 10% AB, whereas Native Americans have mostly type O, with type AB very rare.
E. Korean Americans have equal numbers of all four ABO blood types, whereas Native Americans have high frequencies of type O and type B.

D. Korean Americans have about equal frequency of types O, A, and B, with 10% AB, whereas Native Americans have mostly type O, with type AB very rare.

Erythroblastosis fetalis may occur in
A. a second Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
B. a first Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
C. a second Rh-negative fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
D. a first Rh-negative fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
E. any fetus in an Rh-negative woman.

A. a second Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.

What percentage of the US population is Rh negative?
A. 1.5% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans
B. 5% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans
C. 15% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans
D. 25% of the total population
E. 33% of the total population.

C. 15% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans

Transfusions to the fetus and neonate with Rh-negative blood are to
A. avoid a systemic clotting response.
B. alleviate antigenic responses.
C. provide a new blood type.
D. prevent brain damage.
E. prevent leukemia.

D. prevent brain damage

Universal precautions are
A. specific measures that astronauts take in space to avoid leaving microorganisms beyond the Earth.
B. specific measures that health-care workers should take to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens in the workplace.
C. rules used to avoid mismatched blood types in transfusions.
D. the careful administration of clotting factors to stop bleeding during surgery.
E. devising a synthetic blood that anyone can use.

B. specific measures that health-care workers should take to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens in the workplace.

The symptoms of porphyria variegata result from a defect in
A. recycling of the prophyrin ring of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
B. synthesis of clotting factors.
C. recycling of bilirubin.
D. lymphocyte production.
E. platelet formation from megakaryocytes.

A. recycling of the prophyrin ring of hemoglobin in red blood cells

Stacy has been tired and bruising easily, and she’s had three respiratory infections in the past few months. She has also had headaches and a few nosebleeds. A physician should check her for
A. erythroblastosis fetalis.
B. leukemia.
C. sickle cell disease.
D. edema.
E. none of the above.

B. leukemia

In leukemia
A. the blood has too many immature leukocytes.
B. the person has lowered resistance to infection.
C. the blood has too few platelets
D. the person has a tendency to bleed and bruise.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

On a long transcontinental flight, a middle-aged man gets up and exercises in the aisle, moving his hands, feet, arms, and legs as much as he can. He does this every two hours. The flight attendant asks him to sit down, but he explains that he is trying to prevent a very dangerous medical condition. He is talking about
A. leukemia.
B. deep vein thrombosis.
C. aplastic anemia.
D. thrombocytopenia.
E. guinea worm infection.

B. deep vein thrombosis

Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis are
A. prolonged periods of staying still in one position.
B. use of oral contraceptives or estrogen.
C. recent abdominal surgery.
D. dehydration.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above

Genotyping differs from serology in that
A. genotyping detects diverse antigens, whereas serology detects the underlying genetic instructions for those antigens.
B. serology detects diverse antigens, whereas genotyping detects the underlying genetic instructions for those antigens.
C. genotyping requires a fresh blood sample whereas serology can be done on a dried sample.
D. serology is faster.
E. none of the above are true.

B. serology detects diverse antigens, whereas genotyping detects the underlying genetic instructions for those antigens.

Plasma comprises about 55% of the blood.

True

Blood is a type of epithelial tissue.

False

An erythrocyte is about one-third hemoglobin by volume.

True

Macrophages destroy damaged red blood cells and their contents in the liver and spleen.

True

In an adult, red blood cells are produced primarily in the liver.

False

Vitamin B12 is important for the production of red blood cells because it is utilized in the synthesis of intrinsic factor.

False

An abnormally low white blood cell count is called leukocytosis.

False

Basophils release histamine and heparin.

True

A red blood cell contains a large nucleus; it is thicker near the center and thin around the rim of the cell.

False

Alpha globulin is the fraction of plasma proteins that contains antibodies.

False

Nonprotein nitrogenous substances include amino acids, urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine.

True

Plasma is about 70% water.

False

Gamma globulins are antibodies.

True

A platelet plug is formed when fibrinogen is converted to fibrin.

False

Fibrinogen is a soluble plasma protein, whereas fibrin is an insoluble protein in thread form.

True

Heparin functions as an anticoagulant by interfering with the formation of prothrombin activator.

True

People with type AB blood are sometimes called universal donors.

False

The first blood transfusions were done in the 1900s.

False

The percentage of red blood cells in a blood sample is called the ______.

hematocrit

When hemoglobin molecules are decomposed, a greenish pigment called ______ is formed.

biliverdin

The hormone released from the kidneys that promotes the production of red blood cells is ______.

erythropoietin

Normally, the most common type of leukocyte in a blood sample is the ______.

neutrophil

The test that determines the percentage of leukocyte types in a blood sample is the ______ white blood cell count.

differential

______ is a powerful anticoagulant that basophils and mast cells release.

heparin

The most abundant type of plasma protein is ______.

albumin

Plasma is the color of _____.

straw

The process that stops bleeding is __________.

hemostasis

A blood clot that breaks loose and travels in the blood flow is called a(n) ______.

embolus

The clumping of red blood cells that occurs when transfused blood is of an incompatible type is called ____________.

agglutination

A universal donor has blood type ____________.

O

A universal recipient has blood type ____________.

AB

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