A&P Ch 18

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Hormones often interact in an integrative way. Examples of this include all of the following except __________.

lowering blood sugar by insulin

Excessive secretion by the adrenal medulla can lead to all of these changes except __________.


Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?

elevated oxygen utilization elevated heart rate elevated body temperature Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit all of these signs.

Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?

elevated blood calcium increased loss of bone minerals osteopenia All of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?


What tropic hormone stimulates cortisol from the adrenal gland?

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?

control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones stimulated by which of the following hormones?

GH (growth hormone)

Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine ("letdown") reflex?


Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?


What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?

neg feedback

Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?


What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

Which hormone’s receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?

thyroid hormone

What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor?

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

Endocrine cells __________.

secrete into extracellular fluid perform intercellular communication contain secretory vesicles Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics.

Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney not secrete?


Which of these is mismatched?

zone reticularis; norepinephrine

Melatonin is secreted by __________.


Which of these is not a steroid hormone produced by the gonads?


Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?


Which of these statements about the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome is not true?

The dominant hormone is epinephrine.

The brain region that exerts the most direct effects on the endocrine system is the __________.


Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________.

more rapidly acting more localized in action briefer in action Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

Which of these statements about the parathyroid gland is false?

The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.

Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?


Which of these hormones exerts a strong effect on adrenal steroid production?


Peptide hormones ___________.

are composed of amino acids

__________ elevates blood calcium ion levels.

Parathyroid hormone

In paracrine communication a chemical signal acts within the tissue that produced it; in endocrine communication the signal reaches the target cells by way of the circulation. Are these two statements true or false?

both true

Which of these is not produced by pancreatic islet cells?

digestive enzymes

What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?

water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine

Which intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone?


Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to which type of receptor?

tyrosine kinase receptors

Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?

activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP

Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?


Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?

β receptors

Calcitonin is secreted by which cells?

C cells (parafollicular cells) in the thyroid gland

The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces what steroid hormone?


The sympathetic nervous system directly stimulates which of the following amine hormones?

epinephrine from the adrenal medulla

What hormone causes the loss of sodium and water, thus lowering blood pressure.

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

What amine hormone helps coordinate body activities with the light-dark cycle?


What hormone promotes glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle?


Where is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesized?

anterior pituitary

Which gland is named for a nearby prominent cartilage?


Which hormone secreted by the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones?


The release of ACTH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland causes the _______.

adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids

Which hormone affects the smooth muscle of the ductus deferens and uterus?


Which cells are correctly matched to the hormones they produce?

beta cells; insulin

Which of these statements about the pineal gland is false?

It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

Adipose cells produce a hormone called __________ that acts on the brain to reduce food intake.


Which of these hormones is not derived from an amino acid?

parathyroid hormone

A rise in blood glucose level will trigger all these responses except __________.

increased epinephrine secretion

Lipid-soluble hormones usually bind to __________ receptors.


Which of the following hormones is a part of the rapid response (rather than the prolonged response) to stress?


In response to stress, which of the following changes would happen?

decreased insulin secretion

Which of the following are symptom(s) of pheochromocytoma?

heart palpitations

Choose which condition has all of the following symptoms: hypertension, hyperglycemia, and a "moon face."

Cushing’s disease

What hormone also aids the stress response by promoting water retention and acting as a vasoconstrictor?

ADH (vasopressin)

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