A&P 2 Chapter 16

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Gonadocorticoid(s) ________.

production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.

entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei.

Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.

steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

Eicosanoids do not include ________.


Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?

Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.

Second messengers

ACTH ________.

secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion

Oxytocin ________.

release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acidbased hormones?


Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the ________.

Thymus gland

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.


The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.

targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

hypophyseal portal system

Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?


Leptin is secreted by ________.


Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?

type of horomone

The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is ________.


Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

humoral stimulation

ADH ________.

is inhibited by alcohol

Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.


Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?

the heart

Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.


Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?


Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

All of these are signs.

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.


Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

direct control of the nervous system

A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.

FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.


In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.


Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?

a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell’s DNA

Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.

possible activation of several different second-messenger systems

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.


Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ________.

during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________.

is partly contained within the infudibulum

Which organ does not have hormone production?


How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?

By increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure.

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