A&P Chapter 14 & Pathways

The following are all major components of the brainstem except the _________.
a) midbrain
b) pons
c) medulla oblongata
d) cerebellum

cerebellum

The right and left cerebral hemispheres are separated from each other by:
a) many sulci
b) brain stem
c) the longitudinal fissure
d) the corpus callosum
e) many gyri

c) the longitudinal fissure

The cerebellum is ___ to the cerebrum

caudal

The gray matter of the cerebrum forms a surface layer called _______ and deeper masses called ______ surrounded by white matter.

cortex; nuclei

The Pons and cerebellum relate with this secondary embryonic vesicle

metencephalon

From superficial to deep, the meninges occur in the order:

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Cerebrospinal fluid serves all these purposes except:
a) to regulate the chemical environment of the nervous tissue
b) to rinse metabolic wastes
c) to provide most oxygen to the brain
d) protect the brain
e) allow the brain to attain considerable size without being impairied by its own weight

C) to provide most oxygen to the brain

Cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by the choroid plexus in the ________ ventricle
a) lateral
b) A and C
c) third
d) fourth
e) all of the above

d) all of the above

Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed by arachoid vili in the _____.

Superior sagittal sinus

The blood-brain barrier is most permeable to:
a) all blood cells
b) creatine
c) antibiotics
d) sodium and potassium ions
e) glucose and oxygen

e) glucose and oxygen

The blood-brain barrier consists of:
a) gap junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls
b) gap and tight junctions between astorcytes and endothelial cells that form the capillary walls
c) tight junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls
d) desmosomes and tight junctions between astrocytes and ependymal cells that form the capillary walls
e) gap junctions between ependymal cells and endothelial cells that form the capillary walls

c) tight junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls

A patient is experiencing a high fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, and intense headaches. A spinal tap shoed bacteria and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF). This individual most likely has:

Meningitis

The medulla oblongata originates from the __________.

myelencephalon

The cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers are found in the _______.

medulla oblongata

The _______ functions in visual attention, such as to look and follow the flight of a butterfly.

superior colliculi

Degeneration of neurons in this structure, which inhibits unwanted body movements, leads to the muscle tremors of Parkinson disease

substantia nigra

The reticular formation is a web of _________ scattered throughout the ________.

gray matter; brainstem

The ________ is the largest part of the hindbrain

cerebellum

Loss of equilibrium and motor coordination would most likely be related to a lesion in the
a) limbic system
b) medulla oblongata
c) pons
d) cerebellum
e) pituitary gland

d) cerebellum

The arbor vitae is a structure found in

A. both the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
B. the tegmentum in the midbrain.
C. the cerebellum.
D. the reticular formation.
E. the diencephalon.

C. the cerebellum

There are no cranial nerves associated with

A. the thalamus.

B. the medulla oblongata.

C. the midbrain.

D. the cerebellum.

E. the pons.

D. the cerebellum

The pons is not associated with
a) sensory information from the middle region of the face
b) sensory information from the inferior region of the face
c) sensory information from the superior region of the face
d) lateral eye movements
e) neck movements

e) neck movements

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus are derivatives of the embryonic
a) telencephalon
b)metencephalon
c) diencephalon
d) myelencephalon
e) mesencephalon

c) diencephalon

Nearly all the somatosensory input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in which region of the brain?

the thalamus

Sex drive, body temperature, and food and water intake are regulated by which part of the brain?

the hypothalamus

A lesion of the _______ would probably cause a person to sleep for random lengths of time during a 24- hour period
a) satiety center
b) pituitary gland
c) mammillary nuclei
d) medial geniculate nucleus
e) suprachiasmatic nucleus

e) suprachiasmatic nucleus

The pineal gland belongs to
a) thalamus
b) midbrain
c) hypothalamus
d) epithalamus
e) occipital lobe

d) epithalamus

Planning, motivation, and social judgment are functions of the brain associated with which part of the cerebrum?

the rontal lobe

The occipital lobe is:
a) chiefly concerned with mood, memory, and emotions
b) the primary visual center of the brain
c) the primary site for receiving and interpreting signals from the general senses
d) concerned with voluntary motor functions
e) likely to play a role in understanding spoken language

b) the primary visual center of the brain

The great majority of _______ tracts pass through the corpus callosum:
a) ascending
b) commissural
c) descending
d) association
e) projection

b) commissural

The hippocampus and amygdala are structures found in
a) the medulla oblongata
b) the midbrain
c) the basal nuclei
d) the cerebral cortex
e) the limbic system

e) the limbic system

A predominance of _____ brain waves in an EEG might indicate that a person is physically and mentally relaxed.

Alpha

During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

A. the muscles relax, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates fall.
B. the muscles are very relaxed and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates are at their lowest levels.
C. the muscles are paralyzed, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates increase.
D. a person falls into light sleep.
E. a person begins to relax and feels drowsy.

C. the muscles are paralyzed, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates increase

Short-term memory is associated with the ________, whereas long-term memory is associated with the __________.

hippocampus; cerebral cortex

Destruction of the amygdala would mostly affect

expression of emotional feelings

Which body region is controlled by the largest are of the motor cortex? (think homonculus)

the fingers

Nonfluent aphasia, due to a lesion in the __________, results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.
a) primary motor area
b) Wernicke area
c) cerebral lateralization
d) primary auditory area
e) Broca area

Broca area

_______ show more lateralization than _________.
a) adult males; adult females
b) young children; elders
c) young male children; adult males
d) young children; adults
e) adult females; adult males

a) adult males; adult females

Which of the following functions would most likely be controlled by the representational hemisphere of the cerebrum?
a) answering this question
b) balancing your checkbook
c) painting a picture
d) diagnosing a patient's disease
e) giving a speech

c) painting a picture

After a stroke, a patient complains about lack of sensitivity in the right hand. The stroke most likely affected the
a) precentral gyrus in the right frontal lobe
b) postcentral gyrus in the left parietal lobe
c) precentral gyrus in the left frontal lobe
d) postcentral gyrus in the right temporal lobe
e) postcentral gyrus in the left frontal lobe

b) postcentral gyrus in the left parietal lobe (parietal lobe processes sensory information regarding location of body parts. postcentral gyrus is sensory)

The _______ is not a motor cranial nerve
a) trochlear nerve
b) vestibulocochlear nerve
c) abducens nerve
d) accessory nerve (XI)
e) hypoglossal nerve

b) vestibulocochlear nerve

This is the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face

the trigeminal nerve

This nerve innervates most of the viscera in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

the Vagus nerve

During embryonic development, which of the following brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
a) mesencephalon
b) diencephalon
c) metencephalon
d) telencephalon
e) myencephalon

d) telencephalon

Which of the following links the cerebral hemispheres with the brain stem?
a) pons
b) mesencephalon
c) diencephalon
d) medulla oblongata
e) cerebellum

c) diencephalon

The walls of the diencephalon form the
a) brain stem
b) myelencephalon
c) mesencephalon
d) thalamus

d) thalamus

the cerebellum and pons are derived from the
a) telencephalon
b) myelencephalon
c) mesencephalon
d) metencephalon
e) diencephalon

d) metencephalon

visual and auditory reflexes are processed by the
a) medulla oblongata
b) cerebellum
c) pons
d) mesencephalon
e) diencephalon

d) mesencephalon (midbrain)

The middle cerebellar peduncle connects the cerebellum to the

pons

Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestive activities are located in the

medulla oblongata

A neural cortex is found on the surface of the
a) cerebrum
b) pons
c) cerebellum
d) all of the above
e) A and C

e) A and C

Which of the following represents a link between the nervous and endocrine systems?
a) pons
b) cerebrum
c) medulla oblongata
d) cerebellum
e) hypothalamus

e) hypothalamus

The thin partition that separates the lateral ventricles is the ______.
a) septum insula
b) interventricular foramina
c) septum pellucidum
d) cerebral aqueduct
e) falx cerebri

septum pellucidum

the lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle through the _______.
interventricular foramini
aqueduct of sylvius
mesencephalic aqueduct
medulla oblongata
cerebral aqueduct

interventricular foramina

The third and fourth ventricles are linked by the _______.
Interventricular foramina
mesencephalic aqueduct
tentorium cerebelli
central canal
medulla oblongata

mesencephalic aqueduct

The ventricle associated with the pons and upper medulla is the

fourth

The Dural sinuses are located in the

dural folds

What structure is highly vascular and closely adheres to the surface of the brain?

pia mater

The fold of dura mater that projects between the cerebral hemispheres in the midsagittal plane is the ________.

falx cerebri

What contains a delicate network of collagen and elastin fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates?

subarachnoid space

Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
a) provides buoyant support for the brain
b) acts as a transport medium for nutrients
c) provides cushioning for delicate neural tissues
d) acts as a transport medium for chemical messsengers
e) provides a medium for nerve impulse transmission

e) provides a medium for nerve impulse transmission

Cerebrospinal fluid
a) is formed by a passive process
b) is normally produced twice as fast as it is removed
c) is secreted by ependymal cells
d) has exactly the same composition as blood plasma
e) both A and D

C) is secreted by ependymal cells

Excess cerebrospinal fluid is drained into the

superior sagittal sinus

Diffusion across the arachnoid villi returns excess CSF to the

venous circulation (superior sagittal sinus)

Cerebrospinal fluid enters the subarachnoid space by way of the:

lateral and median apertures

Which of the following is not true about the blood-brain barrier?
a) it is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds
b) the capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions
c) astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries
d) it is absent in portions of the hypothalamus
e) it selectively secretes glycine into the interstitial fluid of the brain

e) it selectively secretes gylcine into the interstitial fluid of the brain

The Pons contains
a) tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem
b) sensory and motor nuclei for six cranial nerves
c) nuclei concerned with the control of blood pressure
d) no ascending or descending tracts
e) both A and B

a) tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the

cerebellum

The cerebellar hemispheres are connected to the
a) arbor vitae
b) folia
c) vermis
d) flocculonodular lobe
e) pyramid

vermis

The white matter of the cerebellum forms the

arbor vitae

The fiber tract that links the cerebellum with the pons is the

middle cerebellar peduncle

The area of the mesencephalon that is involved with the maintenance of muscle tone and posture is the

red nuclei

Nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon are the

cerebral peduncles

Motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated with eating are located in the

mamillary bodies

Stimulation of the reticular formation results in

increased consciousness

The _________ acts as a switching and relay center for integration of conscious and unconscious sensory and motor pathways.

diencephalon

The anterior nuclei of the thalamus
a) receive impulses from the optic nerve
b) is part of the limbic system
c) are connected to the pituitary gland
d) produce the hormone melatonin
e) both C and D

b) is part of the limbic system

The ventral nuclei of the thalamus
a) is part of the limbic system
b) project sensory information to the primary sensory cortex
c) connect the emotional centers of the hypothalamus with the frontal lobe of the cerebrum
d) process auditory stimuli
e) process visual stimuli

b) project sensory information to the primary sensory cortex

The posterior nuclei of the thalamus consist of the
a) epithalamus
b) mamillary bodies
c) pulvinar
d) hypothalamus
e) both C and D

c) pulvinar

The _____ receive visual information from the eyes by way of the optic tracts
a) pulvinar
b) lateral geniculates
c) medial geniculates
d) paraventricular nuclei
e) supraoptic nuclei

b) lateral geniculates (body of the thalamus)

The _____ relay auditory information to the auditory cortex
a) lateral geniculates
b) medial geniculates
c) supraoptic nuclei
d) paraventricular nuclei
e) pulvinar

b) medial geniculates

The _______ integrates sensory information for projection to the association areas of the cerebral cortex
a) supraoptic nuclei
b) paraventricular nuclei
c) lateral geniculates
d) medial geniculates
e) pulvinar

e) pulvinar

All of the following are true of the efferent tracts from the hypothalamus, except that they
a) produce motions and behavioral drives
b) control autonomic function
c) are responsible for integrating sensory stimuli
d) coordinate activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
e) control involuntary motor activities

c) are responsible for integrating sensory stimuli

The mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus
a) secrete oxytocin
b) secrete antidiuretic hormone
c) regulate body temperature
d) control heart rate and blood pressure
e) control feeding reflexes

e) control feeding reflexes

The Tectum of the mesencephalon contains the
a) tegmenta nuclei
b) substantia nigra
c) red nuclei
d) corpora quadrigemina
e) cerebral peduncles

d) corpora quadrigemina

Visual input from the lateral geniculates of the thalamus are received by the
a) red nuclei
b) cerebral peduncles
c) substantia nigra
d) inferior colliculi
e) superior colliculi

e) superior culliculi

Each of the following are true of the limbic system except that it
a) functions in maintaining homeostasis during dehydration and hemorrhaging
b)consists of nuclei that lie between the border of the cerebrum and the diencephalon
c) contains both cerebral and diencephalic components
d) provides a link between the conscious, intellectual functions of the cerebral cortex and the unconscious functions of th ebrain stem
e) functions in emotions, learning, and memory

a) functions in maintaining homeostasis during dehydration and hemorrhaging

Each of the following is a component of the limbic system except the
a) hippocampus
b) amygdaloid body
c) fornix
d) cingulate gyrus
e) globus pallidus

e) globus pallidus

The ______ appears to be important in learning and the storage of long-term memories
a) fornix
b) cingulate gyrus
c) amygdaloid body
d) hippocampus
e) mamillary bodies

d) hippocampus

A tract of white matter that connects the hippocampus with the hypothalamus is the ______.

Fornix

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the _________.

Longitudinal fissure

Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are ______.

Lobes

The area anterior to the central sulcus is the ________.

Frontal lobe

The inferiror border of the frontal lobe is marked by the
a) central sulcus
b) parieto-occipital sulcus
c) insula
d) longitudinal fissure
e) lateral sulcus

e) lateral sulcus

The region of the cerebral cortex inferior to the lateral sulcus is the ______.

Temporal lobe

The region of the cerebral cortex that is medial and deep to the temporal lobe is the ______.

insula

The primary motor cortex is located in the region of the _______.

precentral gyrus

The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the ______ cortex.

primary sensory

The visual cortex is located in the _____ lobe.

occipital

The auditory cortex is located in the _______ lobe.

temporal

Regions of the brain that are involved in interpreting data or coordinating motor responses are called _______ areas.
a) commissural
b) somesthetic
c) processing
d) sensory
e) association

e) association

The region of the brain that is involved in conscious thought and intellectual function as well as processing somatic sensory and motor information is the _____.

cerebrum

Abstract intellectual functions such as predicting the consequences of a particular response occur in the ______.

prefrontal cortex

The corpus callosum is composed of _____ fibers.

commissural

The internal capsule of the cerebrum is composed of ______ fibers

projection

Lying within each hemisphere beneath the floor of the lateral ventricle are the

cerebral nuclei

Each of the following are part of the cerebral nuclei, except the
a) caudate nucleus
b) hippocampus
c) putamen
d) globus pallidus
e) lentiform nucleus

b) hippocampus

The ______ is located at the tip of the tail of the caudate nucleus.

Amygdaloid body

The putamen and glubs pallidus are frequently considered to be subdivisions of the

lentiform nucleus

The highest levels of information processing occur in the

cerebrum

Higher-order functions
a) involve complex interactions between areas of the cortex and other areas of the brain
b) involve both conscious and unconscious information processing
c) are subject to adjustments and modification over time
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The cerebral nuclei ______.
a) coordinate sensory information
b) control the secretions of the pituitary gland
c) plan and coordinate voluntary muscle activity
d) provide the general patter and rhythm for movements such as walking
e) control respiration and blood pressure

d) provide the general patter and rhythm for movements such as walking

The adult human brain contains almost ________ of the body's neural tissue.

98%

Male brains are typically ________ compared to female brains.

larger

The medulla oblongata regulates ______.
a) digestion
b) kidney function
c) blood pressure
d) both A and B
e) both A and C

e) both A and C

The ______ is the relay and process center for sensory information
a) cerebellum
b) medulla oblongata
c) pons
d) cerebrum
e) thalamus

e) thalamus

Which of the following help to protect the brain?
a) The bones of the cranium
b) the blood-brain barrier
c) the cranial meninges
d) the CSF
e) all of the above

e) all of the above

Ependymal cells work to ________.
a) remove waste products from the CSF
b) secrete CSF into the ventricles
c) surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The choroid plexus produces CSF at a rate of about _____.

1/2 liter per day (500ml)

The cells that are in close contact with the CNS capillaries and also cover the outer surfaces of endothelial cells are termed

astrocytes

The respiratory rhythmicity center is found in the
a) cerebellum
b) medulla oblongata
c) pons
d) cerebrum
e) all of the above

b) medulla oblongata

The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily damaged by drugs and alochol. The result is known as

ataxia

Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of

Parkinson's disease

______ Centers are areas that recieve information from many association areas and direct extremely complex motor activities

integrative

You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to
a) open his jaw
b) smell
c) nod his head
d) blink his eye
e) all of the above

b) smell

______ is a condition resulting from an inflammation of the facial nerve.

Bell's palsy

A(n) _______ is an abnormal, temporary disorder of cerebral function, accompanied by abnormal movements, unusual sensations, and/or inappropriate behavior.

seizure

_______ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a certain period of time.

EEG (electroencephalogram)

The only cranial nerves attached directly to the cerebrum are the ______ nerves.

Olfactory

Damage to the corpora quadrigemina in the midbrain would impair _________.

processing of visual and auditory sensations

A person with a damaged visual association area may be
a) able to see letters quite clearly but unable to recognize or interpret them
b) declared legally blind
c) visually and sensory impaired
d) unable to scan the lines of a page or see rows of clear symbols
e) unable to recognize letters but able to identify words and their meanings

a) able to see letters quite clearly but unable to recognize or interpret them

The are _____ pairs of cranial nerves

12

The cranial nerves that are involved in controlling eye movements are

III, IV, and VI

The cranial nerve that has three branches is the

trigeminal nerve

Sensory innervation of the lower gums, teeth, lips, palate, and part of the tongue is by way of the ______ branch of the _____ nerve.

mandibular branch of the trigeminal

Damage to which of the cranial nerves could result in death?

Vagus

When compared to the spinal cord, the arrangement of white and gray matter in the medulla is similar, yet there are also significant differences. These differences include all of the following except

a) a lack of clear functional organization of the nuclei
b) the absence of distinct regions of gray matter
c) tracts crossing, merging, and branching
d) tracts passing though nuclei
e) the arrangement of tracts and nuclei

b) the absence of regions of gray matter

Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect
a) sight
b) hearing
c) voluntary motor activity
d) perception of pain
e) both A and C

c) voluntary motor activity

Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to
a) understand spoken language
b) clearly see visual images
c) voluntary motor activity
d) perception of pain
e) both A and C

c) voluntary motor activity

Damage to the extrapyramidal system would lead to
a) inability to sense pain
b) inability to swallow
c) loss of sight
d) loss of hearing
e) difficulty maintaining balance

e) difficulty maintaining balance

A drug that is known to block pain sensations is found to function at the level of the diencephalon. This drug probably interacts with neurons in the _____.
a) medial nuclei of the thalamus
b) hypothalamus
c) epithalamus
d) pulvinar
e) ventral nuclei of the thalamus

ventral nuclei of the thalamus

The direction of a loud noise reflex is coordinated in the mesencephalon. Which nuvlei are most likely involved in this process?

inferior colliculi

Damage to the superior colliculi of the mesencephalon would interfere with what ability?

visual tracking- react to the movement of a car with the eyes

histological examination of some brain tissue reveals the presence of several large, highly branched Purkinje cells. This sample of tissue must have come from the _______.

Cerebellar cortex

Impulses from proprioceptors in the limbs must pass through the ______ on their way to the ________.

olivary nucleus; cerebellum

A tumor that blocks the interventricular foramen in the left cerebral hemisphere would result in ______.

hydrocephalus

Compression of a cranial nerve by a tumor causes a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?

hypoglossal

Which of the following symptoms would you associate with damage to the spinal accessory nerve?
a) loss of the sense of taste
b) inability to move the eye medially
c) lack of facial expression
d) numb feeling in the gums
e) dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

e) dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ______ lobe.

left frontal

Joe suddenly begins to experience violent mood swings and develops a voracious appetite. Physical examination indicates the tumor in his brain is the probable cause of these behaviors. In what part of the brain is the tumor most likely located?
a) prefrontal cortex
b) reticular formation
c) limbic system
d) postcentral gyrus
e) cerebral nuclei

limbic system

After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil becomes comatose. The blow probably caused damage to the
a) reticular formation
b) postcentral gyrus
c) cerebral nuclei
d) limbic system
e) prefrontal cortex

a) reticular formation

Examination of a tissue sample from the central nervous system reveals many pyramid-shaped cells. This tissue probably came from the
a) nucleus cutaneous
b) sensory cortex
c) motor cortex
d) red nucleus
e) nucleus gracilis

c) motor cortex

Increased production and release of acetylcholine by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in
a) muscular atrophy
b) spastic, uncontrolled muscle contractions
c) decreased activity of upper motor neurons
d) fewer action potentials along the corticospinal tracts
e) flaccid paralysis

b) spastic, uncontrolled muscle contractions

Terry suffers from amnesia as the result of an automobile accident. What area of the brain is probably affected?
a) the putamen
b) the thalamus
c) the prefrontal lobe
d) the hippocampus
e) the general interpretive area

d) the hippocampus

What brain waves are observed during stress?

theta waves

Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?
a) insula
b) hippocampus
c) prefrontal lobe
d) cerebral nuclei
e) basal ganglia

b) hippocampus

Mechanisms involved in memory formation and storage involve all of the following, except
a) formation of additional synaptic connections
b) summation at terminal axons
c) formation of memory engrams
d) facilitation at synapses
e) increased release of neurotransmitters

b) summation at terminal axons

Memories that can be voluntarily retrieved and verbally expressed are called

declarative memories

Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

memory consolidation

The conscious state depends on the proper functioning of the
a) nucleus gracilis
b) prefrontal lobes
c) reticular activating system
d) general interpretive area
e) limbic system

c) reticular activating system

The center of the reticular activating system is located in the
a) mesencephalon
b) pons
c) diencephalon
d) cerebrum
e) medulla

a) mesencephalon

A state of consciousness characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and changes in personality is called

dementia

A state of unconsciousness where an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli

sleep

The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed

alpha waves

The brain waves characteristic of children and frustrated adults

theta waves

The brain waves that are characteristic of newborn infants

delta waves

Changes in the CNS that accompany aging include
A: decreased blood flow to the brain
B: reduction in brain size and weight
C: decrease in the number of neurons
D: all of the above
E: B and C only

B reduction of brain size and weight

Alzheimer's disease may be characterized by all of the following, except that it
a) is the most common cause of senile dementia
b) is characterized by a progressive loss of memory
c) may be related to a decreased amount of acetylcholine production by the nucleus basalis
d) is associated with the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in regions of the brain that are involved with memory
e) is characterized by a general shrinkage of the brain

e) is characterized by a general shrinkage of the brain

Bob is struck on the left side of the head and is knocked unconscious. When he recovers consciousness, he can hear individual words but cannot understand the meaning of phrases or sentences. This implies damage to his

temporal lobe

Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves. What cranial nerve does the dentist numb?

trigeminal

The folds of the surface of the cerebellum are called ________.

Folia

In most people, the speech center is located in the ______ cerebral hemisphere

left

True or False: Research has shown that there is a strong correlation between brain size and intelligence.

False

True or False: The basal nuclei alter the motor commands issued by the cerebral cortex through a feedback loop

True

If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca's area is damaged, what is the result:
a) memory is lost
b) motor control of the right leg is impaired
c) eyesight is lost
d) motor control of the speech muscles is lost
e) hearing is imparied

d) motor control of the speech muscles is lost

The brain area that plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles is the:
a) thalamus
b) reticular formation
c) pineal body
d) limbic system
e) cerebellum

c) pineal body

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.

hypothalamus

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in _______.

the medulla oblongata

The hypothalamus:
a) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature
b) is an important auditory and visual relay center
c) is the somatic sensory area
d) mediates sensations
e) contains relfex centers involved with vision and hearing

a) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature

The subarachnoid space lies directly between the ____ and _____.

arachnoid mater and pia mater

The blood-brain barrier is most permeable to ______.
a) platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells
b) glucose and oxygen
c) sodium, potassium, and chloride
d) urea and creatine
e) antibiotics

b) glucose and oxygen

The functions of the vestibulocochlear nerves concern:
a) vision and hearing
b) smell and taste
c) hearing and balance
d) find and gross motor control
e) digestive activity

c) hearing and balance

The nerve that contains motor fibers that activate chewing is ____.

Cranial nerve V (trigeminal)

The upper motor neurons that control skeletal muscles begin with a soma in
a) the posterior horn of the spinal cord
b) the anterior horn of the spinal cord
c) the motor association cortex of the cerebrum
d) the postcentral gyrus of the cerebrum
e) the precentral gyrus of the cerebrum

e) the precentral gyrus of the cerebrum

Which statement about aging is most accurate:
a) the brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life
b) synaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after age 35
c) despite some neuronal loss, an unlimited number of neural pathways are available and ready to be developed; therefore, additional learning can occur throughout life.
d) learning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial proliferation
e) increased efficiency of the sympathetic nervous system enhances the ability to learn

c) despite some neuronal loss, an unlimited number of neural pathways are available and ready to be developed; therefore, additional learning can occur throughout life.

Following a motor vehicle accident, your patient has a suspected head injury. The patient is placed in semi-Fowlers position. You notice a clear fluid running out of the patient's nose. You should test the fluid for the presence of what?

glucose

All of the following are functions of cerebral spinal fluid, except that it
a) acts as a cushion for the brain
b) transports red blood cells
c) circulates continuously
d) surrounds the brain and spinal cord
e) transports nutrients

b) transports red blood cells

Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?
a) prefrontal lobe
b) hippocampus
c) cerebral nuclei
d) insula
e) basal ganglia

b) hippocampus

Memories that can be voluntarily retrieved and verbally expressed are called

declarative memories

Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

memory consolidation

The center of the reticular activating system appears to be located in the

midbrain

A state of consciousness characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and changes in personality is called

dementia

A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is

coma

Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include
a) an increase in the number of neurons
b) a reduction in brain size and weight
c) increased blood flow to the brain
d) all of the above

b) a reduction in brain size and weight

The organization of the sensory pathways to the cerebrum is such that about _____ of the incoming sensory impulses actually reach the cerebellum

1 percent

A condition known as Bell's palsy is thought to be caused by an inflammation of the facial nerve VII. What symptoms would you expect to see in a person suffering from this condition?

numbness or a feeling of stiffness in the face on the affected side. Weakness of the facial muscles, inability to wrinkle the forehead, close the eye, pucker the lips, or retract the mouth. Loss of taste sensations, reduction in the amount of saliva from the salivary glands, pain behind the ear, ringing sensation in the ear, possibly some hearing loss

While having some dental work performed, Tyler is given an injection of local anesthetic in his lower jaw. His dentist tells him not to eat until the anesthetic wears off, not because of his teeth but because of his tongue. Why is the dentist giving Tyler this advice?

The local anestheic temporarily numbs portions of the hypoglossal nerve (XII) which controls movements of the tongue. - could severely bight tongue or choke

Sue develops a clot that blocks the right branch of the middle cerebral artery, a blood vessel that serves the anterior portion of the right cerebral hemisphere. What symptoms would you expect to observe as a result of this blockage?

paralysis on the left side of Sue's body, relative to the amount of motor cortex deprived of blood. you might also observe some degree of memory loss, mood changes, and impairment of planning abilities

A&P Chapter 14 & Pathways - Subjecto.com

A&P Chapter 14 & Pathways

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The following are all major components of the brainstem except the _________.
a) midbrain
b) pons
c) medulla oblongata
d) cerebellum

cerebellum

The right and left cerebral hemispheres are separated from each other by:
a) many sulci
b) brain stem
c) the longitudinal fissure
d) the corpus callosum
e) many gyri

c) the longitudinal fissure

The cerebellum is ___ to the cerebrum

caudal

The gray matter of the cerebrum forms a surface layer called _______ and deeper masses called ______ surrounded by white matter.

cortex; nuclei

The Pons and cerebellum relate with this secondary embryonic vesicle

metencephalon

From superficial to deep, the meninges occur in the order:

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Cerebrospinal fluid serves all these purposes except:
a) to regulate the chemical environment of the nervous tissue
b) to rinse metabolic wastes
c) to provide most oxygen to the brain
d) protect the brain
e) allow the brain to attain considerable size without being impairied by its own weight

C) to provide most oxygen to the brain

Cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by the choroid plexus in the ________ ventricle
a) lateral
b) A and C
c) third
d) fourth
e) all of the above

d) all of the above

Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed by arachoid vili in the _____.

Superior sagittal sinus

The blood-brain barrier is most permeable to:
a) all blood cells
b) creatine
c) antibiotics
d) sodium and potassium ions
e) glucose and oxygen

e) glucose and oxygen

The blood-brain barrier consists of:
a) gap junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls
b) gap and tight junctions between astorcytes and endothelial cells that form the capillary walls
c) tight junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls
d) desmosomes and tight junctions between astrocytes and ependymal cells that form the capillary walls
e) gap junctions between ependymal cells and endothelial cells that form the capillary walls

c) tight junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls

A patient is experiencing a high fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, and intense headaches. A spinal tap shoed bacteria and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF). This individual most likely has:

Meningitis

The medulla oblongata originates from the __________.

myelencephalon

The cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers are found in the _______.

medulla oblongata

The _______ functions in visual attention, such as to look and follow the flight of a butterfly.

superior colliculi

Degeneration of neurons in this structure, which inhibits unwanted body movements, leads to the muscle tremors of Parkinson disease

substantia nigra

The reticular formation is a web of _________ scattered throughout the ________.

gray matter; brainstem

The ________ is the largest part of the hindbrain

cerebellum

Loss of equilibrium and motor coordination would most likely be related to a lesion in the
a) limbic system
b) medulla oblongata
c) pons
d) cerebellum
e) pituitary gland

d) cerebellum

The arbor vitae is a structure found in

A. both the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
B. the tegmentum in the midbrain.
C. the cerebellum.
D. the reticular formation.
E. the diencephalon.

C. the cerebellum

There are no cranial nerves associated with

A. the thalamus.

B. the medulla oblongata.

C. the midbrain.

D. the cerebellum.

E. the pons.

D. the cerebellum

The pons is not associated with
a) sensory information from the middle region of the face
b) sensory information from the inferior region of the face
c) sensory information from the superior region of the face
d) lateral eye movements
e) neck movements

e) neck movements

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus are derivatives of the embryonic
a) telencephalon
b)metencephalon
c) diencephalon
d) myelencephalon
e) mesencephalon

c) diencephalon

Nearly all the somatosensory input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in which region of the brain?

the thalamus

Sex drive, body temperature, and food and water intake are regulated by which part of the brain?

the hypothalamus

A lesion of the _______ would probably cause a person to sleep for random lengths of time during a 24- hour period
a) satiety center
b) pituitary gland
c) mammillary nuclei
d) medial geniculate nucleus
e) suprachiasmatic nucleus

e) suprachiasmatic nucleus

The pineal gland belongs to
a) thalamus
b) midbrain
c) hypothalamus
d) epithalamus
e) occipital lobe

d) epithalamus

Planning, motivation, and social judgment are functions of the brain associated with which part of the cerebrum?

the rontal lobe

The occipital lobe is:
a) chiefly concerned with mood, memory, and emotions
b) the primary visual center of the brain
c) the primary site for receiving and interpreting signals from the general senses
d) concerned with voluntary motor functions
e) likely to play a role in understanding spoken language

b) the primary visual center of the brain

The great majority of _______ tracts pass through the corpus callosum:
a) ascending
b) commissural
c) descending
d) association
e) projection

b) commissural

The hippocampus and amygdala are structures found in
a) the medulla oblongata
b) the midbrain
c) the basal nuclei
d) the cerebral cortex
e) the limbic system

e) the limbic system

A predominance of _____ brain waves in an EEG might indicate that a person is physically and mentally relaxed.

Alpha

During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

A. the muscles relax, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates fall.
B. the muscles are very relaxed and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates are at their lowest levels.
C. the muscles are paralyzed, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates increase.
D. a person falls into light sleep.
E. a person begins to relax and feels drowsy.

C. the muscles are paralyzed, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates increase

Short-term memory is associated with the ________, whereas long-term memory is associated with the __________.

hippocampus; cerebral cortex

Destruction of the amygdala would mostly affect

expression of emotional feelings

Which body region is controlled by the largest are of the motor cortex? (think homonculus)

the fingers

Nonfluent aphasia, due to a lesion in the __________, results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.
a) primary motor area
b) Wernicke area
c) cerebral lateralization
d) primary auditory area
e) Broca area

Broca area

_______ show more lateralization than _________.
a) adult males; adult females
b) young children; elders
c) young male children; adult males
d) young children; adults
e) adult females; adult males

a) adult males; adult females

Which of the following functions would most likely be controlled by the representational hemisphere of the cerebrum?
a) answering this question
b) balancing your checkbook
c) painting a picture
d) diagnosing a patient’s disease
e) giving a speech

c) painting a picture

After a stroke, a patient complains about lack of sensitivity in the right hand. The stroke most likely affected the
a) precentral gyrus in the right frontal lobe
b) postcentral gyrus in the left parietal lobe
c) precentral gyrus in the left frontal lobe
d) postcentral gyrus in the right temporal lobe
e) postcentral gyrus in the left frontal lobe

b) postcentral gyrus in the left parietal lobe (parietal lobe processes sensory information regarding location of body parts. postcentral gyrus is sensory)

The _______ is not a motor cranial nerve
a) trochlear nerve
b) vestibulocochlear nerve
c) abducens nerve
d) accessory nerve (XI)
e) hypoglossal nerve

b) vestibulocochlear nerve

This is the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face

the trigeminal nerve

This nerve innervates most of the viscera in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

the Vagus nerve

During embryonic development, which of the following brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
a) mesencephalon
b) diencephalon
c) metencephalon
d) telencephalon
e) myencephalon

d) telencephalon

Which of the following links the cerebral hemispheres with the brain stem?
a) pons
b) mesencephalon
c) diencephalon
d) medulla oblongata
e) cerebellum

c) diencephalon

The walls of the diencephalon form the
a) brain stem
b) myelencephalon
c) mesencephalon
d) thalamus

d) thalamus

the cerebellum and pons are derived from the
a) telencephalon
b) myelencephalon
c) mesencephalon
d) metencephalon
e) diencephalon

d) metencephalon

visual and auditory reflexes are processed by the
a) medulla oblongata
b) cerebellum
c) pons
d) mesencephalon
e) diencephalon

d) mesencephalon (midbrain)

The middle cerebellar peduncle connects the cerebellum to the

pons

Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestive activities are located in the

medulla oblongata

A neural cortex is found on the surface of the
a) cerebrum
b) pons
c) cerebellum
d) all of the above
e) A and C

e) A and C

Which of the following represents a link between the nervous and endocrine systems?
a) pons
b) cerebrum
c) medulla oblongata
d) cerebellum
e) hypothalamus

e) hypothalamus

The thin partition that separates the lateral ventricles is the ______.
a) septum insula
b) interventricular foramina
c) septum pellucidum
d) cerebral aqueduct
e) falx cerebri

septum pellucidum

the lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle through the _______.
interventricular foramini
aqueduct of sylvius
mesencephalic aqueduct
medulla oblongata
cerebral aqueduct

interventricular foramina

The third and fourth ventricles are linked by the _______.
Interventricular foramina
mesencephalic aqueduct
tentorium cerebelli
central canal
medulla oblongata

mesencephalic aqueduct

The ventricle associated with the pons and upper medulla is the

fourth

The Dural sinuses are located in the

dural folds

What structure is highly vascular and closely adheres to the surface of the brain?

pia mater

The fold of dura mater that projects between the cerebral hemispheres in the midsagittal plane is the ________.

falx cerebri

What contains a delicate network of collagen and elastin fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates?

subarachnoid space

Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
a) provides buoyant support for the brain
b) acts as a transport medium for nutrients
c) provides cushioning for delicate neural tissues
d) acts as a transport medium for chemical messsengers
e) provides a medium for nerve impulse transmission

e) provides a medium for nerve impulse transmission

Cerebrospinal fluid
a) is formed by a passive process
b) is normally produced twice as fast as it is removed
c) is secreted by ependymal cells
d) has exactly the same composition as blood plasma
e) both A and D

C) is secreted by ependymal cells

Excess cerebrospinal fluid is drained into the

superior sagittal sinus

Diffusion across the arachnoid villi returns excess CSF to the

venous circulation (superior sagittal sinus)

Cerebrospinal fluid enters the subarachnoid space by way of the:

lateral and median apertures

Which of the following is not true about the blood-brain barrier?
a) it is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds
b) the capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions
c) astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries
d) it is absent in portions of the hypothalamus
e) it selectively secretes glycine into the interstitial fluid of the brain

e) it selectively secretes gylcine into the interstitial fluid of the brain

The Pons contains
a) tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem
b) sensory and motor nuclei for six cranial nerves
c) nuclei concerned with the control of blood pressure
d) no ascending or descending tracts
e) both A and B

a) tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the

cerebellum

The cerebellar hemispheres are connected to the
a) arbor vitae
b) folia
c) vermis
d) flocculonodular lobe
e) pyramid

vermis

The white matter of the cerebellum forms the

arbor vitae

The fiber tract that links the cerebellum with the pons is the

middle cerebellar peduncle

The area of the mesencephalon that is involved with the maintenance of muscle tone and posture is the

red nuclei

Nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon are the

cerebral peduncles

Motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated with eating are located in the

mamillary bodies

Stimulation of the reticular formation results in

increased consciousness

The _________ acts as a switching and relay center for integration of conscious and unconscious sensory and motor pathways.

diencephalon

The anterior nuclei of the thalamus
a) receive impulses from the optic nerve
b) is part of the limbic system
c) are connected to the pituitary gland
d) produce the hormone melatonin
e) both C and D

b) is part of the limbic system

The ventral nuclei of the thalamus
a) is part of the limbic system
b) project sensory information to the primary sensory cortex
c) connect the emotional centers of the hypothalamus with the frontal lobe of the cerebrum
d) process auditory stimuli
e) process visual stimuli

b) project sensory information to the primary sensory cortex

The posterior nuclei of the thalamus consist of the
a) epithalamus
b) mamillary bodies
c) pulvinar
d) hypothalamus
e) both C and D

c) pulvinar

The _____ receive visual information from the eyes by way of the optic tracts
a) pulvinar
b) lateral geniculates
c) medial geniculates
d) paraventricular nuclei
e) supraoptic nuclei

b) lateral geniculates (body of the thalamus)

The _____ relay auditory information to the auditory cortex
a) lateral geniculates
b) medial geniculates
c) supraoptic nuclei
d) paraventricular nuclei
e) pulvinar

b) medial geniculates

The _______ integrates sensory information for projection to the association areas of the cerebral cortex
a) supraoptic nuclei
b) paraventricular nuclei
c) lateral geniculates
d) medial geniculates
e) pulvinar

e) pulvinar

All of the following are true of the efferent tracts from the hypothalamus, except that they
a) produce motions and behavioral drives
b) control autonomic function
c) are responsible for integrating sensory stimuli
d) coordinate activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
e) control involuntary motor activities

c) are responsible for integrating sensory stimuli

The mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus
a) secrete oxytocin
b) secrete antidiuretic hormone
c) regulate body temperature
d) control heart rate and blood pressure
e) control feeding reflexes

e) control feeding reflexes

The Tectum of the mesencephalon contains the
a) tegmenta nuclei
b) substantia nigra
c) red nuclei
d) corpora quadrigemina
e) cerebral peduncles

d) corpora quadrigemina

Visual input from the lateral geniculates of the thalamus are received by the
a) red nuclei
b) cerebral peduncles
c) substantia nigra
d) inferior colliculi
e) superior colliculi

e) superior culliculi

Each of the following are true of the limbic system except that it
a) functions in maintaining homeostasis during dehydration and hemorrhaging
b)consists of nuclei that lie between the border of the cerebrum and the diencephalon
c) contains both cerebral and diencephalic components
d) provides a link between the conscious, intellectual functions of the cerebral cortex and the unconscious functions of th ebrain stem
e) functions in emotions, learning, and memory

a) functions in maintaining homeostasis during dehydration and hemorrhaging

Each of the following is a component of the limbic system except the
a) hippocampus
b) amygdaloid body
c) fornix
d) cingulate gyrus
e) globus pallidus

e) globus pallidus

The ______ appears to be important in learning and the storage of long-term memories
a) fornix
b) cingulate gyrus
c) amygdaloid body
d) hippocampus
e) mamillary bodies

d) hippocampus

A tract of white matter that connects the hippocampus with the hypothalamus is the ______.

Fornix

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the _________.

Longitudinal fissure

Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are ______.

Lobes

The area anterior to the central sulcus is the ________.

Frontal lobe

The inferiror border of the frontal lobe is marked by the
a) central sulcus
b) parieto-occipital sulcus
c) insula
d) longitudinal fissure
e) lateral sulcus

e) lateral sulcus

The region of the cerebral cortex inferior to the lateral sulcus is the ______.

Temporal lobe

The region of the cerebral cortex that is medial and deep to the temporal lobe is the ______.

insula

The primary motor cortex is located in the region of the _______.

precentral gyrus

The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the ______ cortex.

primary sensory

The visual cortex is located in the _____ lobe.

occipital

The auditory cortex is located in the _______ lobe.

temporal

Regions of the brain that are involved in interpreting data or coordinating motor responses are called _______ areas.
a) commissural
b) somesthetic
c) processing
d) sensory
e) association

e) association

The region of the brain that is involved in conscious thought and intellectual function as well as processing somatic sensory and motor information is the _____.

cerebrum

Abstract intellectual functions such as predicting the consequences of a particular response occur in the ______.

prefrontal cortex

The corpus callosum is composed of _____ fibers.

commissural

The internal capsule of the cerebrum is composed of ______ fibers

projection

Lying within each hemisphere beneath the floor of the lateral ventricle are the

cerebral nuclei

Each of the following are part of the cerebral nuclei, except the
a) caudate nucleus
b) hippocampus
c) putamen
d) globus pallidus
e) lentiform nucleus

b) hippocampus

The ______ is located at the tip of the tail of the caudate nucleus.

Amygdaloid body

The putamen and glubs pallidus are frequently considered to be subdivisions of the

lentiform nucleus

The highest levels of information processing occur in the

cerebrum

Higher-order functions
a) involve complex interactions between areas of the cortex and other areas of the brain
b) involve both conscious and unconscious information processing
c) are subject to adjustments and modification over time
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The cerebral nuclei ______.
a) coordinate sensory information
b) control the secretions of the pituitary gland
c) plan and coordinate voluntary muscle activity
d) provide the general patter and rhythm for movements such as walking
e) control respiration and blood pressure

d) provide the general patter and rhythm for movements such as walking

The adult human brain contains almost ________ of the body’s neural tissue.

98%

Male brains are typically ________ compared to female brains.

larger

The medulla oblongata regulates ______.
a) digestion
b) kidney function
c) blood pressure
d) both A and B
e) both A and C

e) both A and C

The ______ is the relay and process center for sensory information
a) cerebellum
b) medulla oblongata
c) pons
d) cerebrum
e) thalamus

e) thalamus

Which of the following help to protect the brain?
a) The bones of the cranium
b) the blood-brain barrier
c) the cranial meninges
d) the CSF
e) all of the above

e) all of the above

Ependymal cells work to ________.
a) remove waste products from the CSF
b) secrete CSF into the ventricles
c) surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The choroid plexus produces CSF at a rate of about _____.

1/2 liter per day (500ml)

The cells that are in close contact with the CNS capillaries and also cover the outer surfaces of endothelial cells are termed

astrocytes

The respiratory rhythmicity center is found in the
a) cerebellum
b) medulla oblongata
c) pons
d) cerebrum
e) all of the above

b) medulla oblongata

The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily damaged by drugs and alochol. The result is known as

ataxia

Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of

Parkinson’s disease

______ Centers are areas that recieve information from many association areas and direct extremely complex motor activities

integrative

You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to
a) open his jaw
b) smell
c) nod his head
d) blink his eye
e) all of the above

b) smell

______ is a condition resulting from an inflammation of the facial nerve.

Bell’s palsy

A(n) _______ is an abnormal, temporary disorder of cerebral function, accompanied by abnormal movements, unusual sensations, and/or inappropriate behavior.

seizure

_______ is a printed record of the brain’s electrical activity over a certain period of time.

EEG (electroencephalogram)

The only cranial nerves attached directly to the cerebrum are the ______ nerves.

Olfactory

Damage to the corpora quadrigemina in the midbrain would impair _________.

processing of visual and auditory sensations

A person with a damaged visual association area may be
a) able to see letters quite clearly but unable to recognize or interpret them
b) declared legally blind
c) visually and sensory impaired
d) unable to scan the lines of a page or see rows of clear symbols
e) unable to recognize letters but able to identify words and their meanings

a) able to see letters quite clearly but unable to recognize or interpret them

The are _____ pairs of cranial nerves

12

The cranial nerves that are involved in controlling eye movements are

III, IV, and VI

The cranial nerve that has three branches is the

trigeminal nerve

Sensory innervation of the lower gums, teeth, lips, palate, and part of the tongue is by way of the ______ branch of the _____ nerve.

mandibular branch of the trigeminal

Damage to which of the cranial nerves could result in death?

Vagus

When compared to the spinal cord, the arrangement of white and gray matter in the medulla is similar, yet there are also significant differences. These differences include all of the following except

a) a lack of clear functional organization of the nuclei
b) the absence of distinct regions of gray matter
c) tracts crossing, merging, and branching
d) tracts passing though nuclei
e) the arrangement of tracts and nuclei

b) the absence of regions of gray matter

Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect
a) sight
b) hearing
c) voluntary motor activity
d) perception of pain
e) both A and C

c) voluntary motor activity

Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to
a) understand spoken language
b) clearly see visual images
c) voluntary motor activity
d) perception of pain
e) both A and C

c) voluntary motor activity

Damage to the extrapyramidal system would lead to
a) inability to sense pain
b) inability to swallow
c) loss of sight
d) loss of hearing
e) difficulty maintaining balance

e) difficulty maintaining balance

A drug that is known to block pain sensations is found to function at the level of the diencephalon. This drug probably interacts with neurons in the _____.
a) medial nuclei of the thalamus
b) hypothalamus
c) epithalamus
d) pulvinar
e) ventral nuclei of the thalamus

ventral nuclei of the thalamus

The direction of a loud noise reflex is coordinated in the mesencephalon. Which nuvlei are most likely involved in this process?

inferior colliculi

Damage to the superior colliculi of the mesencephalon would interfere with what ability?

visual tracking- react to the movement of a car with the eyes

histological examination of some brain tissue reveals the presence of several large, highly branched Purkinje cells. This sample of tissue must have come from the _______.

Cerebellar cortex

Impulses from proprioceptors in the limbs must pass through the ______ on their way to the ________.

olivary nucleus; cerebellum

A tumor that blocks the interventricular foramen in the left cerebral hemisphere would result in ______.

hydrocephalus

Compression of a cranial nerve by a tumor causes a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?

hypoglossal

Which of the following symptoms would you associate with damage to the spinal accessory nerve?
a) loss of the sense of taste
b) inability to move the eye medially
c) lack of facial expression
d) numb feeling in the gums
e) dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

e) dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ______ lobe.

left frontal

Joe suddenly begins to experience violent mood swings and develops a voracious appetite. Physical examination indicates the tumor in his brain is the probable cause of these behaviors. In what part of the brain is the tumor most likely located?
a) prefrontal cortex
b) reticular formation
c) limbic system
d) postcentral gyrus
e) cerebral nuclei

limbic system

After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil becomes comatose. The blow probably caused damage to the
a) reticular formation
b) postcentral gyrus
c) cerebral nuclei
d) limbic system
e) prefrontal cortex

a) reticular formation

Examination of a tissue sample from the central nervous system reveals many pyramid-shaped cells. This tissue probably came from the
a) nucleus cutaneous
b) sensory cortex
c) motor cortex
d) red nucleus
e) nucleus gracilis

c) motor cortex

Increased production and release of acetylcholine by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in
a) muscular atrophy
b) spastic, uncontrolled muscle contractions
c) decreased activity of upper motor neurons
d) fewer action potentials along the corticospinal tracts
e) flaccid paralysis

b) spastic, uncontrolled muscle contractions

Terry suffers from amnesia as the result of an automobile accident. What area of the brain is probably affected?
a) the putamen
b) the thalamus
c) the prefrontal lobe
d) the hippocampus
e) the general interpretive area

d) the hippocampus

What brain waves are observed during stress?

theta waves

Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?
a) insula
b) hippocampus
c) prefrontal lobe
d) cerebral nuclei
e) basal ganglia

b) hippocampus

Mechanisms involved in memory formation and storage involve all of the following, except
a) formation of additional synaptic connections
b) summation at terminal axons
c) formation of memory engrams
d) facilitation at synapses
e) increased release of neurotransmitters

b) summation at terminal axons

Memories that can be voluntarily retrieved and verbally expressed are called

declarative memories

Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

memory consolidation

The conscious state depends on the proper functioning of the
a) nucleus gracilis
b) prefrontal lobes
c) reticular activating system
d) general interpretive area
e) limbic system

c) reticular activating system

The center of the reticular activating system is located in the
a) mesencephalon
b) pons
c) diencephalon
d) cerebrum
e) medulla

a) mesencephalon

A state of consciousness characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and changes in personality is called

dementia

A state of unconsciousness where an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli

sleep

The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed

alpha waves

The brain waves characteristic of children and frustrated adults

theta waves

The brain waves that are characteristic of newborn infants

delta waves

Changes in the CNS that accompany aging include
A: decreased blood flow to the brain
B: reduction in brain size and weight
C: decrease in the number of neurons
D: all of the above
E: B and C only

B reduction of brain size and weight

Alzheimer’s disease may be characterized by all of the following, except that it
a) is the most common cause of senile dementia
b) is characterized by a progressive loss of memory
c) may be related to a decreased amount of acetylcholine production by the nucleus basalis
d) is associated with the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in regions of the brain that are involved with memory
e) is characterized by a general shrinkage of the brain

e) is characterized by a general shrinkage of the brain

Bob is struck on the left side of the head and is knocked unconscious. When he recovers consciousness, he can hear individual words but cannot understand the meaning of phrases or sentences. This implies damage to his

temporal lobe

Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves. What cranial nerve does the dentist numb?

trigeminal

The folds of the surface of the cerebellum are called ________.

Folia

In most people, the speech center is located in the ______ cerebral hemisphere

left

True or False: Research has shown that there is a strong correlation between brain size and intelligence.

False

True or False: The basal nuclei alter the motor commands issued by the cerebral cortex through a feedback loop

True

If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca’s area is damaged, what is the result:
a) memory is lost
b) motor control of the right leg is impaired
c) eyesight is lost
d) motor control of the speech muscles is lost
e) hearing is imparied

d) motor control of the speech muscles is lost

The brain area that plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles is the:
a) thalamus
b) reticular formation
c) pineal body
d) limbic system
e) cerebellum

c) pineal body

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.

hypothalamus

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in _______.

the medulla oblongata

The hypothalamus:
a) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature
b) is an important auditory and visual relay center
c) is the somatic sensory area
d) mediates sensations
e) contains relfex centers involved with vision and hearing

a) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature

The subarachnoid space lies directly between the ____ and _____.

arachnoid mater and pia mater

The blood-brain barrier is most permeable to ______.
a) platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells
b) glucose and oxygen
c) sodium, potassium, and chloride
d) urea and creatine
e) antibiotics

b) glucose and oxygen

The functions of the vestibulocochlear nerves concern:
a) vision and hearing
b) smell and taste
c) hearing and balance
d) find and gross motor control
e) digestive activity

c) hearing and balance

The nerve that contains motor fibers that activate chewing is ____.

Cranial nerve V (trigeminal)

The upper motor neurons that control skeletal muscles begin with a soma in
a) the posterior horn of the spinal cord
b) the anterior horn of the spinal cord
c) the motor association cortex of the cerebrum
d) the postcentral gyrus of the cerebrum
e) the precentral gyrus of the cerebrum

e) the precentral gyrus of the cerebrum

Which statement about aging is most accurate:
a) the brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life
b) synaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after age 35
c) despite some neuronal loss, an unlimited number of neural pathways are available and ready to be developed; therefore, additional learning can occur throughout life.
d) learning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial proliferation
e) increased efficiency of the sympathetic nervous system enhances the ability to learn

c) despite some neuronal loss, an unlimited number of neural pathways are available and ready to be developed; therefore, additional learning can occur throughout life.

Following a motor vehicle accident, your patient has a suspected head injury. The patient is placed in semi-Fowlers position. You notice a clear fluid running out of the patient’s nose. You should test the fluid for the presence of what?

glucose

All of the following are functions of cerebral spinal fluid, except that it
a) acts as a cushion for the brain
b) transports red blood cells
c) circulates continuously
d) surrounds the brain and spinal cord
e) transports nutrients

b) transports red blood cells

Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?
a) prefrontal lobe
b) hippocampus
c) cerebral nuclei
d) insula
e) basal ganglia

b) hippocampus

Memories that can be voluntarily retrieved and verbally expressed are called

declarative memories

Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

memory consolidation

The center of the reticular activating system appears to be located in the

midbrain

A state of consciousness characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and changes in personality is called

dementia

A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is

coma

Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include
a) an increase in the number of neurons
b) a reduction in brain size and weight
c) increased blood flow to the brain
d) all of the above

b) a reduction in brain size and weight

The organization of the sensory pathways to the cerebrum is such that about _____ of the incoming sensory impulses actually reach the cerebellum

1 percent

A condition known as Bell’s palsy is thought to be caused by an inflammation of the facial nerve VII. What symptoms would you expect to see in a person suffering from this condition?

numbness or a feeling of stiffness in the face on the affected side. Weakness of the facial muscles, inability to wrinkle the forehead, close the eye, pucker the lips, or retract the mouth. Loss of taste sensations, reduction in the amount of saliva from the salivary glands, pain behind the ear, ringing sensation in the ear, possibly some hearing loss

While having some dental work performed, Tyler is given an injection of local anesthetic in his lower jaw. His dentist tells him not to eat until the anesthetic wears off, not because of his teeth but because of his tongue. Why is the dentist giving Tyler this advice?

The local anestheic temporarily numbs portions of the hypoglossal nerve (XII) which controls movements of the tongue. – could severely bight tongue or choke

Sue develops a clot that blocks the right branch of the middle cerebral artery, a blood vessel that serves the anterior portion of the right cerebral hemisphere. What symptoms would you expect to observe as a result of this blockage?

paralysis on the left side of Sue’s body, relative to the amount of motor cortex deprived of blood. you might also observe some degree of memory loss, mood changes, and impairment of planning abilities

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