A& P II Chapter 18&19 Reading

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A patent ductus arteriosus permits ______.

blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary trunk

Cardiac tamponade results in ineffective pumping of blood by the heart because the excessive amount of fluid in the pericardial cavity will______.

prevent the heart from filling properly with blood

What separates the parietal and visceral pericardium?

pericardial cavity

Which of the following is the innermost layer of the heart?


Which layer of the heart wall contracts and is composed primarily of cardiac muscle tissue?


Which of these vessels returns blood to the left atrium of the heart?

pulmonary veins

Which of these muscles is particularly associated with anchoring the right and left atrioventricular valves?

papillary muscles

The right atrioventricular valve prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the __________.

right atrium

Which description is INCORRECT for the layers of the heart and its serous membranes?

The epicardium is also considered the parietal pericardium.

Which statement is correct regarding the ventricles?

The right ventricle empties into the pulmonary trunk.

Which heart chamber receives oxygenated blood from the lungs?

left atrium

Which chamber of the heart has the highest probability of being the site of a myocardial infarction?

left ventricle

The __________ valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.


The role of the chordae tendineae is to open the AV valves at the appropriate time.


Which valve is located between the right atrium and ventricle?

tricuspid valve

Which of the following descriptions does NOT describe atrioventricular (AV) valves?


The presence of an incompetent tricuspid valve would have the direct effect of causing ______.

reduced efficiency in the delivery of blood to the lungs

In an ischemic heart, the affected cardiac muscle cells are likely to have an altered ______.

resting membrane potential

Into which chamber of the heart do the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus return deoxygenated blood?

right atrium

Which chamber of the heart sends oxygenated blood to the systemic circuit via the aorta?

left ventricle

Failure in a particular chamber of the heart tends to cause a backup of blood in the lungs, known as pulmonary congestive heart failure. Failure of which chamber of the heart would lead to such a backup?

left ventricle

Which of the following is a branch of the right coronary artery?

posterior interventricular artery

A blockage in which of these vessels could cause a myocardial infarction in the lateral right side of the heart?

right marginal artery

Blood enters the left and right coronary arteries directly from which vessel or chamber?


Which blood vessel carries blood from the anterior to the posterior of the heart?

circumflex artery

Which of the following does NOT deliver deoxygenated blood to the heart?

pulmonary veins

The right side of the heart is considered the systemic circuit pump.


Which statement regarding cardiac muscle structure is accurate?

Myofibrils of cardiac muscle tissue vary in diameter and branch extensively.

Consider the following characteristics of the cells found in muscle tissue. Which feature is shared by both cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?


Why are gap junctions a vital part of the intercellular connection of cardiac muscles?

Gap junctions allow action potentials to spread to connected cells.

Which of the following is NOT a difference between cardiac and skeletal muscle?

Cardiac muscle does not use the sliding filament mechanism for contraction; skeletal muscle does.

What structures connect the individual heart muscle cells?

intercalated discs

When an ectopic pacemaker leads to an extrasystole, the ______.

ventricles contract before the atria contract

Heart murmurs caused by a stenotic mitral valve ______.

are detected while blood flow into the left ventricle is reduced

Besides cardiac muscle, what other tissue type possesses pacemaker cells?

smooth muscle

At what rate does the sinoatrial (SA) node depolarize?

75 times per minute

Specifically, what part of the intrinsic conduction system stimulates the atrioventricular (AV) node to conduct impulses to the atrioventricular bundle?

sinoatrial (SA) node

Suppose a patient develops a myocardial infarction that disables the sinoatrial node. Would the heart still pump blood to the aorta and the pulmonary trunk?

Yes, because the atrioventricular node will still stimulate ventricular systole.

Which portion of the electrocardiogram represents the depolarization wave received by the atria from the sinoatrial (SA) node?

P wave

Which portion of the electrocardiogram represents the time during which the ventricles are in systole?

Q-T interval

During which portion of the electrocardiogram do the atrioventricular valves close, correlating with the first heart sound ("lub")?

R-S waves

Determine which of the following electrocardiogram (ECG) tracings is missing P waves but is otherwise regular.


Determine which ECG shows a normal sinus rhythm.


What heart problem would be experienced by an individual whose ECG is seen at C?

The ventricles are not reaching systole in every cardiac cycle.

The order of impulse conduction in the heart, from beginning to end, is __________.

SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers

Adding a chemical that reduces Na+ transport near the sinoatrial (SA) node would have what effect on the heart’s intrinsic conducting system?

The SA node would depolarize less quickly, reducing the heart rate.

Which of these is a condition marked by premature ventricular contraction?


The P wave on an electrocardiogram represents __________.

atrial depolarization

Which of the following structures collects the depolarization wave from the atria to pass it onto the ventricles?

AV node

What does the QRS wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) represent?

ventricular depolarization

What best describes afterload?

back pressure exerted by arterial blood

Which of the following is NOT a factor that increases stroke volume?

increasing afterload

Increasing end-diastolic and end-systolic volume will increase stroke volume.


Which of the following would increase cardiac output?


Which of the following increases stroke volume?


Calculate the stroke volume if the end diastolic volume (EDV) is 135 mL and the end systolic volume (ESV) is 60 mL.

75 mL

Which of the following would cause a DECREASE in cardiac output (CO)?

decreasing thyroid function (thyroxine)

Which of the following cannot trigger tachycardia?

increased vagal tone

Which best describe the isovolumetric contraction phase of the cardiac cycle?

As ventricular systole start, the AV valves are closed and the semilunar valves are closed. Because the ventricles are contracting and both valves are closed, pressure increases rapidly leading to ejection.

What causes heart sounds?

heart valve closure

The first heart sound (the "lub" of the "lub-dup") is caused by __________.

closure of the atrioventricular valves

As your muscles contract during activity, more blood is returned to the heart. Which variable would be affected and what would be the outcome of this action?

Preload would be increased, which would increase cardiac output.

Which of the following terms is correctly matched to its description?

quiescent period: total heart relaxation between heartbeats

During which of these stages are the pulmonary and aortic valves open?

phase 2b

At what point in the cardiac cycle is pressure in the ventricles the highest (around 120 mm Hg in the left ventricle)?

ventricular systole

What is the period during the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are completely closed and blood volume in them remains constant as the ventricles contract?

isovolumetric contraction phase

Hypercalcemia could cause ______.

prolonged T wave

An abnormal P wave could be indicative of ______.

enlarged atria

Which layer of the typical blood vessel is constructed from simple squamous epithelium?

tunica intima

Which layer of the typical vessel can be regulated to constrict or dilate the lumen?

tunica media

Which of these features is found only in arteries?

elastic membranes

Which type of vessel is most suited to expanding and recoiling in response to the ejection of blood from the heart?

elastic artery

What type of vessel has a relatively large amount of smooth muscle compared to its elastic tissue?

muscular artery

What type of vessel is capable of allowing the passage of gases and nutrients though its walls to nourish surrounding tissue?


Arteries always carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.


Which vessels carry blood toward the heart?


Which of the following is characteristic of veins but not arteries?

larger internal diameter

Large diameter, thick-walled arteries that are close to the heart and act as pressure reservoirs would be __________.

elastic arteries

Continuous capillaries are the most common capillaries in the body.


The most permeable capillaries, which contain fenestrations and large intercellular clefts, are __________.

sinusoid capillaries

The kidneys filter the blood; it is necessary for plasma, both fluid and dissolved chemicals, to be rapidly removed from the blood without the removal of larger proteins or cells. Which capillary would be best suited for this filtration?

fenestrated capillaries

Varicose veins seen in the superficial veins of the legs are unsightly and often treated by surgically removing them. However, even without these veins being present, the return of all blood toward the heart from the legs is not diminished primarily because ______.

blood can still return via the deep veins

Which of the following is true about veins?

Veins have valves; arteries do not.

Which of the following is mismatched?

veins: resistance vessels

Which of the following would decrease peripheral resistance to blood flow?


Which of the following is NOT correct regarding the relationship between pressure, flow, and resistance in the cardiovascular system?

Blood flow is inversely proportional to the change in pressure in the blood vessels.

Which of the following is NOT an important source of resistance to blood flow?

total blood volume

Calculate the mean arterial pressure (MAP) for a patient whose systolic blood pressure is 120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure is 70 mm Hg.

87 mm Hg

What blood vessel experiences the steepest drop in blood pressure?


What vessels sustain a drop in pressure from approximately 35 mm Hg to around 17 mm Hg?


At what point would we definitely NOT be able to measure the difference between systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure?


Which of the following would be an effective mechanism to reduce primary hypertension due to an overactive sympathetic vasomotor response?

stress reduction

Which of these responses is NOT a response consistent with a drop in mean arterial pressure?

increased filtration by the kidneys

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that angiotensin II increases arterial blood pressure?

Angiotensin II promotes vasodilation that decreases peripheral resistance.

Which of the following would be interrupted in the indirect renal mechanism if angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is blocked from performing its job?

conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II

Which of the following will lower blood pressure?

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

Decreased output from the vasomotor center allows arterioles and veins to constrict.


Which of the following hormonal effects is mismatched?

Epinephrine decreases peripheral resistance by affecting blood vessel diameter.

Which of the following is involved in long-term regulation of blood pressure?

renal mechanisms

Which of the following would take the longest time to regulate blood pressure?

renal regulation

Vasomotion because of changes in pH or CO2 levels would be a result of __________?

chemoreceptor reflexes

Which of the following is a myogenic factor that influences blood flow?

stretch of vascular smooth muscle

A muscle that is being regularly contracted during exercise will attract blood flow by dilating arterioles. Which of these factors would contribute to the effect?

increased levels of carbon dioxide

Which of the following intrinsic mechanisms (autoregulation) for controlling arteriolar smooth muscle diameter promotes vasoconstriction?


Which of the following would experience a decreased blood flow during exercise?


Which of the following statements does NOT correctly describe tissue perfusion in the cardiovascular system?

Myogenic control is an example of extrinsic regulation.

In local autoregulation of blood flow, usually low oxygen levels cause vasodilation. Which tissue shows the opposite pattern?


What pressure is responsible for reabsorption and for pulling fluids into the venous end of capillaries?

osmotic pressure in capillary (OPc)

What is the value for the net filtration pressure (NFP) at the arteriolar end of the capillary?

10 mm Hg

Assume a person is experiencing a hemorrhage and the HPc has dropped to 23 mm Hg at the arteriole end of the capillary. Calculate net filtration pressure (NFP) at the arteriole end of the capillary.

-2 mm Hg

Which of the following would NOT move by diffusion across a capillary endothelium to or from the surrounding interstitial fluid and tissues?


Bulk flow at capillaries is driven by osmotic pressure gradients.


Why is it important that blood pressure drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?

because capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable

Which of the following is NOT a capillary transport mechanism?

bulk flow

Which vessel leaves the right ventricle of the heart to take oxygen-poor, dark red blood into pulmonary circulation?

pulmonary trunk

Which vessel(s) return(s) oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart to complete the pulmonary circuit?

pulmonary vein

Which of the following vessels would have the lowest blood hydrostatic pressure?

pulmonary veins

From what artery does the right common carotid artery arise?

brachiocephalic trunk

Which artery branches off the subclavian arteries?


Which vessel sends branches to the thyroid, larynx, tongue, skin, and muscles of the anterior face and posterior scalp?


Which artery branches into the common hepatic artery, splenic artery, and left gastric artery?


Which artery serves the distal part of the large intestine via its left colic, sigmoidal, and superior rectal branches?


Name the artery at C.

superior mesenteric artery

Which vein originates on the medial foot and empties into the femoral vein?


What vein is formed from the union of the anterior tibial vein and posterior tibial vein?


Name the vein at A.

femoral vein

The aorta carries blood __________ the __________ of the heart.

away from; left ventricle

Blood from the lower limbs drains into the __________ before returning to the heart.

inferior vena cava

Toxic substances absorbed by the digestive system put stress on the liver because all of the blood from the digestive organs is drained by the __________.

hepatic portal vein

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