A&P I practice test 1

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Histology could be defined as a study of:
a. cells
b. cell chemistry
c. tissues
d. the gross structures of the body

c. tissues

Normal body temperature is _______ degrees centigrade.
a. 98
b. 68
c. 37
d. 47

c. 37

The purpose of negative feedback is:
a. to control all levels of the body’s systems
b. to regulate
c. to keep the body’s sugar "normal"
d. to prevent sudden and severe changes within the body

b. to regulate To maintain homeostatsis

The heart lies in the _________ cavity.
a. ventral pleural
b. dorsal mediastium
c. ventral pericardial
d. dorsal pericardial

c. ventral pericardial

A structure that is composed of two or more tissues would be:
a. an organ system
b. a complex tissue
c. an organ
d. a complex cell

c. an organ

Which statement is not true concerning characteristics of life?
a. all body cells exhibit irritability to some extent
b. growth can be an increase in size due to an increase in the number of cells
c. Each organ system is isolated from all other body systems
d. Reproduction occurs on both the cellular level and the oganismal level

c. each organ system is isolated from all other body systems

The single most abundant chemical substances of the body, accounting for 60-80% of body weight is:
a. hydrogen
b. oxygen
c. protein
d. water

d. water

Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms?
a. negative feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus
b. negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body
c. blood glucose levels are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms
d. positive feedback mechanisms always result in excessive damage to the host.

b. negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body

A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be:
a. body temperature regulation
b. blood calcium level regulation
c. regulating glucose levels in the blood
d. enhancement of labor contracting by oxytocin

d. enhancement of labor contracting by oxytocin

The parietal pleural would be represent a serous membrane:
a. covering individual lungs
b. covering the heart
c. lining the thoracic cavity
d. lining the abdominal cavity

c. lining the thoracic cavity

Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched.
a. gross anatomy: study of structures visible to the eye
b. microscopic anatomy: study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye
c. embryology: study of the changes in an individual from conception to birth
d. Cytology: study of structures in a particular region

d. Cytology: study of structures in a particular region

Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains:
a. a static state with no deviation from preset points
b. a dynamic state within an unlimited range
c. the lowest possible energy usage
d. a relatively stable internal environment, within limits

d. a relatively stable internal environment, within limits

Choose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes:
a. serous membranes are divided into parietal and visceral membranes with a potential space between the two.
b. serosa are very thin, double-layered structures
c. visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart.
d. serous membranes secrete a watery lubricating fluid

c. visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart.

Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex:
1. molecules
2. atoms
3. tissues
4. cells
5. organ

a. 2-1-3-4-5
b. 2-1-4-3-5
c. 1-2-3-4-5
d. 1-2-4-3-5

b. 2. atoms 1. molecules 4. cells 3. tissues 5. organs

Which of the following are true functional characteristics of human or other complex life forms?
a. the reproductive system works independently of all other systems
b. the digestive system breaks down food to simple molecules for distribution to all body cells
c. distribution of tasks to different organ systems creates true independence of all body cells
d. the external boundary is a limiting membrane that encloses its contents

b. the digestive system breaks down food to simple molecules for distribution to all body cells

Which of the following statements is most correct of homeostatic imbalance?
a. negative feedback mechanisms take over
b. positive feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed
c. the internal environment is becoming more stable
d. it is considered the cause of most diseases

d. it is considered the cause of most diseases

Subdivisions of anatomy include:
a. regional, surface, visual, and microscopic
b. gross, macroscopic, visual, and microscopic
c. gross, regional, dissection, and surface
d. gross, regional, systemic, and surface

d. gross, regional, systemic, and surface

Select the statement that is most correct.
a. the endocrine system is not a true structural organ system.
b. organ systems can be composed of cells or tissues, but not both
c. The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system.
d. organ systems operate independently to maintain life

c. The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system.

One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to:
a. the necessity for all organisms to reproduce
b. sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
c. the nervous system causing all living things to sometimes experience anger
d. indigestible food resides stimulating the excretory system

b. sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them

The pancreas and liver work together to maintain homeostasis through:
a. negative feedback
b. both negative and positive feedback
c. positive feedback
d. neither positive nor negative feedback

a. negative feedback

Which of the following is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses?
a. P
b. Fe
c. Na
d. I

c. Na

In general, the category of lipids that we refer to as oils have:
a. long fatty acid chains
b. a high degree of unsaturated bonds
c. a high degree of saturated bonds
d. a high water content

b. a high degree of unsaturated bonds

The genetic information is coded in DNA by:
a. the sequence of the nucleotides
b. the three dimensional structure of the double helix
c. the regular alteration of sugar and phosphate molecules
d. the structure of the histones

a. the sequence of the nucleotides

Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of:
a. cholesterol
b. glucose
c. triglycerides
d. glycogen

d. glycogen

The speed or rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by all of the following except:
a. the presence of catalysts or enzymes
b. the presence or absence of carbon
c. the temperature
d. the concentration of the reactants

b. the presence or absence of carbon

Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the:
a. removal of a nitrogen atom between each two units
b. addition of a carbon atom between each two units
c. removal of a water molecule between each two units
d. addition of a water molecule between each two units

c. removal of a water molecule between each two units

The differences between mixtures and compounds include:
a. chemical bonding does not occur between the components of a mixture
b. components forming a mixture can be separated by physical means
c. mixtures are homogeneous horizontal samples taken from any part are identical to ones taken from any other area
d. compounds are formed from two atoms, while mixtures are formed from three or more atoms

b. components forming a mixture can be separated by physical means

Which of the following is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses?

A) Fe
B) I
C) P
D) Na

D) Na

A phospholipid is usually ________.

A) partially polar and partially nonpolar
B) completely nonpolar
C) completely polar
D) neither polar nor nonpolar

A) partially polar and partially nonpolar

In general, the category of lipids that we refer to as oils have ________.

A) a high water content
B) long fatty acid chains
C) a high degree of saturated bonds
D) a high degree of unsaturated bonds

D) a high degree of unsaturated bonds

The genetic information is coded in DNA by ________.

A) the regular alteration of sugar and phosphate molecules

B) the sequence of the nucleotides

C) the three-dimensional structure of the double helix

D) the arrangement of the histones

B) the sequence of the nucleotides

Which of the following is not true of proteins?

A) They may be denatured or coagulated by heat or acidity.

B) Some types are called enzymes.

C) They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information.

D) Their function depends on the three-dimensional shape.

C) They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information.

The single most abundant protein in the body is ________.

A) DNA
B) hemoglobin
C) collagen
D) glucose

C) collagen

Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of ________.

A) glucose
B) triglycerides
C) glycogen
D) cholesterol

C) glycogen

Coenzymes are ________.

A) organic molecules derived from vitamins
B) two enzymes that perform the same function
C) metal ions
D) enzymes that work together

A) organic molecules derived from vitamins

The speed or rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by all of the following except ________.

A) the concentration of the reactants
B) the temperature
C) the presence of catalysts or enzymes
D) the presence or absence of carbon

D) the presence or absence of carbon

A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with ________.

A) the release of energy
B) the consumption of energy
C) a synthesis
D) forming a larger molecule

A) the release of energy

Salts are always ________.

A) ionic compounds
B) single covalent compounds
C) double covalent compounds
D) hydrogen bonded

A) ionic compounds

The numbers listed represent the first, second, and third energy levels, respectively. On this basis, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom?

A) 2, 8, 8
B) 2, 8
C) 2
D) 2, 8, 1

D) 2, 8, 1

A solution that has a pH of 2 could best be described as being ________.

A) acidic
B) basic
C) neutral
D) slightly acidic

A) acidic

Which of the following is the major positive ion outside cells?

A) nitrogen
B) hydrogen
C) potassium
D) sodium

D) sodium

Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?

A) H2O
B) NaCl
C) NaOH
D) CH4

D) CH4

A chain of 25 amino acids would be called a ________.

A) polypeptide
B) nucleotide
C) protein
D) starch

A) polypeptide

A long chain of simple sugars would be a ________.

A) monosaccharide
B) polysaccharide
C) protein
D) nucleic acid

B) polysaccharide

The coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix is referred to as the ________.

A) primary structure
B) secondary structure
C) tertiary structure
D) quaternary structure

B) secondary structure

Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the ________.

A) addition of a water molecule between each two units

B) addition of a carbon atom between each two units

C) removal of a water molecule between each two units

D) removal of a nitrogen atom between each two units

C) removal of a water molecule between each two units

Which statement about enzymes is false?

A) Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.

B) Enzymes are composed mostly of protein.

C) Enzymes are organic catalysts.

D) Enzymes may be damaged by high temperature.

A) Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.

Many plasma proteins may function as _________.

A) antibodies
B) structural proteins
C) buffers
D) oxygen transport vesicles

C) buffers

Which of the following is true regarding the concentration of solutions?

A) Percent solutions are parts per 1000 parts.

B) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.

C) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic number of the solute.

D) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic weight of the solvent.

B) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.

Select the statement about mixtures that is correct.

A) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.

B) Solutions contain particles that settle out in time.

C) Suspensions can change reversibly from liquid to solid.

D) Suspensions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more components.

A) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.

HCO3- is _________.

A) a bicarbonate ion
B) common in the liver
C) a weak acid
D) a proton donor

A) a bicarbonate ion

Select which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in living
systems.

A) glucose to CO2 & H2O
B) ADP + Pi to make ATP
C) H2O + CO2 to make H2CO3
D) glucose molecules joined to make glycogen

A) glucose to CO2 & H2O

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