A&P II – Chapter 17 – Blood – Mastering

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Albumin is

produced by liver and exerts osmotic pressure to maintain water balance between blood and tissues.

Albumin (al-bu′min) accounts for

some 60% of plasma protein. It acts as a carrier to shuttle certain molecules through the circulation, is an important blood buffer, and is the major blood protein contributing to the plasma osmotic pressure (the pressure that helps to keep water in the bloodstream).

Regulation means to

maintain appropriate body temperature.

Regulatory functions of blood include:

– Maintaining appropriate body temperature. – Maintaining normal pH in body tissues. – Maintaining adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system.

Maintaining appropriate _ by absorbing and distributing heat throughout the body and to the _ to encourage heat loss.

Maintaining appropriate body temperature by _ heat throughout the _ and to the skin surface to encourage heat loss.

Maintaining _. Many blood proteins and other bloodborne solutes act as buffers to prevent excessive or abrupt changes in _ that could jeopardize normal cell activities. Blood also acts as the reservoir for the body’s "alkaline reserve" of bicarbonate ions.

Maintaining normal pH in body tissues. Many blood proteins and other bloodborne solutes act as buffers to prevent excessive or abrupt changes in blood pH that could jeopardize _. Blood also acts as the reservoir for the body’s _ of _.

Maintaining adequate _ in the circulatory system. Blood proteins prevent excessive _ from the bloodstream into the tissue spaces. As a result, the _ in the blood vessels remains ample to support efficient blood circulation to all parts of the body.

Maintaining adequate fluid volume in the _. Blood proteins prevent excessive fluid loss from the bloodstream into the tissue spaces. As a result, the fluid volume in the blood vessels remains ample to support efficient _ to all parts of the body.

WBCs.

The buffy coat that appears after a sample of blood has been centrifuged contains

Globulins are

involved in transport of lipids and in immune responses.

kidneys.

Erythropoietin is made primarily by the

Erythropoietin

EPO

oxygen deficient

hypoxic

bleeding

hemorrhage

Iron-deficiency anemia

can be a secondary result of hemorrhagic anemia, but it also results from inadequate diet or impaired absorption.

Aplastic anemia

results from destruction or inhibition of the red marrow by certain bacterial toxins, drugs, and ionizing radiation.

_ does not serve an immune system function.

Albumin does not serve an _.

Eosinophils have a

deep red nucleus with two lobes connected by a broad band of nuclear material; their large, coarse granules stain red with acid dyes.

_ account for 2-4% of all leukocytes and are approximately the size of _. Their nucleus usually has two lobes connected by a broad band of nuclear material (Table 17.2 and Figure 17.10b) and so resembles ear muffs.

Eosinophils (e"o-sin’o-filz) account for _% of all leukocytes and are approximately the size of neutrophils. Their nucleus usually has _ by a _ nuclear material (Table 17.2 and Figure 17.10b) and so resembles _.

Platelet-derived growth factor

stimulates blood vessel healing.

_ released by platelets stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to divide and rebuild the vessel wall. As fibroblasts form a connective tissue patch in the injured area, endothelial cells, stimulated by _, multiply and restore the endothelial lining.

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) released by platelets stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to _. As fibroblasts form a connective tissue patch in the injured area, endothelial cells, stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), _.

When _ leave the _ and enter the _, they differentiate into highly mobile macrophages with prodigious appetites. Macrophages are actively phagocytic, and they are crucial in the body’s defense against viruses, certain intracellular bacterial parasites, and chronic infections such as tuberculosis. As we explain in Chapter 21, macrophages are also important in activating lymphocytes to mount the immune response.

When circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and enter the tissues, they differentiate into _ with prodigious appetites. _ are actively _, and they are crucial in the body’s _, certain intracellular bacterial parasites, and chronic infections such as tuberculosis. As we explain in Chapter 21, _ are also important in activating lymphocytes to mount the immune response.

Neutrophils

phagocytize bacteria.

_, the most numerous white blood cells, account for 50-70% of the WBC population. _ are about twice as large as erythrocytes. The _ cytoplasm contains very fine granules (of two varieties) that are difficult to see (Figure 17.10a).

Neutrophils (nu’tro-filz), the _ white blood cells, account for _% of the WBC population. Neutrophils are about _. The neutrophil _ contains _ (of two varieties) that are difficult to see (Figure 17.10a).

leukocytosis.

Overproduction of white blood cells is called

Eosinophils do not

repeatedly increase immune function

_ do not repeatedly increase immune function, rather they are recognized as important modulators of the immune response. _ account for 2-4% of all leukocytes and are approximately the size of neutrophils. Their nucleus usually has two lobes connected by a broad band of nuclear material (Table 17.2 and Figure 17.10b) and so resembles ear muffs.

Eosinophils do not repeatedly increase immune function, rather they are recognized as important modulators of the _. Eosinophils (e"o-sin’o-filz) account for _% of all leukocytes and are approximately the size of _. Their nucleus usually has _ of _ (Table 17.2 and Figure 17.10b) and so resembles _.

Thrombin

converts fibronogen to fibrin.

A person with type O

blood would make antibodies to the A and B agglutinogens.

Blood group O

has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.

Von Willebrand factor (VWF)

assist platelets to adhere to the collagen fibers.

Tissue factor (TFIII), or tissue thromboplastin

triggers the "shortcut" extrinsic mechanism that bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway.

T

The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor, T/F.

F

The extrinsic pathway is independent of procoagulants, T/F.

F

The extrinsic pathway is slower than the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting, T/F.

F

The extrinsic pathway does not involve calcium ions, T/F.

fibrinogen → fibrin.

The final step in clot formation is

Plasmin is a

fibrin-digesting enzyme.

Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

would be found in the serum of a person with AB blood.

the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

What is a hematocrit?

Although the percent sign is usually omitted, the _, which in this figure is 45, is the percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood. The height of the erythrocyte layer is divided by the total height of the material.

Although the percent sign is usually omitted, the hematocrit, which in this figure is 45, is the _. The height of the erythrocyte layer is divided by the total height of the material.

reduced availability of oxygen

What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?

Reduced _ will result in the release of erythropoietin (EPO), which in turn promotes the release of more erythrocytes from the _.

Reduced oxygen delivery to the _ will result in the release of _, which in turn promotes the release of more _ from the bone marrow.

During _ the ribosome color has already been completely overwhelmed by _.

During phase 3 the _ has already been completely _ by hemoglobin.

During _ the cell’s buildup of reddish hemoglobin overwhelms the blue color of the _.

During phase 2 the cell’s buildup of _ overwhelms the _ color of the ribosomes.

phase 2

During which phase in erythrocyte development does the color of hemoglobin overcome the color of the stained ribosomes?

neutrophils

When a person has an acute bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis or appendicitis, which type of leukocyte increases in number?

_ tend to increase in number in _.

Neutrophils tend to _ in bacterial infections.

myeloblast

From which cell do the granulocytes descend?

All three types of _ descend from _.

_ of granular leukocytes _ myelocytes.

D

During which event of hemostasis do clotting factors (procoagulants) assist with the transformation of blood from a liquid to a gel?

The gelling of blood due to formation of insoluble fibrin occurs during the _.

The _ due to formation of _ occurs during the coagulation stage.

a. less viscous than water

Which of the following would NOT be a characteristic of normal blood? a. less viscous than water b. pH of 7.4 c. sticky texture d. 5 million RBC per microliter

Because of the amount of _, blood is more viscous than water.

Because of the amount of red blood cells, _ is _ than _.

hemorrhagic anemia

Abnormally low levels of erythrocytes caused by excessive bleeding is called______.

Hemorrhage leads to _ because of a _ of red bloods cells.

_ leads to anemia because of a reduction of _.

plasminogen

Digesting a clot after it is formed requires activation of what plasma protein by tPA?

_ is the precursor to _. It is activated by tPA, _.

Plasminogen is the _ to plasmin. It is activated by _, tissue plasminogen activator.

F

AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type’s lack of agglutinogens, T/F.

T

AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type’s lack of antibodies, T/F.

Neutrophil

A granulocyte, phagocyte and the most common WBC found in whole blood.

Lymphocyte

Mounts a humoral immune response by producing antibodies.

Neutrophil

Lymphocyte

2 Albumin facts

Makes up most of plasma protein. The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.

2 Fibrinogen facts

Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma. Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.

loss of blood clotting

Loss of fibrinogen within the plasma would most likely cause what?

a. supplemental bilirubin injection

Which of the following would provide no benefit to a person suffering any one of the various types of anemia? a. supplemental bilirubin injection b. supplemental oxygen delivered by mask c. blood transfusion d. treatment with synthetic erythropoietin

Lipids are carried in plasma bound to soluble plasma transport proteins

Lipids (either nutrients or hormones) are insoluble in water but are found traveling in the plasma of the blood. What is the most likely explanation for this?

white blood cells are fewer in number than red blood cells

If you centrifuge (spin) whole blood you will find the band of white blood cells and platelets (the Buffy coat) is much thinner than the packed red blood cells below it. This difference reflects the fact that ________.

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

What might trigger erythropoiesis?

pernicious anemia

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and causing an appearance of large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.

a. platelets

In a centrifuged sample of blood, what should NOT be in the plasma portion of the sample? a. platelets b. fibrinogen c. albumin d. electrolytes

_ are dense enough that they should be in the buffy coat layer.

Platelets are _ enough that they should be in the _.

F

The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones, T/F.

T

Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss, T/F.

coagulation
factor Xa

_ begin(s) with a cascade of intrinsic or extrinsic reactions that activates _

hemostasis
platelet plug formation

_ begin(s) with a first major step called a vascular spasm, quickly followed by a second step called _

prothrombin activator
thrombin (IIa)

_ directly activate(s) prothrombin (II) as _

hemostasis
coagulation

_ include(s) a third major step that converts blood into a gel, called _

platelet plug formation
a fibrin mesh (clot)

_ is/are further enhanced by binding to _

platelet plug formation
ADP, serotonin, and thromboxane A2

_ occur(s) as a positive feedback loop driven by _

thrombin (IIa)
a fibrin mesh (clot)

_ with Ca++ and factor XIIIa, directly convert(s) fibrinogen (I) into _

factor Xa
prothrombin activator

_ with Ca++, platelet factor 3, and factor Va, form(s) _

enzymes

The process of clot formation requires the activation of most clotting factors into __________.

_ are _ that, upon changing shape at activation, become _ that can further activate another _ in the reaction cascade.

Clotting factors are proteins that, upon _, become enzymes that can further activate another clotting factor in the _.

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