A&P exam 2

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Lymphangitis is caused by ______.

an infection

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

Hypoalbuminemia is a medical condition in which blood plasma levels of albumin are abnormally low. One reason for this disorder is an increased movement of blood plasma albumin into the interstitial space through leaky capillaries. How would this condition affect the volume of lymph that’s produced?

It would increase lymph volume.

Which of the following distinguishes lymphatic vessels from veins?

permeability of the walls

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

Which of the following mechanisms is NOT used to propel lymph through lymphatic vessels?

small heart-like pumps

Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. What is the unique structural modification that increases their permeability?


Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

Which of the following is a characteristic of lymphangitis?

inflamed and painful lymphatic vessels

Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?

thoracic duct

Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?

the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the thorax

What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk return lymph?

cisterna chyli

The thoracic duct runs parallel and close to all of the following EXCEPT the __________.

iliac arteries

Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?

the cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

Which of the following vessels delivers lymph into the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein?

thoracic duct

Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic system?

to participate in gas exchange at capillaries

Which statement describes the origin of lymph fluid?

Lymph is excess fluid formed from plasma that accumulates in the tissues as interstitial fluid

Lymphatic collecting vessels originate in which of the following areas?

capillary beds

Which of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?

Veins have fewer internal valves than lymphatic vessels.

Once collected, lymph ultimately drains into __________.

venous circulation

Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

blood vessels

What is the function of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

increase permeability

Lymph transport involves all of the following EXCEPT ________.

smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?


Lymphatic capillaries are present in ________.

digestive organs

Which of the following is NOT a method that maintains lymph flow?

capillary smooth muscle contraction

Which of the following is NOT a normal component of lymph?

red blood cells

Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic system?

transporting respiratory gases

From the right leg, lymph moves in which order?

right lumbar trunk, thoracic duct, left subclavian vein

Lymphatic ________ are formed from the union of the largest collecting lymphatic vessels.


While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with legs of drastically different sizes. What is the most likely reason for the increased size of the swollen leg?

The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

Why might lymphedema occur as a complication after a radical mastectomy, in which lymph nodes have been removed?

Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

right lymphatic duct

Like blood, lymph flows both to and from the heart.


When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.


The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.


The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.


Lymph capillary permeability is due to minivalves and protein filaments.


Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.


Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.


Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.


About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph.


Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.


Besides lymph nodes, where would you expect to find proliferating (dividing) B cells?

in the spleen

Which lymphoid organ atrophies as we age?


The thymus is most active during ________.


The thymus functions strictly in maturation of B cells.


Peyer’s patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine.


Where are Peyer’s patches located?

distal portion of the small intestine

Which of the following organs or locations do(es) NOT contain MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)?

mesentery of the small intestine

Of the following lymphoid organs, which is/are structurally simplest and lack(s) a complete capsule?


Tonsils have blind-ended structures called ________ that trap bacteria and particulate matter.

tonsillar crypts

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

lingual tonsils

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues include all of the following EXCEPT ________.

islets of Langerhans

Peyer’s patches are found in the distal portion of the ________.

small intestine

Which of the following does NOT contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?


Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.


Peyer’s patches are mucosa-associated lymph tissue located in the __________.

wall of the small intestine

The __________ tonsils are also called the adenoids.


Which of the following lymph organs is NOT matched with its function?

Peyer’s patches: mature B cells

Which tonsil is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and is referred to as the adenoids if it is enlarged?

pharyngeal tonsil

Tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsil. What structure(s), found in most other lymphoid organs, is/are missing from the tonsil that allows for the presence of these crypts?


What anatomical area(s) is/are protected by the tubal tonsils?

the passage from the pharynx to the middle ear

Which lymphoid organ is primarily active during the early years of life?

thymus- b

Which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse?


Which of these lymphoid organs is the thymus?


Which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the intestinal wall and generates "memory" lymphocytes for long-term memory?


Which of these lymphatic organs is organized with trabeculae and compartments containing white pulp and red pulp?


Which lymph cells produce antibodies?

plasma cells

Which of the following lymphoid tissues/organs do(es) NOT contain reticular connective tissue?


Which of the following lymphoid cells trap antigens and transport them to lymph nodes?

dendritic cells

Which of the following is NOT a secondary lymph organ?


Which lymphoid organ(s) serve(s) as the site where B lymphocytes become immunocompetent B cells?

red bone marrow

Which of the following would NOT be classified as a lymphoid organ?


Which cells are the main "warriors" of the immune system?


Which of the following is considered a primary lymphoid organ?


Lymphocytes can develop and mature in the ________.

red bone marrow

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

more permeable than blood capillaries

Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue.


Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.


Within buboes, bacteria are directly attacked by ______.


The filtration of lymph and activation of the immune system are the two basic functions of the __________.

lymph nodes

Which of the following is an INACCURATE statement regarding lymph nodes?

Immune system cells are only located in the cortex.

What region of the lymph node contains follicles filled with dividing B cells?


Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

They filter lymph.

Lymph arrives at the lymph nodes via afferent lymphatic vessels.


Small secondary lymphoid organs, which cluster along lymphatic vessels, are termed ________.

lymph nodes

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations EXCEPT the ________.

lower extremities

Which of the following is NOT a function of lymph nodes?

produce lymph fluid and cerebrospinal fluid

Flow of lymph through a lymph node is slowed due to ________.

fewer efferent vessels draining it compared to many afferent vessels feeding it

The most important of the secondary lymphoid organs in the body are the lymph nodes.


Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

efferent lymphatic vessels

What is a bubo?

an infected lymph node

There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node.


Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

white pulp

What vessel serves as the source of the spleen’s blood supply from the aorta?

celiac trunk

where is the spleen located

in the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

Which lymphoid organ(s) serve(s) in immune surveillance and blood cell recycling?


Functions of the spleen include all of those below EXCEPT ________.

forming crypts that trap bacteria

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the spleen?

Red pulp is where immune functions take place

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

plasma cells

If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself


In the spleen, red pulp is involved in the immune functions and white pulp is involved in disposing of worn-out RBCs.


The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.


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