A&P Ch 6

Skull

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

c) Flat bone sternum, scapulae, ribs and most skull bones. sternum = breastbone scapulae = shoulder blades ribs and most skull bones

Humerus
= upper arm bone

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

a) Long bone Includes all limb bones except the patella (kneecap) and the wrist and ankle bones, including the three bones in each of your fingers.

Ribs

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

c) Flat bone sternum = breastbone scapulae = shoulder blades ribs and most skull bones

Sacrum
= posterior wall of pelvis

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

d) Irregular bone Includes the vertebrae and the hip bones.

Phalanges
= fingers

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

a) Long bone Includes all limb bones except the patella (kneecap) and the wrist and ankle bones, including the three bones in each of your fingers.

Patella
=knee cap

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

e) Sesamoid bone

Tarsals
= posterior half of the foot
consists of 7 tarsals.

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

b) Short bone

Dense outer layer that looks smooth and solid.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

c) compact bone

Location of the remnant of the epiphyseal plate, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

b) epiphyseal line

Area where yellow marrow is found.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

d) Medullary cavity

Area where a thin layer of hyaline cartilage is found, which cushions the opposing bone ends during joint movement and absorbs stress.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

a) Articular cartilage

Bones are porous and thin but bone composition is normal.

a) Osteomalacia
b) Paget's disease
c) Osteoporosis

c) Osteoporosis

Bone formed is poorly mineralized and soft. Deforms on weight bearing.

a) Osteomalacia
b) Paget's disease
c) Osteoporosis

a) Osteomalacia

Abnormal bone formation and reabsorption.

a) Osteomalacia
b) Paget's disease
c) Osteoporosis

b) Paget's disease

An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts. Common in children.

a) Comminuted
b) Spiral
c) Greenstick

c) Greenstick

Bone fragments into many pieces.

a) Comminuted
b) Spiral
c) Greenstick

a) Comminuted

Common sport fracture resulting from a twisting force.

a) Comminuted
b) Spiral
c) Greenstick

b) Spiral

The lining of the marrow cavity.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

a) Endosteum

Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

d) Osteoclasts

Layers of bone matrix.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

e) Lamellae

Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

b) Canaliculi

Cells that can build bony matrix.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

c) Osteoblasts

The cells responsible for the early stages of endochondral ossification.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

a) Chondrocytes

The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

b) Appositional growth

The area of long bones where cartilage cells are replaced by bone cells.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

d) Diaphysis

The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

c) Epiphyseal line

Area where bone longitudinal growth takes palce.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

e) Epiphyseal plate

Radius
= upper limb after humerus

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

b) long bone

Carpals
= 8 wrist bones

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

a) short bone

Patella
= knee cap

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

e) sesamoid bone

Scapula
= shoulder blades

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

d) flat bone

Hip bones

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

c) irregular bone

Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.

True / False

True

Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.

True / False

False

Bones a classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.

True / False

False

The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessals.

True / False

False

Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.

True / False

False

In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.

True / False

False

The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.

True / False

True

The term "osteoid" refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.

True / False

True

Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.

True / False

True Inorganic hydroxyapatite (mineral salts) - largely calcium phosphates present in the form of tiny, tightly packed, needle-like crystals in and around the collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix.

All bones formed by intramembranous ossification are irregular bones.

True / False

False. Most bones formed by intramembranous ossification porcess are flat bones.

An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.

True / False

True

The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.

True / False

True The trabeculae is spongy bone align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resist stress as much as possible.

Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six months' gestation.

True / False

False. Most long bone begin ossifying by 8 weeks after conception and have well-developed primary ossification centers by 12 weeks.

Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.

True / False

True

Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.

True / False

True Unlike bone, which has a hard matrix, cartilage has a flexible matrix, which can accommodate mitosis.

Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.

True / False

False. Adult one can still increase in diameter or thickness by appositional growth if stressed by excessive muscle activity or body weight.

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adaped to support weight and withstand tension stress?

a) spongy bone
b) irregular bone
c) compact bone
d) trabecular bone

c) compact bone

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ___.

a) fat
b) blood-forming cells
c) elastic tissue
d) Sharpey's fibers

a) fat

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ___.

a) osteocyte
b) osteoblast
c) osteoclast
d) chondrocyte

b) osteoblast

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

a) elastic connective tissue
b) dense fibrous connective tissue
c) fibrocartilage
d) hyaline cartilage

d) hyaline cartilage

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

a) inadequate calcification of bone

b) decreased osteoclast activity

c) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

d) increased osteoclast activity

c) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ___.

a) epiphysis
b) metaphysis
c) diaphysis
d) articular cartilage

c) diaphysis dia = through physis = growth diaphysis or shaft forms the long axis of the bone.

The term "diploe" refers to the ___.

a) double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone.

b) fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue

c) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

d) two types of marrow found within most bones

c) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones diploe = folded In flat bones the spongy bone is called the diploe.

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints?

a) meatus
b) ramus
c) foramen
d) fossa
e) epicondyle

b) ramus ramus = armlike bar of bone Projections that help to form joints; head, facet, condyle, ramus.

Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ___.

a) drinking fluoridated water

b) decreasing weight-bearing exercise

c) increasing dietary vitamin C

d) decreasing exposure to the sun

a) drinking fluoridated water

Ossification of the ends of long bones ___.

a) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation

b) involves medullary cavity formation

c) is produced by secondary ossification centers

d) takes twice as long as diaphysis

c) is produced by secondary ossification centers

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

a) lacunae

b) Haversian system

c) epiphyseal plate

d) epiphyseal line

c) epiphyseal plate

The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ___.

a) hyaline

b) elastic

c) fibrocartilage

d) epiphyseal

a) hyaline

Which of the following is "not" a function of the skeletal system?

a) support

b) storage of minerals

c) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)

d) communition

d) communication

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

a) osseous matrix

b) spongy bone

c) lamellar bone

d) the osteon

d) the osteon

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ___.

a) cartilage and compact bone

b) marrow and osteons

c) osteoblasts and osteoclasts

d) chondrocytes and osteocytes

c) osteoblasts and osteoclasts bone-germainators and bone breakers.

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ___.

a) Volkmann's canals

b) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage

c) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

d) the struts of bone known as spicules

c) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers Tufts of collagen fibers that extend from its fibrous layer intothe bone matrix.

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ___.

a) cartilage and interstitial lamellae

b) osteoclasts and osteoblasts

c) yellow marrow and spicules

d) blood vessals and nerve fibers

d) blood vessals and nerve fibers

What are the small spaces in the bhone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called?

a) lacunae

b) Volkmann's canals

c) Haversian canals

d) trabeculae

a) lacunae lacunae = little hollow. lacunae found at the junctions of the lamellae.

for intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

a) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.

b) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

c) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate

d) A medullary cavity forms.

b) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

The process of bones increasing in width is known as ___.

a) closing of the epiphyseal plate

b) long bones reaching adult length and width

c) appositional growth

d) concentric growth

c) appositional growth

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

a) osteoclast

b) osteocyte

c) osteoblast

d) stem cell

a) osteoclast Bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclasts, giant multinucleate cells.

Which hormone increase osteoclast activity to relase more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

a) calcitonin

b) thyroxine

c) parathyroid hormone

d) estrogen

c) parathyroid hormone

The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40, ___.

a) is slower in females than in males

b) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton

c) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

d) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans

c) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

Wolff's law is concerned with ___.

a) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age

b) the thickness and shape of a bhone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

c) the function of bone dependent on shape

d) the diameter of the bone being dependent of the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

b) the thickness and shape of a bhone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

Cranial bones develop ___.

a) from cartilage models

b) within fibrous membranes

c) from a tendon

d) within osseous membranes

b) within fibrous membranes Intramembranous ossification results in the formation of cranial bones of the skull and the clavicle. Most bones formed from this process are flat bones.

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormes that tend to "decrease" blood calcium levels?

a) pineal gland

b) thyroid

c) parathyroid

d) spleen

b) thyroid

Osteomyelitis is ___.

a) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium

b) literally known as "soft bones"

c) due to pus-forming bacteria

d) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism

c) due to pus-forming bacteria

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

a) growth at the epiphyseal plate

b) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

c) along the edges only

d) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

b) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

a) Growth occurs in the lining of long bones.

b) Fibroblasts give rise tot chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage.

c) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage.

d) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

d) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within. "growth from within" The lacunae bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within.

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ___.

a) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis

b) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

c) from the edges inward

d) in a circular fashion

b) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis The cells divide quickly, pushing the epiphysis away fromthe diaphysis, causing the entire long bhone to lengthen.

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ___.

a) osteons

b) lamellar bone

c) trabeculae

d) osseous lamellae

c) trabeculae Trabeculae in spongy bone align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resist stress as much as possible.

Osteogenesis is the process of ___.

a) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone

b) bone destruction to liberate calcium

c) bone formation

d) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage

c) bone formation os = bone genesis = beginning osteogenesis aka ossification In embryos - formation of the bones. In adults - bone growth.

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ___.

a) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

b) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity

c) defferentiation of osteoclasts

d) calcification of the matrix

a) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

a) thyroid hormone

b somatomedins

c) growth hormone

d) prolactin

c) growth hormone In infants - growth hormone releases by anterior pituitary gland. Thyroid hormones modulate the activity of the growth hormones as it grows. At puberty - testosterones or estrogen sex hormones promote growth spurt in adolescents.

In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

a) overproduction of thyroid hormone

b) elevated levels of sex hormones

c) too much vitamin D in the diet

d) osteoblast activity exceeds ostoclast activity

b) elevated levels of sex hormones

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ___.

a) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

b) postassium, phosphate, and vitamin D

c) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E

d) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

a) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Ostealgia is ___,

a) a defect called clubfoot

b) a disease of the bone

c) pain in a bone

d) fractured bone

c) pain in a bone os = bone algia = pain

Blood cell formation is called ___.

hematopoiesis

A bone embedded in a tendon is called a(n) ___ bone.

sesamoid

A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries, lymph vessels, and ___ fivers.

nerve

A long bone forms a process known as ___ ossification.

endochondral

___ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones.

Appositional

___ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone.

Osteoclasts

___ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones.

Osteoporosis

A rounded or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and/or nerves is called a(n) ___.

foramen

List the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.

Hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and remodeling.

What is found in a Haversian canal?

Blood vessels and nerve fibers.

Several hormones control the remodeling of bones. Which two respond to changing blood calcium levels?

To keep bones in proper dimensions, PTH and calcitonin are the major determinants of whether and when romodeling with occur in response to changing blood calcium.

Why are the bones of yound childrfen much more flexible than those of the elderly?

Bones of children are not completely calcified, with a higher ratio of more flexible organic fibers. Bones in the elderly are more completely calcified, which gives the characteristic of rigidity.

Inflammation of bony tissue is called ___.

osteitis

Bones appear to be lifeless structures. Does bone material renew itself?

Bone oly appaer lifeless in gross anatomy. Microscopically, bone is full of cells and blood vessels that maintain and renew bone tissue. Approximately 5% to 7% of our bone mass is recycled each week. Up to 0.5 g of calcium may enter or leave the bones each day, depending on the negative feedback hormonal mechanism and gravitational forces.

Compare the function of the organic materials in the bone matrix with the function of the inorganic materials in the matrix.

The organic matrix contributes to the bone structure and its tensile strength, while the inorganic matrix contributes to hardness and resistancce to compression.

What are the differences between the diaphysis and the epiphyses of long bones?

The diaphysis bone is composed almost entirely of compact bone (except in irregular and short bones), while the epiphyses are composed almost entirely of spongy bone. The epiphyses are on the ends of the bone; the diaphysis is the "shank" of the bone. The diaphysis in long bones has a large medullary cavity, whereas the epiphyses do not.

Describe how oxygen is carried from outside a bone to an individual osteocyte.

Blood vessels enter through the periosteum into a perforating canal. The vessel may follow along the axis of the bone through a central canal. Osteocytes have long, almost dendritic-like extensions or arms that reach out through tiny holes called canaliculi. The canaliculi connect one cell to anohter and to the central canal. Oxygen would leave the blood vessel in the central canal and travel through the canaliculi from cell to cell until it reaches the cell in question.

How is the beginning of intramembraneous ossification different from endochondral ossification?

Intramembraneous ossification starts in connective tissue from mesenchymal cells that become osteoblasts. These osteoblasts cluster togehter into an ossification center. Endochondral ossification starts with a hyaline cartilage "template". Mesenchymal cells become osteoblasts and begin forming bone around the cartilage.

If your doctor notices a marked decrease in calcium ion levels in your blood, what gland might he suspect is not functioning properly and why?

The parathyroid gland normally responds to low calcium ion levels in the blood and releases PTH, which mobilizes osteoclasts to step up bone destruction, releasing more calcium into the bloodstream. If the parathyroid is not functioning properly it may release too much PTH or not respond at all, which seems to be the case here.

Whjile on vacation last spring, June fell on the pavement and broke her wist. At the emergency room, a resident placed a cast on her wrist after manipulating the bones. It seemed to heal within a few months. However, recently she has noticed lumps in the area where the break happened and she has been complaining of pain. What could be causing the lumps and the pain?

June probably has "bony spurs", which are abnormal projections from a bone due to bone overgrowth.

A&P Ch 6 - Subjecto.com

A&P Ch 6

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Skull

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

c) Flat bone sternum, scapulae, ribs and most skull bones. sternum = breastbone scapulae = shoulder blades ribs and most skull bones

Humerus
= upper arm bone

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

a) Long bone Includes all limb bones except the patella (kneecap) and the wrist and ankle bones, including the three bones in each of your fingers.

Ribs

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

c) Flat bone sternum = breastbone scapulae = shoulder blades ribs and most skull bones

Sacrum
= posterior wall of pelvis

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

d) Irregular bone Includes the vertebrae and the hip bones.

Phalanges
= fingers

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

a) Long bone Includes all limb bones except the patella (kneecap) and the wrist and ankle bones, including the three bones in each of your fingers.

Patella
=knee cap

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

e) Sesamoid bone

Tarsals
= posterior half of the foot
consists of 7 tarsals.

a) Long
b) Short
c) Flat
d) Irregular
e) Sesamoid

b) Short bone

Dense outer layer that looks smooth and solid.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

c) compact bone

Location of the remnant of the epiphyseal plate, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

b) epiphyseal line

Area where yellow marrow is found.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

d) Medullary cavity

Area where a thin layer of hyaline cartilage is found, which cushions the opposing bone ends during joint movement and absorbs stress.

a) Articular cartilage
b) Epiphyseal line
c) Compact bone
d) Medullary cavity

a) Articular cartilage

Bones are porous and thin but bone composition is normal.

a) Osteomalacia
b) Paget’s disease
c) Osteoporosis

c) Osteoporosis

Bone formed is poorly mineralized and soft. Deforms on weight bearing.

a) Osteomalacia
b) Paget’s disease
c) Osteoporosis

a) Osteomalacia

Abnormal bone formation and reabsorption.

a) Osteomalacia
b) Paget’s disease
c) Osteoporosis

b) Paget’s disease

An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts. Common in children.

a) Comminuted
b) Spiral
c) Greenstick

c) Greenstick

Bone fragments into many pieces.

a) Comminuted
b) Spiral
c) Greenstick

a) Comminuted

Common sport fracture resulting from a twisting force.

a) Comminuted
b) Spiral
c) Greenstick

b) Spiral

The lining of the marrow cavity.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

a) Endosteum

Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

d) Osteoclasts

Layers of bone matrix.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

e) Lamellae

Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

b) Canaliculi

Cells that can build bony matrix.

a) Endosteum
b) Canaliculi
c) Osteoblasts
d) Osteoclasts
e) Lamellae

c) Osteoblasts

The cells responsible for the early stages of endochondral ossification.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

a) Chondrocytes

The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

b) Appositional growth

The area of long bones where cartilage cells are replaced by bone cells.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

d) Diaphysis

The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

c) Epiphyseal line

Area where bone longitudinal growth takes palce.

a) Chondrocytes
b) Appositional growth
c) Epiphyseal line
d) Diaphysis
e) Epiphyseal plate

e) Epiphyseal plate

Radius
= upper limb after humerus

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

b) long bone

Carpals
= 8 wrist bones

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

a) short bone

Patella
= knee cap

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

e) sesamoid bone

Scapula
= shoulder blades

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

d) flat bone

Hip bones

a) short bone
b) long bone
c) irregular bone
d) flat bone
e) sesamoid bone

c) irregular bone

Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.

True / False

True

Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.

True / False

False

Bones a classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.

True / False

False

The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessals.

True / False

False

Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.

True / False

False

In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.

True / False

False

The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.

True / False

True

The term "osteoid" refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.

True / False

True

Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.

True / False

True Inorganic hydroxyapatite (mineral salts) – largely calcium phosphates present in the form of tiny, tightly packed, needle-like crystals in and around the collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix.

All bones formed by intramembranous ossification are irregular bones.

True / False

False. Most bones formed by intramembranous ossification porcess are flat bones.

An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.

True / False

True

The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.

True / False

True The trabeculae is spongy bone align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resist stress as much as possible.

Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six months’ gestation.

True / False

False. Most long bone begin ossifying by 8 weeks after conception and have well-developed primary ossification centers by 12 weeks.

Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.

True / False

True

Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.

True / False

True Unlike bone, which has a hard matrix, cartilage has a flexible matrix, which can accommodate mitosis.

Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.

True / False

False. Adult one can still increase in diameter or thickness by appositional growth if stressed by excessive muscle activity or body weight.

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adaped to support weight and withstand tension stress?

a) spongy bone
b) irregular bone
c) compact bone
d) trabecular bone

c) compact bone

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ___.

a) fat
b) blood-forming cells
c) elastic tissue
d) Sharpey’s fibers

a) fat

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ___.

a) osteocyte
b) osteoblast
c) osteoclast
d) chondrocyte

b) osteoblast

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

a) elastic connective tissue
b) dense fibrous connective tissue
c) fibrocartilage
d) hyaline cartilage

d) hyaline cartilage

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

a) inadequate calcification of bone

b) decreased osteoclast activity

c) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

d) increased osteoclast activity

c) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ___.

a) epiphysis
b) metaphysis
c) diaphysis
d) articular cartilage

c) diaphysis dia = through physis = growth diaphysis or shaft forms the long axis of the bone.

The term "diploe" refers to the ___.

a) double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone.

b) fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue

c) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

d) two types of marrow found within most bones

c) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones diploe = folded In flat bones the spongy bone is called the diploe.

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints?

a) meatus
b) ramus
c) foramen
d) fossa
e) epicondyle

b) ramus ramus = armlike bar of bone Projections that help to form joints; head, facet, condyle, ramus.

Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ___.

a) drinking fluoridated water

b) decreasing weight-bearing exercise

c) increasing dietary vitamin C

d) decreasing exposure to the sun

a) drinking fluoridated water

Ossification of the ends of long bones ___.

a) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation

b) involves medullary cavity formation

c) is produced by secondary ossification centers

d) takes twice as long as diaphysis

c) is produced by secondary ossification centers

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

a) lacunae

b) Haversian system

c) epiphyseal plate

d) epiphyseal line

c) epiphyseal plate

The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ___.

a) hyaline

b) elastic

c) fibrocartilage

d) epiphyseal

a) hyaline

Which of the following is "not" a function of the skeletal system?

a) support

b) storage of minerals

c) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)

d) communition

d) communication

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

a) osseous matrix

b) spongy bone

c) lamellar bone

d) the osteon

d) the osteon

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ___.

a) cartilage and compact bone

b) marrow and osteons

c) osteoblasts and osteoclasts

d) chondrocytes and osteocytes

c) osteoblasts and osteoclasts bone-germainators and bone breakers.

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ___.

a) Volkmann’s canals

b) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage

c) perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers

d) the struts of bone known as spicules

c) perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers Tufts of collagen fibers that extend from its fibrous layer intothe bone matrix.

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ___.

a) cartilage and interstitial lamellae

b) osteoclasts and osteoblasts

c) yellow marrow and spicules

d) blood vessals and nerve fibers

d) blood vessals and nerve fibers

What are the small spaces in the bhone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called?

a) lacunae

b) Volkmann’s canals

c) Haversian canals

d) trabeculae

a) lacunae lacunae = little hollow. lacunae found at the junctions of the lamellae.

for intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

a) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.

b) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

c) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate

d) A medullary cavity forms.

b) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

The process of bones increasing in width is known as ___.

a) closing of the epiphyseal plate

b) long bones reaching adult length and width

c) appositional growth

d) concentric growth

c) appositional growth

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

a) osteoclast

b) osteocyte

c) osteoblast

d) stem cell

a) osteoclast Bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclasts, giant multinucleate cells.

Which hormone increase osteoclast activity to relase more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

a) calcitonin

b) thyroxine

c) parathyroid hormone

d) estrogen

c) parathyroid hormone

The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40, ___.

a) is slower in females than in males

b) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton

c) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

d) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans

c) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

Wolff’s law is concerned with ___.

a) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age

b) the thickness and shape of a bhone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

c) the function of bone dependent on shape

d) the diameter of the bone being dependent of the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

b) the thickness and shape of a bhone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

Cranial bones develop ___.

a) from cartilage models

b) within fibrous membranes

c) from a tendon

d) within osseous membranes

b) within fibrous membranes Intramembranous ossification results in the formation of cranial bones of the skull and the clavicle. Most bones formed from this process are flat bones.

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormes that tend to "decrease" blood calcium levels?

a) pineal gland

b) thyroid

c) parathyroid

d) spleen

b) thyroid

Osteomyelitis is ___.

a) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium

b) literally known as "soft bones"

c) due to pus-forming bacteria

d) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism

c) due to pus-forming bacteria

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

a) growth at the epiphyseal plate

b) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

c) along the edges only

d) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

b) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

a) Growth occurs in the lining of long bones.

b) Fibroblasts give rise tot chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage.

c) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage.

d) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

d) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within. "growth from within" The lacunae bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within.

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ___.

a) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis

b) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

c) from the edges inward

d) in a circular fashion

b) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis The cells divide quickly, pushing the epiphysis away fromthe diaphysis, causing the entire long bhone to lengthen.

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ___.

a) osteons

b) lamellar bone

c) trabeculae

d) osseous lamellae

c) trabeculae Trabeculae in spongy bone align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resist stress as much as possible.

Osteogenesis is the process of ___.

a) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone

b) bone destruction to liberate calcium

c) bone formation

d) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage

c) bone formation os = bone genesis = beginning osteogenesis aka ossification In embryos – formation of the bones. In adults – bone growth.

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ___.

a) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

b) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity

c) defferentiation of osteoclasts

d) calcification of the matrix

a) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

a) thyroid hormone

b somatomedins

c) growth hormone

d) prolactin

c) growth hormone In infants – growth hormone releases by anterior pituitary gland. Thyroid hormones modulate the activity of the growth hormones as it grows. At puberty – testosterones or estrogen sex hormones promote growth spurt in adolescents.

In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

a) overproduction of thyroid hormone

b) elevated levels of sex hormones

c) too much vitamin D in the diet

d) osteoblast activity exceeds ostoclast activity

b) elevated levels of sex hormones

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ___.

a) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

b) postassium, phosphate, and vitamin D

c) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E

d) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

a) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Ostealgia is ___,

a) a defect called clubfoot

b) a disease of the bone

c) pain in a bone

d) fractured bone

c) pain in a bone os = bone algia = pain

Blood cell formation is called ___.

hematopoiesis

A bone embedded in a tendon is called a(n) ___ bone.

sesamoid

A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries, lymph vessels, and ___ fivers.

nerve

A long bone forms a process known as ___ ossification.

endochondral

___ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones.

Appositional

___ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone.

Osteoclasts

___ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones.

Osteoporosis

A rounded or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and/or nerves is called a(n) ___.

foramen

List the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.

Hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and remodeling.

What is found in a Haversian canal?

Blood vessels and nerve fibers.

Several hormones control the remodeling of bones. Which two respond to changing blood calcium levels?

To keep bones in proper dimensions, PTH and calcitonin are the major determinants of whether and when romodeling with occur in response to changing blood calcium.

Why are the bones of yound childrfen much more flexible than those of the elderly?

Bones of children are not completely calcified, with a higher ratio of more flexible organic fibers. Bones in the elderly are more completely calcified, which gives the characteristic of rigidity.

Inflammation of bony tissue is called ___.

osteitis

Bones appear to be lifeless structures. Does bone material renew itself?

Bone oly appaer lifeless in gross anatomy. Microscopically, bone is full of cells and blood vessels that maintain and renew bone tissue. Approximately 5% to 7% of our bone mass is recycled each week. Up to 0.5 g of calcium may enter or leave the bones each day, depending on the negative feedback hormonal mechanism and gravitational forces.

Compare the function of the organic materials in the bone matrix with the function of the inorganic materials in the matrix.

The organic matrix contributes to the bone structure and its tensile strength, while the inorganic matrix contributes to hardness and resistancce to compression.

What are the differences between the diaphysis and the epiphyses of long bones?

The diaphysis bone is composed almost entirely of compact bone (except in irregular and short bones), while the epiphyses are composed almost entirely of spongy bone. The epiphyses are on the ends of the bone; the diaphysis is the "shank" of the bone. The diaphysis in long bones has a large medullary cavity, whereas the epiphyses do not.

Describe how oxygen is carried from outside a bone to an individual osteocyte.

Blood vessels enter through the periosteum into a perforating canal. The vessel may follow along the axis of the bone through a central canal. Osteocytes have long, almost dendritic-like extensions or arms that reach out through tiny holes called canaliculi. The canaliculi connect one cell to anohter and to the central canal. Oxygen would leave the blood vessel in the central canal and travel through the canaliculi from cell to cell until it reaches the cell in question.

How is the beginning of intramembraneous ossification different from endochondral ossification?

Intramembraneous ossification starts in connective tissue from mesenchymal cells that become osteoblasts. These osteoblasts cluster togehter into an ossification center. Endochondral ossification starts with a hyaline cartilage "template". Mesenchymal cells become osteoblasts and begin forming bone around the cartilage.

If your doctor notices a marked decrease in calcium ion levels in your blood, what gland might he suspect is not functioning properly and why?

The parathyroid gland normally responds to low calcium ion levels in the blood and releases PTH, which mobilizes osteoclasts to step up bone destruction, releasing more calcium into the bloodstream. If the parathyroid is not functioning properly it may release too much PTH or not respond at all, which seems to be the case here.

Whjile on vacation last spring, June fell on the pavement and broke her wist. At the emergency room, a resident placed a cast on her wrist after manipulating the bones. It seemed to heal within a few months. However, recently she has noticed lumps in the area where the break happened and she has been complaining of pain. What could be causing the lumps and the pain?

June probably has "bony spurs", which are abnormal projections from a bone due to bone overgrowth.

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