A&P II – Chapter 17 – Heart – Mastering 1

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Which of these represents the majority of whole blood by volume?

_ typically constitutes 55% of _, although this value can vary somewhat.

Plasma typically constitutes _% of whole blood, although this value can _.

They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.

Which of these is true of the materials making up the buffy coat in centrifuged blood?

_ separates materials by density. Materials in the _ are intermediate in density between _ and _.

Centrifugation _ materials by _. Materials in the buffy coat are _ in _ between erythrocytes and plasma.


How many oxygen molecules can be transported by one hemoglobin molecule?

Each _ can bind to _ oxygen molecule.

Each Fe2+ ion can _ to a single _.


Which of the following is the innermost layer of the heart?

The _ lines the inside of the heart. Its _ is _ of simple squamous epithelium.

The endocardium _ the _ of the _. Its surface is composed of _.

right atrium

The right atrioventricular valve prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the __________.

Flow from the _ to the _ is prevented by the _.

_ from the right ventricle to the right atrium is _ by the right atrioventricular valve.

papillary muscles

Which of these muscles is particularly associated with anchoring the right and left atrioventricular valves?

_ contract to tense the right and left _ via the chordae tendineae just before _.

Papillary muscles _ to _ the _ and _ atrioventricular valves via the _ just before ventricular systole.

left ventricle

Failure in a particular chamber of the heart tends to cause a backup of blood in the lungs, known as pulmonary congestive heart failure. Failure of which chamber of the heart would lead to such a backup?

Failure in the _ can cause increased blood hydrostatic pressure in the _, causing fluid buildup in the _.

_ in the left ventricle can cause _ in the lungs, causing _ in the alveoli.

Myofibrils of cardiac muscle tissue vary in diameter and branch extensively.

Which statement regarding cardiac muscle structure is accurate?

The myofibrils of _ have various diameters; they also branch in order to maintain connections, via _, with other _.

The _ of cardiac muscle have various _; they also _ in order to maintain _, via intercalated discs, with other muscle cells.

sinoatrial (SA) node

Specifically, what part of the intrinsic conduction system stimulates the atrioventricular (AV) node to conduct impulses to the atrioventricular bundle?

The _, by spontaneously depolarizing faster than the _, initiates heart contraction.

The sinoatrial node, by _ than the atrioventricular node, initiates _.

Yes, because the atrioventricular node will still stimulate ventricular systole.

Suppose a patient develops a myocardial infarction that disables the sinoatrial node. Would the heart still pump blood to the aorta and the pulmonary trunk?

The _ spontaneously depolarizes similarly to the _, but more slowly. It can lead to the ventricles pumping blood to the _ and _ around 50 times per minute.

The atrioventricular node _ similarly to the sinoatrial node, but more _. It can lead to the _ to the aorta and pulmonary trunk around _ times per minute.

phase 2b

During which of these stages are the pulmonary and aortic valves open?

During _ the pressure in the ventricles exceeds that of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, so their valves open and allow blood to be _.

During phase 2b the pressure in the _ exceeds that of the _ and _, so their valves open and allow blood to be ejected.

Fibrous pericardium

Parietal layer of serous pericardium

Pericardial cavity




Sinoatrial node

Atrioventricular node

Atrial depolarization

P wave

Ventricular depolarization

Ventricular repolarization

T wave

Inferior vena

Superior vena cava

Pulmonary trunk


a. pulmonary veins

Which of the following does NOT deliver deoxygenated blood to the heart? a. pulmonary veins b. inferior vena cava c. coronary sinus d. superior vena cava

The _ deliver oxygenated blood to the left atrium.

The pulmonary veins deliver _ to the _.

b. The right ventricle empties into the pulmonary trunk.

Which statement is correct regarding the ventricles? a. The left ventricle empties into the pulmonary circuit. b. The right ventricle empties into the pulmonary trunk. c. The left ventricle has a thinner wall than the right ventricle. d. The right ventricle forms a complete circle in cross section.

The _ empties into the pulmonary trunk and the pulmonary circuit.

The right ventricle empties into the _ and the _.

c. Cardiac muscle does not use the sliding filament mechanism for contraction; skeletal muscle does.

Which of the following is NOT a difference between cardiac and skeletal muscle? a. Cardiac muscle cells contain more mitochondria than do skeletal muscle cells. b. The plasma membranes of cardiac muscle cells interlock, but skeletal muscle fibers are independent. c. Cardiac muscle does not use the sliding filament mechanism for contraction; skeletal muscle does. d. Cardiac muscle cells quickly die in the absence of oxygen; skeletal muscle cells are better able to adapt to oxygen deficiency.

Both _ and _ are striated, and both utilize the sliding filament mechanism for contraction.

Both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are _, and both utilize the _ for _.


Which of these is a condition marked by premature ventricular contraction?

_ is a type of extrasystole.

Premature ventricular contraction is a type of _.

Extrasystole, or _, can be caused by ectopic pacemakers (also called _).

_, or premature contraction, can be caused by _ (also called ectopic foci).

An _ can result when the SA node is defective. Alternatively, some drugs (such as caffeine and nicotine) can generate an _.

An ectopic focus can result when the _ is _. Alternatively, some _ (such as _ and _) can generate an ectopic focus.

atrial depolarization

The P wave on an electrocardiogram represents __________.

The _ reflects the depolarization of the atria.

The P wave reflects the _ of the _.

_ will increase stroke volume. However, _ will decrease stroke volume.

Increasing end-diastolic volume will _. However, increasing end-systolic volume will _.


Increasing end-diastolic and end-systolic volume will increase stroke volume, T/F.

The heart murmur is due to incomplete closing of the pulmonary valve.

A 14-year-old girl undergoing a physical examination prior to being admitted to summer camp was found to have a loud diastolic murmur at the second intercostal space to the left side of the sternum. Explain the reason for the loud heart murmur associated with this girl’s condition.

Angina pectoris. If the coronary arteries are occluded (atherosclerosis), the heart muscle could be deprived of oxygen, resulting in a heart attack.

A man enters the hospital complaining of chest pain. His history includes smoking, a stressful job, a diet heavy in saturated fats, lack of exercise, and high blood pressure. Although he is not suffering from a heart attack, his doctor explains to him that a heart attack is quite possible. What did the chest pain indicate? Why is this man a prime candidate for further complications?

Left side failure results in shortness of breath. Right side failure results in edema in the extremities.

A 55-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with heart failure. He complains of increasing shortness of breath on exertion, and of needing to sleep on three pillows at night. On physical assessment, the nurse determines that his ankles and feet are very swollen. Which of these symptoms either reflect left-sided and/or right-sided heart failure?

reduced efficiency in the delivery of blood to the lungs

The presence of an incompetent tricuspid valve would have the direct effect of causing ______.

The _ separates the right atrium and the right ventricle. It must remain tightly closed during _ so blood can be pumped out of the ventricle and into the pulmonary arteries.

The tricuspid valve separates the _ and the _. It must remain tightly closed during ventricular contraction so blood can be pumped out of the _ and into the _.

prolonged T wave

Hypercalcemia could cause ______.

The _ on an _ represents ventricular repolarization. Repolarization requires the net efflux of K+ ions. Recall that changes in normal ion concentrations, like Ca2+, in the plasma can affect the ability of other ions to move in and out of the cell.

The T wave on an ECG tracing represents _. _ requires the net efflux of K+ ions. Recall that changes in normal ion concentrations, like Ca2+, in the plasma can affect the ability of other ions to move in and out of the cell.

enlarged atria

An abnormal P wave could be indicative of ______.

The _ on an _ represents SA node firing and subsequent atrial depolarization.

The P wave on an ECG tracing represents _ and _.

Right atrium

Tricuspid valve

Pulmonary veins

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

Left ventricle

cardiac tamponade

The condition where fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity compresses the heart and limits its ability to pump blood is called ________.

decreased delivery of oxygen

If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.

isovolumetric relaxation

The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?

pulmonary vein

Which of the following transports oxygen-rich blood?


When released in large quantities, thyroxine, a thyroid gland hormone, causes a sustained increase in heart rate, T/F.


If the aorta and pulmonary trunk were switched, oxygen rich blood would be pumped from the left ventricle to the lungs, T/F.

superior vena cava

The _ carries oxygen-poor venous blood from above the diaphragm from areas of the upper body and extremities into the right atrium.

coronary sinus

The _ carries oxygen-poor venous blood of the coronary circulation into the right atrium.

inferior vena cava

The _ carries oxygen-poor venous blood from below the diaphragm from the areas of the lower body and extremities into the right atrium.

Tricuspid valve

Inferior vena cava

Right ventricle

Pulmonary valve

Pulmonary artery

_ > Right atrium > Tricuspid valve > Right ventricle > Pulmonary semilunar valve > Pulmonary trunk > Pulmonary arteries > _

Coronary Sinus > _ > _ > _ > _ > _ > _ > Capillaries of Lungs

_ > Lung capillaries > Pulmonary veins > Left atrium > Mitral/bicuspid valve > Left ventricle > Aortic/semilunar valve > _

Lungs > _ > _ > _ > _ > _ > _ > Aorta

mitral (bicuspid) valve

The structure that prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium is the _.


The vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood to tissues is the _.

systemic capillaries

The capillaries receiving blood flow from the left side of the heart are the _.

aortic semilunar valve

The structure that is located anatomically between the aorta and the left ventricle is the _.

Tricuspid valve

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