A&P Ch.14 pt.2

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The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
A) parasympathetic innervation
B) sympathetic stimulation
C) vagus nerve activity
D) neurosecretory substances

sympathetic stimulation

Which of the following does not describe the ANS?
A) a system of motor neurons that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
B) a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
C) involuntary nervous system
D) general visceral motor system

a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells

Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response is the role of the ________.
A) sympathetic nervous system
B) cerebrum
C) parasympathetic nervous system
D) somatic nervous system

sympathetic nervous system

The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except ________.
A) their effectors
B) their efferent pathways
C) to some degree in target responses to their neurotransmitters
D) all of the neurotransmitters

all of the neurotransmitters

A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
A) anticholinesterase
B) epinephrine
C) norepinephrine
D) a beta-blocker

a beta-blocker

The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
A) ciliary ganglion
B) pterygopalatine ganglion
C) submandibular ganglion
D) otic ganglion

ciliary ganglion

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
A) constriction of most blood vessels
B) dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles
C) increase of heart rate and force
D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
A) V
B) VII
C) X
D) XII

X

The "resting and digesting" division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
The "resting and digesting" division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
A) parasympathetic division
B) sympathetic division
C) somatic division
D) peripheral nervous system

parasympathetic division

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
A) medulla
B) cerebellum
C) hypothalamus
D) thalamus

hypothalamus

Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A) smooth muscle
B) cardiac muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) most glands

skeletal muscle

Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
A) salivation
B) dilation of the pupils
C) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D) elimination of urine

dilation of the pupils

Which of the following statements is not true?
A) Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
B) Sympathetic ganglia are within a few centimeters of the CNS; parasympathetic are close to visceral organs served.
C) Sympathetic division has short preganglionic and long postganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers.
D) Sympathetic has extensive branching of preganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has minimal branching of preganglionic fibers.

Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.

Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
A) inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
C) preganglionic fibers are short
D) preganglionic fibers are long

NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response

Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebra?
A) second cervical
B) third lumbar
C) first coccyx
D) first thoracic

first thoracic

Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
A) an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
B) synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
D) both somatic afferent and efferent neurons

the cell bodies of motor neurons

The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.
A) optic
B) oculomotor
C) trochlear
D) abducens

oculomotor

Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) spinal nerves
D) splanchnic nerves

splanchnic nerves

Which of the following is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
A) cardiac
B) pulmonary
C) celiac
D) esophageal

celiac

Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
A) visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
B) somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
D) visceral arcs do not use integration centers

visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

The parasympathetic tone ________.
A) prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B) accelerates activity of the digestive tract
C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D) causes blood pressure to rise

determines normal activity of the urinary tract

Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all but which one of the following?
A) synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
B) synapase with a ganglionic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
C) ascend or descend the trunk to synapse in another trunk ganglion
D) pass through the trunk ganglion without synapsing with another neuron

synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion

The white rami communicantes ________.
A) are found only in the – cord segments
B) are unmyelinated
C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
D) carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery

carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain

Beta-blockers ________.
A) increase a dangerously low heart rate
B) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
C) have widespread sympathetic effects
D) are potent antidepressants

decrease heart rate and blood pressure

Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
A) is primarily under sympathetic control
B) is primarily under parasympathetic control
C) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
D) depends very little on autonomic activation

is primarily under parasympathetic control

Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
A) regulation of pupil size
B) regulation of cardiac rate
C) regulation of respiratory rate
D) regulation of body temperature

regulation of body temperature

Raynaud’s disease ________.
A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
B) is induced by heat stress
C) occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
D) is frequently life threatening

is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

Autonomic dysreflexia ________.
A) is also known as autonomic areflexia
B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
C) usually precedes spinal shock
D) results from overexcitatory input from the cortex

involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons

Which sympathetic fibers form the splanchnic nerve?
A) those that synapse with parasympathetic fibers
B) those that synapse in the same trunk ganglion they entered
C) those that synapse with somatic fibers
D) those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia

those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia

In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
B) cerebral hemorrhage
C) major loss of axons
D) peripheral vascular changes

clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments

Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
A) in the head
B) in the cervical region
C) close to the visceral effectors they serve
D) in the armpit

in the armpit

Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
A) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
B) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
D) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure

increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure

The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
A) lumbar splanchnic nerves
B) cephalic plexus
C) pelvic nerves
D) tenth cranial nerve

tenth cranial nerve

The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
A) sympathetic trunk
B) phrenic nerve
C) vagus nerve
D) sacral nerve

vagus nerve

Parasympathetic functions include ________.
A) a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
B) allowing the body to cope with an external threat
C) lens accommodation for close vision
D) mobilizing storage energy sources

lens accommodation for close vision

Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
A) lateral horn of the spinal cord
B) hypothalamus
C) lateral geniculate of the thalamus
D) inferior colliculus

hypothalamus

The possibility of some control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
A) split brain studies
B) stress-induced hypertension
C) biofeedback
D) nightmares

biofeedback

The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
A) pancreas
B) kidneys
C) parotid gland
D) gallbladder

parotid gland

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