A&P Ch.11

Which of the following is NOT one of the basic functions of the nervous system?

regulation of neurogenesis

Which of the following allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles?

The somatic nervous system

What part of the nervous system performs information processing and integration?

Central nervous system

Which of the following peripheral nervous system (PNS) neuroglia form the myelin sheaths around larger nerve fibers in the PNS?

Schwann cells

Which of the following is the conducting region of the neuron?

axon

Which of the following are gaps found along a myelin sheath?

Nodes of ranvier

Which of the following is NOT a difference between graded potentials and action potentials?

Spatial summation is used to increase the amplitude of a graded potential; temporal summation is used to increase the amplitude of an action potential

Which neuroglia are the most abundant and versatile of the glial cells?

astrocytes

Which of the following types of neurons carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS)?

motor

Where do most action potentials originate?

Initial segment

What opens first in response to a threshold stimulus?

Voltage-gated Na+ channels

What characterizes depolarization, the first phase of the action potential?

The membrane potential changes from a negative value to a positive value.

What is the first change to occur in response to a threshold stimulus?

Voltage-gated Na+ channels change shape, and their activation gates open.

What type of conduction takes place in unmyelinated axons?

continuous conduction

An action potential is self-regenerating because __________.

depolarizing currents established by the influx of Na+‎ flow down the axon and trigger an action potential at the next segment

Why does regeneration of the action potential occur in one direction, rather than in two directions?

The inactivation gates of voltage-gated Na+‎ channels close in the node, or segment, that has just fired an action potential.

What is the function of the myelin sheath?

The myelin sheath increases the speed of action potential conduction from the initial segment to the axon terminals.

What changes occur to voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels at the peak of depolarization?

Inactivation gates of voltage-gated Na+‎ channels close, while activation gates of voltage-gated K+‎ channels open.

In which type of axon will velocity of action potential conduction be the fastest?

Myelinated axons with the largest diameter

Ions are unequally distributed across the plasma membrane of all cells. This ion distribution creates an electrical potential difference across the membrane. What is the name given to this potential difference?

Resting membrane potential (RMP)

Sodium and potassium ions can diffuse across the plasma membranes of all cells because of the presence of what type of channel?

Leak Channels

On average, the resting membrane potential is -70 mV. What does the sign and magnitude of this value tell you?

The inside surface of the plasma membrane is much more negatively charged than the outside surface.

The plasma membrane is much more permeable to K+ than to Na+. Why?

There are many more K+ leak channels than Na+ leak channels in the plasma membrane

Which of the following is NOT a type of circuit?

Pre-discharge circuits

What type of stimulus is required for an action potential to be generated?

A threshold lever depolarization

The __________ is due to the difference in K+ and Na+ concentrations on either side of the plasma membrane, and the difference in permeability of the membrane to these ions.

Resisting membrane potential

The small space between the sending neuron and the receiving neuron is the

Synaptic cleft

A molecule that carries information across a synaptic cleft is a

neurotransmitter

When calcium ions enter the synaptic terminal,

they cause vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules to fuse to the plasma membrane of the sending neuron.

When neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the plasma membrane of the receiving neuron,

ion channels in the plasma membrane of the receiving neuron open.

If a signal from a sending neuron makes the receiving neuron more negative inside,

the receiving neuron is less likely to generate an action potential

Unmyelinated fibers conduct impulses faster than myelinated fibers. T or F?

F

The sodium-potassium pump ejects two Na+ from the cell and then transports three K+ back into the cell in order to maintain the concentration gradients for sodium and potassium. T or F?

F

What component of the reflex arc determines the response to a stimulus?

Integration center

reflexes

rapid automatic responses to a stimulus in which the particular stimulus always produces the same motor response

autonomic nervous system

conducts impulses from CNS to internal organ muscles

A potential of -90 mV is considered __________.

hyperpolarized

numerous nerve impulses arriving at a synapse at closely timed intervals exert a cumulative effect.

temporal summation

central nervous system.

Consist of brain and spinal cord

What is the difference between nerves and tracts?

Bundles of neuron processes are called tracts in the CNS and nerves in the PNS.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

consists mainly of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord

Which of the following best describes the concept of integration?

The nervous system processes and interprets sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment.

somatic nervous system

conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles

Which of the following factors is associated with increased conduction velocity in an axon?

large diameter

Which criterion is used to structurally classify neurons?

the number of processes extending from their cell body

any stimulus above this intensity will result in an action potential in a neuron?

Threshold stimulus

During which phase of an action potential are voltage-gated K+ channels open, while voltage-gated Na+ channels are closed?

repolarizing phase

Neurons can be classified structurally by the number of processes extending from their cell bodies. Which of the following is the most common neuron type in humans?

multipolar

Which of the following neurotransmitters acts as a natural opiate?

endorphines

Which of the following is NOT true of efferent neurons?

Efferent neurons are bipolar

Which of the following is NOT a biogenic amine neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter?

binds to the postsynaptic receptor/channel

Which of the following circuit types is exemplified by impulses that travel from a single neuron of the brain, activate one hundred or more motor neurons in the spinal cord, and excite thousands of skeletal muscle fibers?

diverging circuits

norepinephrine?

neurotransmitter of postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following membrane ion channels open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential?

voltage- gated channels

Which of the following neuroglia is most responsible for helping determine capillary permeability in nervous tissue?

astrocytes

Which of the following is NOT true of chemical synapses?

They transmit nerve impulses directly from one neuron to another.

Which of the following statements concerning inhibitory synapses (IPSPs) is correct?

The postsynaptic membrane becomes more permeable to potassium and chloride.

The somatic sensory (afferent) fibers of the peripheral nervous system transmits information from the __________ to the CNS.

Skin

Which of the following is a rare type of sensory neuron that is found in special sensory structures like the retina of the eye?

bipolar

Which disease is directly related to demyelination?

multiple sclerosis

acetylcholine?

excites skeletal muscle

A neuron will not respond to a second stimulus of equal strength to the first stimulus to which it has already responded because __________.

the neuron is in the absolute refractory period

Which type of ion channel opens when a chemical binds to it?

ligand- gated channel

Which of the following substances plays the major role in generating the membrane potential of a neuron through its passive movement?

potassium

Which of the following conditions would cause synaptic potentiation?

...

What is the primary difference between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?

The somatic nervous system allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles, and the autonomic nervous system controls activity that humans cannot consciously control, such as the pumping of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive tract.

Caffeine's stimulatory effects result from blocking receptors for which neurotransmitter?

adenosine

Organelles for degradation or recycling are moved through the axon by _____.

retrograde movement

Which of the following types of glial cells line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord, where they help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid?

ependymal cells

The sodium-potassium ion pump will __________.

pump three sodium ions out of the cell for every two ions of potassium it brings into the cell

From where can collaterals emerge on a myelinated nerve?

from the nodes of Ranvier

Which of the following membrane ion channels in the neuron are always open?

leakage channels

Which part of the action potential occurs when the Na+ channels are inactivating and K+ channels open?

repolarization

Which of the following characteristics is NOT associated with a myelinated nerve fiber?

slow conduction of nerve impulses

Which of the following is NOT a function of the myelin sheath?

to recapture and recycle released neurotransmitters

Which of the following electrical events occurs when a certain threshold is reached?

Action potential

Which of the following events is NOT involved in the transfer of information across a chemical synapse?

Ions flow directly from one neuron to the next.

The interior of a nerve cell has a slight excess of negative charge because __________.

potassium diffuses out of the cells

Which of the following substances is NOT a neurotransmitter?

acetylcholinesterase

Which of the following types of glial cells are the most abundant and versatile and aid in making exchanges between capillaries and neurons?

astrocytes

Which of the following line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord and provide a fairly permeable barrier between the CSF and nervous tissue?

ependymal cells

What is the difference between the clusters of cell bodies called nuclei and those known as ganglia?

Nuclei exist in the CNS, ganglia in the PNS.

the all-or-none phenomenon?

an action potential occurring only if enough Na+ enters the cell and threshold is achieved

G-protein-linked receptors?

indirect synaptic responses that are complex, prolonged, and often diffuse as a result of the production of intracellular second-messenger molecules

saltatory conduction?

conduction process in myelinated axons where the electrical signal appears to jump from gap to gap along the axon

The Nissl bodies seen in the neuron cell body represents which cellular organelle?

Rough E.R.

A&P Ch.11 - Subjecto.com

A&P Ch.11

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Which of the following is NOT one of the basic functions of the nervous system?

regulation of neurogenesis

Which of the following allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles?

The somatic nervous system

What part of the nervous system performs information processing and integration?

Central nervous system

Which of the following peripheral nervous system (PNS) neuroglia form the myelin sheaths around larger nerve fibers in the PNS?

Schwann cells

Which of the following is the conducting region of the neuron?

axon

Which of the following are gaps found along a myelin sheath?

Nodes of ranvier

Which of the following is NOT a difference between graded potentials and action potentials?

Spatial summation is used to increase the amplitude of a graded potential; temporal summation is used to increase the amplitude of an action potential

Which neuroglia are the most abundant and versatile of the glial cells?

astrocytes

Which of the following types of neurons carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS)?

motor

Where do most action potentials originate?

Initial segment

What opens first in response to a threshold stimulus?

Voltage-gated Na+ channels

What characterizes depolarization, the first phase of the action potential?

The membrane potential changes from a negative value to a positive value.

What is the first change to occur in response to a threshold stimulus?

Voltage-gated Na+ channels change shape, and their activation gates open.

What type of conduction takes place in unmyelinated axons?

continuous conduction

An action potential is self-regenerating because __________.

depolarizing currents established by the influx of Na+‎ flow down the axon and trigger an action potential at the next segment

Why does regeneration of the action potential occur in one direction, rather than in two directions?

The inactivation gates of voltage-gated Na+‎ channels close in the node, or segment, that has just fired an action potential.

What is the function of the myelin sheath?

The myelin sheath increases the speed of action potential conduction from the initial segment to the axon terminals.

What changes occur to voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels at the peak of depolarization?

Inactivation gates of voltage-gated Na+‎ channels close, while activation gates of voltage-gated K+‎ channels open.

In which type of axon will velocity of action potential conduction be the fastest?

Myelinated axons with the largest diameter

Ions are unequally distributed across the plasma membrane of all cells. This ion distribution creates an electrical potential difference across the membrane. What is the name given to this potential difference?

Resting membrane potential (RMP)

Sodium and potassium ions can diffuse across the plasma membranes of all cells because of the presence of what type of channel?

Leak Channels

On average, the resting membrane potential is -70 mV. What does the sign and magnitude of this value tell you?

The inside surface of the plasma membrane is much more negatively charged than the outside surface.

The plasma membrane is much more permeable to K+ than to Na+. Why?

There are many more K+ leak channels than Na+ leak channels in the plasma membrane

Which of the following is NOT a type of circuit?

Pre-discharge circuits

What type of stimulus is required for an action potential to be generated?

A threshold lever depolarization

The __________ is due to the difference in K+ and Na+ concentrations on either side of the plasma membrane, and the difference in permeability of the membrane to these ions.

Resisting membrane potential

The small space between the sending neuron and the receiving neuron is the

Synaptic cleft

A molecule that carries information across a synaptic cleft is a

neurotransmitter

When calcium ions enter the synaptic terminal,

they cause vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules to fuse to the plasma membrane of the sending neuron.

When neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the plasma membrane of the receiving neuron,

ion channels in the plasma membrane of the receiving neuron open.

If a signal from a sending neuron makes the receiving neuron more negative inside,

the receiving neuron is less likely to generate an action potential

Unmyelinated fibers conduct impulses faster than myelinated fibers. T or F?

F

The sodium-potassium pump ejects two Na+ from the cell and then transports three K+ back into the cell in order to maintain the concentration gradients for sodium and potassium. T or F?

F

What component of the reflex arc determines the response to a stimulus?

Integration center

reflexes

rapid automatic responses to a stimulus in which the particular stimulus always produces the same motor response

autonomic nervous system

conducts impulses from CNS to internal organ muscles

A potential of -90 mV is considered __________.

hyperpolarized

numerous nerve impulses arriving at a synapse at closely timed intervals exert a cumulative effect.

temporal summation

central nervous system.

Consist of brain and spinal cord

What is the difference between nerves and tracts?

Bundles of neuron processes are called tracts in the CNS and nerves in the PNS.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

consists mainly of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord

Which of the following best describes the concept of integration?

The nervous system processes and interprets sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment.

somatic nervous system

conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles

Which of the following factors is associated with increased conduction velocity in an axon?

large diameter

Which criterion is used to structurally classify neurons?

the number of processes extending from their cell body

any stimulus above this intensity will result in an action potential in a neuron?

Threshold stimulus

During which phase of an action potential are voltage-gated K+ channels open, while voltage-gated Na+ channels are closed?

repolarizing phase

Neurons can be classified structurally by the number of processes extending from their cell bodies. Which of the following is the most common neuron type in humans?

multipolar

Which of the following neurotransmitters acts as a natural opiate?

endorphines

Which of the following is NOT true of efferent neurons?

Efferent neurons are bipolar

Which of the following is NOT a biogenic amine neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter?

binds to the postsynaptic receptor/channel

Which of the following circuit types is exemplified by impulses that travel from a single neuron of the brain, activate one hundred or more motor neurons in the spinal cord, and excite thousands of skeletal muscle fibers?

diverging circuits

norepinephrine?

neurotransmitter of postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following membrane ion channels open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential?

voltage- gated channels

Which of the following neuroglia is most responsible for helping determine capillary permeability in nervous tissue?

astrocytes

Which of the following is NOT true of chemical synapses?

They transmit nerve impulses directly from one neuron to another.

Which of the following statements concerning inhibitory synapses (IPSPs) is correct?

The postsynaptic membrane becomes more permeable to potassium and chloride.

The somatic sensory (afferent) fibers of the peripheral nervous system transmits information from the __________ to the CNS.

Skin

Which of the following is a rare type of sensory neuron that is found in special sensory structures like the retina of the eye?

bipolar

Which disease is directly related to demyelination?

multiple sclerosis

acetylcholine?

excites skeletal muscle

A neuron will not respond to a second stimulus of equal strength to the first stimulus to which it has already responded because __________.

the neuron is in the absolute refractory period

Which type of ion channel opens when a chemical binds to it?

ligand- gated channel

Which of the following substances plays the major role in generating the membrane potential of a neuron through its passive movement?

potassium

Which of the following conditions would cause synaptic potentiation?

What is the primary difference between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?

The somatic nervous system allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles, and the autonomic nervous system controls activity that humans cannot consciously control, such as the pumping of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive tract.

Caffeine’s stimulatory effects result from blocking receptors for which neurotransmitter?

adenosine

Organelles for degradation or recycling are moved through the axon by _____.

retrograde movement

Which of the following types of glial cells line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord, where they help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid?

ependymal cells

The sodium-potassium ion pump will __________.

pump three sodium ions out of the cell for every two ions of potassium it brings into the cell

From where can collaterals emerge on a myelinated nerve?

from the nodes of Ranvier

Which of the following membrane ion channels in the neuron are always open?

leakage channels

Which part of the action potential occurs when the Na+ channels are inactivating and K+ channels open?

repolarization

Which of the following characteristics is NOT associated with a myelinated nerve fiber?

slow conduction of nerve impulses

Which of the following is NOT a function of the myelin sheath?

to recapture and recycle released neurotransmitters

Which of the following electrical events occurs when a certain threshold is reached?

Action potential

Which of the following events is NOT involved in the transfer of information across a chemical synapse?

Ions flow directly from one neuron to the next.

The interior of a nerve cell has a slight excess of negative charge because __________.

potassium diffuses out of the cells

Which of the following substances is NOT a neurotransmitter?

acetylcholinesterase

Which of the following types of glial cells are the most abundant and versatile and aid in making exchanges between capillaries and neurons?

astrocytes

Which of the following line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord and provide a fairly permeable barrier between the CSF and nervous tissue?

ependymal cells

What is the difference between the clusters of cell bodies called nuclei and those known as ganglia?

Nuclei exist in the CNS, ganglia in the PNS.

the all-or-none phenomenon?

an action potential occurring only if enough Na+ enters the cell and threshold is achieved

G-protein-linked receptors?

indirect synaptic responses that are complex, prolonged, and often diffuse as a result of the production of intracellular second-messenger molecules

saltatory conduction?

conduction process in myelinated axons where the electrical signal appears to jump from gap to gap along the axon

The Nissl bodies seen in the neuron cell body represents which cellular organelle?

Rough E.R.

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