A&P 2 Exam 1

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What is the body’s 2nd great controlling system?

The Endocrine System

What 2 systems act to maintain homeostasis?

Nervous & Endocrine

T/F Hormones wash over all cells but only affects target cells.

True

When hormones are being classified chemically, there are two groups. What are they?

Amino Acid Based Hormones & Steroid Based Hormones

What are the 6 major endocrine glands?

1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Parathyroid glands 5. Thymus gland 6. Adrenal gland

What is the second great control system of the body that interacts with the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activity of body cells?

The Endocrine System

T/F: The control and speed of the endocrine system is similar to that of the nervous system.

False

The endocrine system influences metabolic activity by means of what?

Hormones

The word "hormone" means…

to excite

What are hormones?

Chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body

Binding of a hormone to cellular receptors initiates responses that typically occur after a lag period of seconds or even days. Although this makes the system slower than the nervous system, what is the upside to this?

Once initiated, the response tends to be much more prolonged than those induced by the nervous system

T/F: Hormonal targets ultimately include most cells of the body, and hormones have widespread and diverse effects.

True

The major processes controlled and integrated by hormones are… (5)

1. reproduction 2. growth and development 3. maintenance of electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of the blood 4. regulation of cellular metabolism and energy balance 5. mobilization of body defenses

What is the term defined as the scientific study of hormones and the endocrine organs

Endocrinology

T/F: compared with other organs of the body, those of the endocrine system are small and unimpressive.

True

The endocrine system differs from other bodily systems in terms of arrangement. Explain.

They are not grouped together but rather widely spread throughout the body.

What is the name for the glands which produce nonhormonal substances, such as sweat and saliva, & have ducts that carry these substances to a membrane surface.

Exocrine glands

What is the name for the glands which produce hormones and lack ducts.

Endocrine glands

T/F: Endocrine glands typically have a rich vascular and lymphatic drainage that receives their hormones.

True

Most of the hormone-producing cells in the endocrine glands are arranged in _____ and _____ networks– a situation that maximizes contact between the cells and the capillaries surrounding them.

Most of the hormone-producing cells in the endocrine glands are arranged in CORDS and BRANCHING networks– a situation that maximizes contact between the cells and the capillaries surrounding them.

Define a neuroendocrine organ.

organs which have neural functions as well as producing and releasing hormones (ex. hypothalamus)

T/F: Very few organs contain scattered endocrine cels or small clusters of endocrine cells.

False; many organs

T/F: Hormone-producing cells are found in the walls of the small intestine, stomach, kidneys, and heart.

True

Are autocrines and paracrines part of the endocrine system? Why or why not?

No

Are hormones long or short-distanced chemical signals that travel in blood or lymph throughout the body?

Long-distanced

Chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them are called what?

Autocrines

Chemicals that exert their effects locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the chemical are called what?

Paracrines

Certain tumor cells synthesize hormones __________ to those made in normal endocrine glands.

identical

What term can be defined as "chemical substances, secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body"?

Hormones

Most hormones are ___________ based. (steroid or amino acid)

amino acid

Do amino based hormones vary in molecular size?

Yes.

Steroids are synthesized from ____________.

cholesterol

Of the hormones produced by major endocrine organs, only 2 hormones are steroids.. which ones are they?

Gonadal and adrenocortical hormones

T/F: All circulating hormones in the body are organic molecules.

True

Insulin, PTH, and epinephrine are the top three ________ based hormones in the human body.

amino acid based hormones

Leukotrienes and prostaglandins are considered __________.

Eicosanoids

Define eicosanoids

biologically active lipids (made from arachidonic acid) which are released by nearly all cell membranes.

These are made from arachidonic acid.

Eicosanoids

_______ are signaling chemicals that mediate inflammation and some allergic reactions.

leukotrienes

_________ are signaling chemicals that have multiple targets and effects, ranging from blood pressure and increasing the expulsive uterine contractions of birth to enhancing blood clotting, pain, and inflammation.

prostaglandins

Eicosanoids generally act as paracrines and autocrines and do not fit the definition of a true hormone. Why?

Because they are highly localized meaning they only effect nearby cells (true hormones influence distant targets)

If a hormone is a protein or peptide it is usually _______ based.

amino acid

If a hormone is derived from cholesterol, it can be assumed that the hormone is a _________.

steroid

T/F: Amino acid based hormones are pure amino acids.

False; they are modified amino acids

Most of these hormones are water soluble.

Amino acid based

Most of these hormones are lipid soluble.

Steroid base hormones

If a hormone is lipid soluble, then what does it need to do?

it needs a protein carrier to travel through plasma

Amino acid hormones are synthesized on the…. (hint: organelle)

rough ER

Steroid based hormones are synthesized on the…. (hint: organelle)

smooth ER

Most _________ based hormones work through a second messenger system (cAMP).

amino acid

Which type of hormone cannot be taken orally in most cases?

Amino acid based

Do steroid based hormones or amino acid based hormones bind to membrane receptors?

Amino acid based hormones

Do steroid based hormones or amino acid based hormones bind to intracellular receptors?

Steroid based hormones

_______ based hormones stimulate gene activation and protein synthesis.

Steroid

These hormones can be taken orally.

Steroid based hormones

Thyroid hormones act like ________ hormones but are not.

Thyroid hormones act like STEROID BASED hormones but are not.

Being _____ soluble, these hormones can diffuse directly into the cell and direct gene activation.

lipid soluble (steroid based hormones)

Cells that have receptors for specific hormones are called what?

Target Cells

Hormones bring about their characteristic effects on target cells by _______ cell activity.

altering

T/F: Hormones increase or decrease the rates of normal cellular processes.

True

T/F: Thyroid hormone is water soluble.

False; although it is an amino acid based hormone, it acts like a steroid in many ways. One being that it is not water soluble

Water soluble hormones act on receptors in the…

plasma membrane.

With the exception of thyroid hormone, all amino acid-based hormones exert their signaling effects through intracellular ________ generated when a hormone binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane.

With the exception of thyroid hormone, all amino acid-based hormones exert their signaling effects through intracellular SECOND MESSENGER generated when a hormone binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane.

On of the second messengers, _______, is used by neurotransmitters and olfactory receptors.

cyclic AMP (aka cAMP)

5 Steps to the cAMP signaling mechanism.

1. Hormone acts as first messenger by binding to plasma membrane receptor protein forming a R-H complex 2. R-H complex stimulates formation of cAMP (2nd messenger) 3. cAMP activates specific protein kinases in the cell 4. protein kinases phosphorylate enzymes and other proteins already in the cell 5. step 4 then activates or inactivates specific enzymes to open or close membrane channels

4 actions made by steroid hormones…

1. lipid soluble hormones diffuse though the lipid bilayer and bind to intracellular receptors 2. R-H complex binds to and activates a specific gene (direct gene expression occurs) 3. protein synthesis is stimulated 4. the new protein may be an enzyme, secretion, a membrane protein, etc.

T/F: cAMP is slow.

False; cAMP is very FAST

All major endocrine glands are linked ONLY by the __________.

blood

Melatonin is produced by what gland?

Pineal gland

What gland regulates amounts of calcium?

Parathyroid gland

What is the hypophysis?

referring to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland as one structure

GH, TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, prolactin are produced where?

anterior pituitary

Posterior lobe of the pituitary is made up of….

nervous tissue.

also known as "The Master Gland"

Hypothalamus

T/F: Hypothalamus releases & inhibits hormones

True

When referring to the hypophyseal portal system of the pituitary, are we dealing with the anterior or posterior pituitary?

Anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary produces ___(#) hormones, ___(#) of which are tropic hormones.

The anterior pituitary produces 6 hormones, 4 of which are tropic hormones.

75% of glandular weight is found in the anterior or posterior pituitary?

anterior pituitary

When referring to the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract of the pituitary, are we dealing with the anterior or posterior pituitary?

Posterior

In terms of hormones, the posterior pituitary does what?

STORES 2 hormones that are produced by hypothalamus (ADH & oxytocin)

What two hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary?

ADH & oxytocin

2 main actions of hGH

-release of insulin-like growth factors from liver -increase blood glucose levels (anti-insulin effects)

Are proteins able to be taken orally?

No

The term "tropic" means what?

to stimulate another gland

What’s the term used to describe the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present.

Permissiveness

________ of hormones occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified.

Synergism

When one hormone opposes the action of another hormone, the interaction is called _________.

antagonism

T/F: The synthesis and release of most hormones are regulated by some type of positive feedback.

False; negative feedback

T/F: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone acts like a steroid based hormone although it is not one.

False; do not confused thyroid hormone with thyroid STIMULATING hormone

________ stimulates iodide uptake and production of T3 and T4

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

T3 & T4 refers to the __________ hormones.

Thyroid hormones (which do act like steroids)

_____ stimulates release of ACTH.

CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulates release of _______ from the adrenal cortex to help fight _________.

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulates release of CORTISOL from the adrenal cortex to help fight EVERYDAY STRESSORS.

What hormone is released when you fall under stress (all stress-both physical & emotional)?

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)

What are the 2 main gonadotropins?

FSH & LH

Gonadotropins are under the control of _____ from the _________.

Gonadotropins are under the control of GnRH from the HYPOTHALAMUS.

____ & ____ are both hormones whom regulate the functions of ovaries and testes.

FSH & LH

T/F: Prolactin is tropic.

No!

Why is prolactin not considered tropic?

Because mammary glands are exocrine glands through milk production

In females, _________ stimulates development of mammary glands and milk production.

Prolactin (PRL)

Prolactin is usually inhibited by ______.

PIH (dopamine)

T/F: PRH levels drop toward end of pregnancy.

False; they rise toward the end of pregnancy

Posterior pituitary stores two hormones. What are they?

ADH & Oxytocin

ADH stands for

antidiuretic hormone

When is ADH released?

When blood volume is low When osmolarity is high When there is a decrease of oxygen content in blood

When _____ is released, it stimulates the insertion of aquaporins into CD cells

ADH

T/F: Vasopressin and ADH are synonymous.

True

_________ is release when pressure increases on cervix or when baby suckles on nipples.

Oxytocin

_______ stimulates uterine contractions and milk let-down reflex.

Oxytocin

The milk let-down refers to milk _______.

ejection

Is it ADH or oxytocin has been theorized to play a role in sexual arousal and nurturing?

Oxytocin

T/F: Oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle to contract.

True

FSH stands for..

follicle-stimulating hormone

What hormone stimulates sperm production?

FSH

LH stands for..

luteinizing hormone

____ triggers ovulation and stimulates ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone; promotes testosterone production in males.

LH

____ stimulates kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water.

ADH aka vasopressin

The 3 major types of stimuli that trigger endocrine glands to manufacture and release their hormones are…

1. humoral stimuli (direct response to blood level changes) 2. neural stimuli 3. hormonal stimuli

The funnel-shaped stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus superiorly is the ____________.

infundibulum

The posterior lobe plus the infundibulum of the pituitary gland makes up the region called the ___________.

neurohypophysis

T/F: The neurohypophysis indicates the posterior lobe alone.

False (posterior lobe + infundibulum)

Adenohypophysis is another name for..

the anterior pituitary

The ________ is composed of glandular tissue; it manufactures and releases a number of hormones.

anterior pituitary (aka adenohypophysis)

The anterior lobe is made up of ______ tissue and the posterior lobe is made up of ______ tissue.

epithelial; nervous

The glandular anterior lobe originates from a superior out-pocketing of the oral mucosa called _______.

Rathke’s pouch

T/F: There is no direct neural connection between the anterior lobe and hypothalamus, but there is a vascular connection.

True

The primary and secondary capillary plexuses and the intervening hypophyseal portal veins make up the _______.

hypophyseal portal system

An unusual arrangement of blood vessels in which a capillary bed feeds into veins, which in turn feed into another capillary bed, defines a _________.

portal system

A tropin is…

a tropic hormone.

_______ are hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands.

Tropins (or tropic hormones)

All anterior pituitary hormones except for _________ affect their cells via a cyclic AMP second messenger system.

growth hormone

Growth hormone is produced by cells called ___________ of the anterior lobe and has both growth-promoting and metabolic actions.

somatotrophs

GH’s major targets are the _____ and the ______.

bones & skeletal muscles

Stimulation of the _____ leads to long bone growth, and stimulation of ______ promotes increased muscle mass.

Stimulation of the EPIPHYSEAL PLATE leads to long bone growth, and stimulation of SKELETAL MUSCLES promotes increased muscle mass.

T/F: GH promotes protein synthesis, and it encourages the use of fats for fuel, thus conserving glucose.

True

Secretion of GH is regulated chiefly by 2 hypothalamic hormones with antagonistic effects. What are they?

GHRH (Growth hormone-releasing hormone) GHIH (Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone, aka somatostatin)

Somatostatin is synonymous for _____.

Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)

Typically, GH secretion has a daily cycle, with the highest levels during what phase of the day?

during evening sleep

T/F: The total amount of GH secreted daily from adolescence on increases with age.

False; decreases with age.

T/F: GHIH is produced in various locations in the gut where it inhibits the release of virtually all gastrointestinal and pancreatic secretions–both endocrine and exocrine.

True

Hypersecretion of GH in children results in _______.

gigantism

Hypersecretion of GH in adults results in _______.

acromegaly

What cells produce calcitonin?

parafollicular cells

______ is a glycoprotein called thyroglobulin that has iodine attached to the tyrosine amino acid.

Colloid (as in colloid filled follicle cells of the thyroid gland)

___ & ___ make up the thyroid hormones.

T3 & T4

BMR stands for..

basal metabolic rate

Are thyroid hormones polar are nonpolar?

nonpolar

Thyroid hormones are ______ soluble.

lipid

T/F: Thyroid hormones use the 2nd messenger system.

False; Thyroid hormones use direct gene activation

What is the largest pure endocrine gland in the human body?

The thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is composed of _______ that produce the glycoprotein, __________.

The thyroid gland is composed of FOLLICLES that produce the glycoprotein, THYROGLOBULIN.

Thyroglobulin + Iodine =

Colloid

_______ is the precursor of thyroid hormones.

Colloid

Calcitonin is released when levels of Ca2+ are ______.

high

T/F: Calcitonin brings calcium levels back up.

False; Calcitonin brings calcium levels back down.

T/F: Thyroid hormones effect the skeleton & nervous system.

True

________ hormones regulate BMR.

Thyroid

What are the four main actions of thyroid hormones?

-they increase lipolysis (breakdown of fat) -they increase protein synthesis (ATP production) -Important for growth & development of the skeleton and NS -Enhances actions of the sympathetic NS.

The breakdown of fat is termed as ________.

lipolysis

Cretinism, myxedema, & Hashimoto’s are all examples of ____________.

hypothyroidism

Graves’ disease is an example of ___________.

hyperthyroidism

T/F: When suffering from hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, one can medication orally.

True

________ in adults has symptoms such as weight gain, extreme fatigue, hair loss, cold intolerance (meaning they are always cold), and dry skin.

Hypothyroidism

When an adult suffers from hypothyroidism, his/her BMR will have _______.

dropped

________ in adults has symptoms such as anxiety, weight loss, lack of sleep, wet/oily skin, and heat intolerance (meaning they are always hot).

Hyperthyroidism

When an adult suffers from hyperthyroidism, his/her BMR will have _____.

increased

T/F: In graves’ disease, the person will have autoantibodies which mimic TSH

True

What is the exophthalmos of Graves’?

bulging of the eyes from swelling of tissue which sits behind the eye, usually from a smoker.

Chief cells which release PTH make up the ________.

Parathyroid glands

How many parathyroid glands does the average person have?

4 but can have up to 8

When Ca2+ levels decrease, what glands secrete an antagonist to calcitonin called PTH?

Parathyroid glands

When Ca2+ levels go up, what happens?

parafollicular cells produce calcitonin. Calcitonin triggers the kidneys to secrete more Ca2+ into the urine. This inhibits osteoclasts, and intestines will decrease absorption.

A patient is losing weight rapidly, sweating profusely, and is always anxious. The patient may be suffering from _________.

hyperthyroidism

___________ are produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands.

corticosteroids

_________ produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are amino acids.

The medulla (sitting inside of the cortex of the adrenal gland)

The 3 zones making up the cortex of the adrenal glands are…

1. Outer (aldosterone) 2. Middle (cortisol) 3. Inner (testosterone)

All adrenal hormones help us cope with _______.

stresses (all; physical, emotional, minor, major, etc.)

Adrenal glands are made up of two different parts. What are they?

The medulla (inner) & the cortex (outer)

Modified ganglionic neurons of sympathetic NS make up the ________.

Medulla of the adrenal gland

T/F: The hormones from the medulla are NOT essential to life, but help resist stress.

True

Glandular epithelial cells that secrete corticosteroids that are essential to life make up the __________.

cortex of the adrenal gland

Do all corticosteroids derive from cholesterol?

Yes

________ stimulates Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion in the kidneys.

Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone)

Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone) are released when blood [Na2+] is ________ or [K+] is ________.

Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone) is released when blood [Na2+] is LOW or [K+] is HIGH.

When blood pressure and blood volume are low, _______ is released.

renin

The medulla produces what catecholamines?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

What do glucocorticoids do?

They help resist longer lasting stressors, such as keeping blood nutrient levels and blood pressure up

Vasoconstriction, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, and protein catabolism are all processes done by _______.

glucocorticoids

Androgens are synonymous for _______.

gonadocorticoids

_________ contribute to the onset of puberty, appearance of secondary sex characteristics, and sex drive in females.

Gonadocorticoids (androgens)

_________ can be converted into estrogens after menopause.

Androgens (gonadocorticoids)

Hypersecretion of androgens (gonadocorticoids) will result in ________.

female masculinization

__________ are secreted by the outermost region of the adrenal cortex.

mineralcorticoids

The principal mineralcorticoid is ___________, which acts to conserve sodium ions and water in the body and secrete potassium.

Aldosterone

_________ are secreted by the middle region of the adrenal cortex.

Glucocorticoids

The principal glucocorticoid is ___________, which helps combat stressors by increasing fat & protein metabolism and increasing blood glucose levels.

cortisol

___________ are the sex hormones.

Gonadocorticoids

___________ is the adrenal hormone responsible for maintaining appropriate blood sodium and potassium levels.

Aldosterone

During times of stress, elevated levels of _____ often occur, which explains why we get a cold during final exam time.

cortisol

Along with the sympathetic nervous system, the __________ is the other primary mediator of acute stress.

adrenal medulla

T/F: The pancreas is strictly an endocrine gland.

False; it is both endocrine and exocrine

_______ and ________ help maintain blood glucose levels.

insulin & glucagon

What are the two main hormones produced by the pancreas?

insulin & glucagon

_______ is released from beta cells during fed (absorptive) phase.

Insulin

Insulin enhances:

-glucose & amino acid transport into cells -glucose oxidation -glycogenesis -lipogenesis -protein synthesis

_______ is released from alpha cells during postabsorptive (fasting) phase.

Glucagon

Glucagon’s major target is the ______.

Liver

Glucagon enhances:

-glycogenolysis -lipolysis -gluconeogenesis -protein catabolism

Inability to produce or respond to insulin results in ______.

diabetes mellitus

3 cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus.

-polyuria -polydipsia -polyphagia

Cushing’s disease

accumulation of fluids and fats in face,neck, and upper back: caused by overproduction of adrenocortical steroids

In diabetes mellitus, there is decreased glucose available for cellular respiration. What happens because of this?

-neurons starve resulting in neuropathy & coma -increased fatty acid oxidation leads to cardiovascular disorders -weight loss -ketogenesis which can lead to coma

T/F: Type I Diabetes Melitus is insulin dependent.

True

T/F: Light inhibits release of melatonin.

True

The secretion of ________ helps regulate our circadian rhythms.

melatonin

Circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

Alpha cells produce __________.

glucagon

Beta cells produce ___________.

insulin

Although an endocrine structure, the _______ is essentially a modified sympathetic ganglion.

adrenal medulla

The _________ produces what’s known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormones.

heart

ANP reduces 3 things. What are they?

blood pressure blood volume blood sodium concentration

What is the antagonist to aldosterone?

ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)

The ___________ produces the hormones, secretin and CCK.

gastrointestinal tract

________ & ________ stimulate secretion of bile and pancreatic juice into duodenum while inhibiting gastric activities.

Secretin & CCK

What organ produces the hormone erythropoietin (EPO)?

The kidneys

What hormone is known for stimulating RBC production?

erythropoietin

What are the three main functions of the blood?

Transport Protection Regulation

What is normal range for blood pH?

7.35 – 7.45

Blood takes up approximately ___% of total body weight.

8

What are the components of whole blood?

RBCs (~45%) WBCs Platelets Plasma (~55%)

What component of whole blood takes up over half of the space?

Plasma

What is plasma made up of?

90% water, 8% proteins, rest is waste

What are the three proteins found in blood plasma?

albumins (60%) globulins (36%) clotting factors make up the rest

T/F: Erythrocytes have concave discs with few organelles.

False; erythrocytes have biconcave discs with no organelles

_______ make up more than 99% of the formed elements.

erythrocytes

How long does erythropoiesis take?

~15 days

What is the name for the process of making red blood cells?

Erythropoiesis

What affects the rate or stimulates of erythropoiesis?

the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

EPO stands for

erythropoiesis

______ produce(s) hemoglobin.

Erythroblasts

The 3 phases of erythropoiesis are…

Phase 1 – ribosome synthesis Phase 2 – hemoglobin accumulation Phase 3 – ejection of nucleus

RBCs are synonymous with

erythrocytes

______ stimulates kidneys to release EPO.

Hypoxia

____ is an intrinsic factor produced by stomach; allows for absorption in small intestine.

B12

How long do new RBCs function in the blood stream?

~120

Along with erythropoietin, what are the necessary raw materials needed for erythropoiesis?

Amino acids (for globin synthesis) Iron (Fe) B12 (comes from animals) Folic acids (comes from leafy materials)

Most macrophages for RBCs are in these two organs.

liver & spleen

Aged RBCs are engulfed by WBCs called _____.

macrophages

What makes feces brown?

Bilirubin

_______ is an erythrocyte disorder due to having an oxygen capacity too ow to keep up with all of the body’s responsibilities.

Anemia

Most common form of anemia in the U.S. is ________.

Iron-deficiency anemia

A person with iron-deficient anemia needs what mg/day?

15 mg/day

If a patient is suffering from anemia of his/her microcytes, it is considered ______ anemia.

iron-deficiency anemia

T/F: Women who are iron deficient tend to have lighter menstrual cycles.

False; they tend to have heavy menstrual cycles

When someone suffering from anemia has a want to chew on nonfoods such as ice, what is that person experiencing?

Pagophagia

______ is a genetic disorder that affects the globin, forming odd-shaped hemoglobin.

Thalassemia

T/F: A number of different genes could be affected in thalassemia.

True

_____ is a form of anemia that affects the confirmation of hemoglobin through beta chain substitution.

Sickle cell

When red blood cells become very thick and paced, they are hard to transport. This is what happens during ___________, and is also the reason for altitude sickness.

polycythemia

______ are capable of diapedesis, amoeboid action, and chemotaxis.

WBCs

During _______, WBCs are capable of squeezing through capillary endothelial cells into tissue spaces.

Diapedesis

RBC & platelets are NOT whole cells because they lack a _________ and other _________.

RBC & platelets are NOT whole cells because they lack a NUCLEUS and other ORGANELLES.

_______ happens when WBCs are moving toward secreted chemicals.

Chemotaxis

T/F: WBCs cannot leave blood & still be able to function.

False; WBC can leave, but RBC cannot!

Can RBC leave the blood?

No, or they will die.

The ____________ are granulocytes that increase in # due to acute bacterial infection.

Neutrophil

The _________ are granulocytes which increase in # due to parasitic infection & dampening allergic reactions.

Eosinophils

T/F: Eosinophils are strong phagocytes.

False; They are very weak which gives reason to why it dampens allergic reactions

___________ are granulocytes who have granules containing histamine and heparin.

Basophils

_______ initiates the inflammatory response.

Histamine

What is the acronym describing the order of leukocytes in the blood.

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas (neutrophils (50-70%), lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.)

Hb (hemoglobin) is primarily split into _______ and _______.

Globin and Heme

Once hemoglobin has split into globin & heme, the globin is made up of _________ which are recycled & reused in the body.

Amino Acids

Once hemoglobin has split into globin & heme, the heme is split into two parts. What are they?

The iron part & the noniron part

T/F: Once hemoglobin has been split into globin and heme, the heme excretes its’ iron part.

False; iron part is reused… the noniron part forms bilirubin & liver excretes it into bile.

_______ have granules that contain hydrolytic enzymes, lysozymes, and defensins; They are also termed "the bacteria slayers"

Neutrophils

_______ have spear-like things that poke holes in foreign bacteria, making bacteria leak its’ juices thus killing them.

Defensins

_______ combat parasitic worm infections by increasing their numbers during allergic reactions & parasitic worm infections.

Eosinophils

Which leukocyte is known for taking up eosin from Wright’s stain?

Eosinophils

_______ lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes.

Eosinophils

_________ mediate an inflammatory response.

Basophils

Granules of this leukocyte contain histamine and heparin to mediate an inflammatory response and attract other WBCs.

Basophils

B cells & T cells are subtypes for what leukocyte?

Lymphocytes

__________ develop from lymphoid stem cells, playing an important role in immunity.

Lymphocytes

T/F: Lymphocytes are capable of mitosis and can live for years.

True

What are the subtypes of lymphocytes?

T cells & B cells

T cells of lymphocytes are broken down further into two types. What are they?

CD4 (T helper cells) CD8 (T killer cells)

Of the 2 subtypes of lymphocytes, which one is known for targeting specific antigens.

T cells

______ is a subtype of lymphocytes that divides into memory cells & plasma cells which create antibodies

B cells

This leukocyte is the largest of them all.

Monocytes

Are monocytes specific or nonspecific?

Nonspecific (eats anything foreign)

_______ leave the circulation, enter tissue, and differentiate into fixed & wandering macrophages; increase in numbers during chronic infection

Monocytes

What are the two types of macrophages which monocytes differentiate into?

Fixed macrophages & Wandering macrophages

Kupffer cells in the liver show examples of these _______.

Fixed macrophages of monocytes

T/F: Monocytes go out to areas of infection.

True

__________ is the process referring to the formation of WBCs.

Leukopoiesis

Leukopoiesis is stimulated by __________.

Cytokines

What is considered the parent cell of leukopoiesis?

Hemeocytoblast

_________ are merely fragments of cells.

Platelets

Platelets are formed specifically by what cell?

Megakaryocyte

Thrombocytes are synonymous with….

Platelets

Mitosis without cytokinesis forms a ____________.

Megakaryocyte

T/F: There are no organelles involved in hemostasis.

True

The stoppage of bleeding refers to what process?

Hemostasis

What are the 3 main steps in hemostasis?

1. Vascular spasm (causing vasoconstriction) 2. Platelet plug (putting gum on a cracked pipe) 3. Coagulation (clot formation)

T/F: During coagulation, the series of clotting factors are proteins.

True

_____ forms a mesh that traps RBCs and platelets, forming the clot.

Fibrin

To ensure stability of the platelet plug, a ______ forms.

clot

What are the 3 stages of coagulation?

1. Formation of prothrombinase (intrinsic & extrinisic pathways) 2. Formation of Thrombin (from prothrombin) 3. Formation of Fibrin (from fibrinogen)

T/F: Intrinsic pathways working by themselves is normal.

False; only normal when extrinsic is working too

Which pathway of coagulation has no external injury at all.

Intrinsic pathway

During injury when your cut, what pathway of coagulation is used?

Extrinsic pathway

XII -> XI -> IX -> VIII

Intrinsic pathway

III + VII

Extrinsic pathway

Tissue factor represents the ______ pathway.

extrinsic

4 factors affecting clot formation

-Vitamin K -Calcium -Tissue Factor -Factor IX

_________ is required by the liver to produce several clotting factors.

Vitamin K

_________ is a necessary cofactor in many of the reactions during coagulation.

Calcium

_______ initiates the extrinsic pathway and speeds up clot formation from minutes to seconds.

The tissue factor

Factor IX is only involved in the ________ pathway.

intrinsic

The process of clot removal is known as _______.

Fibrinolysis

During fibrinolysis, what happens?

The blood clot induces the secretion of TPA (tissue plasminogen activator). TPA secretes plasminogen which converts to plasmin. Plasmin dissolves blood clot by breaking down fibrin.

Plasmin dissolves blood clot in fibrinolysis by breaking down _________.

fibrin

__________ are substances that inhibit the process of clotting.

Anticoagulants

What are the two main substances that inhibit the process of clotting?

Heparin & Warfarin (aka coumadin)

________ is released from mass cells and basophils and blocks thrombin.

Heparin

T/F: Heparin cannot be given by injection.

False; heparin can be given by injection

_________ blocks thrombin while ________ inhibits the activity of vitamin K.

HEPARIN blocks thrombin while WARFARIN inhibits the activity of vitamin K.

What is taken orally for long-term control of blood clotting?

Coumadin (aka warfarin)

Aspirin ______ platelet activation and platelet plug formation.

prevents

T/F: Sugar groups always go out of the cell on to the surface.

True

Someone who has Type A blood has what antibodies?

anti B antibodies

Someone who has Type AB blood has what antibodies?

No antibodies

Someone who has Type O blood has what antibodies?

Both A & B antibodies

____________ occur mismatched blood is mixed.

Transfusion reactions

During transfusion reactions, the _____’s cells are attacked by the _____’s antibodies.

During transfusion reactions, the DONOR’s cells are attacked by the RECIPIENT’s antibodies.

During transfusion reactions, the donor’s cells are attacked by the recipient’s antibodies causing _______ and ________.

Agglutination & Hemolysis

During agglutination & hemolysis, what 3 things are happening?

1. decreased oxygen-carrying capacity 2. blockage of small blood vessels 3. free Hb (hemoglobin) precipitates out in kidney tubules causing renal failure

During agglutination & hemolysis, free Hb precipitates out in kidney tubules causing….

renal failure.

There are at least 45 different Rh antigens, but which one is the most important?

The D antigen

When there is a presence of the D antigen, then the person will be…

Rh+

When there are no Rh antigens on cell membranes, then the Rh is…

negative.

When Rh antigens are present on cell membranes, the Rh is…

positive.

T/F: During pregnancy, there will be exchange of blood types.

False

_________ is the hemolytic disease of newborns across 2 pregnancies

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

Could a man with Type B blood and a woman with TYPE AB blood produce and O child? Why or why not?

No, O is recessive

Phagocytes that target acute bacterial infections are ______.

neutrophils

Macrophages are also known as __________.

monocytes

T killer cells that go directly after antigens.

Lymphocytes

Blood type A genotype(s).

AA or AO which contain B antibodies

Blood type AB genotype(s).

AB, no antibodies

Blood type O genotype(s).

OO, which contains both A & B antibodies.

Universal blood type:

Blood type AB

Destruction of RBCs: The iron & amino acids are __________ and the remainder is converted to _________.

Destruction of RBCs: The iron & amino acids are RECYCLED (reused) and the remainder is converted to BILIRUBIN.

________ the major hyposecretory disorder of the adrenal cortex.

Addison’s disease

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