A&P 1 Chapter 6- Skin (Epidermis)

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What does the integumentary system consist of?

skin + accessory organs (hair, nails, and cutaneous glands)

Is the inspection of the skin, hair, and nails a significant part of a physical exam?

yes

What is the most vulnerable organ? How?

Skin; it is exposed to radiation, trauma, infection, and injurious chemicals

What system receives more medical treatment than any other organ system?

Integumentary

What is the definition of dermatology?

The scientific study and medical treatment of the integumentary system

What are the 2 layers of the skin

Epidermis + Dermis

What type of tissue makes up the epidermis

stratified squamous epithelium

What type of tissue makes up the dermis

connective tissue layer

What is the hypodermis

Another connective tissue layer below the dermis

Where is thick skin found?

palms, sole, and corresponding surfaces on fingers and toes

What does thick skin consist of

sweat glands, no hair follicles or sebaceous glands

How thick of the epidermis is thick skin?

0.5 mm

Where is thin skin found? (What does it cover)

All areas except palms, soles, and corresponding surfaces on fingers and toes

How thick of the epidermis is thin skin?

0.1 mm thick

What does thin skin consist of

hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands

What are the 6 functions of the skin

1. Resistance to trauma and infection 2. Other barrier functions 3. Vitamin D synthesis 4. Sensation 5. Thermoregulation 6. Nonverbal Communication 7. Transdermal Absorption (?)

Describe the 1st function of the skin, how does it happen
(Resistance to trauma and infection)

-keratin (hardens the epidermis) -acid mantle

Describe the 2nd function of the skin, how does it happen
(Other barrier functions)

-waterproofing (keratin) -UV radiation (melanin) -harmful chemicals

Describe the 3rd function of the skin, how does it happen
(Vitamin D synthesis)

-skin first step -liver and kidneys complete process

Describe the 4th function of the skin, how does it happen
(Sensation)

-skin is our most extensive sense organ

Describe the 5th function of the skin, how does it happen
(Thermoregulation)

-thermoreceptors cause vasoconstriction/vasodilation

Describe the 6th function of the skin, how does it happen
(Nonverbal Communication)

-acne, birthmark, or scar

Describe the 7th function of the skin, how does it happen
(Transdermal Absorption (?))

-administration of certain drugs steadily through skin via adhesive patches

A major function of the skin is protection from
a) abrasion
b) ultraviolent light
c) entry of microorganisms
d) dehydration
e) all of these

e) all of these

What is the overall description of the epidermis
-what type of tissue make this
-where are the dead cells, and what do they contain
-does it contain blood vessels
-what does it depend on
-are there nerve endings

-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium -dead cells at the surface packed with tough protein called keratin -lacks blood vessels -depends on the diffusion of nutrients from underlying connective tissue -sparse nerve endings for tough and pain

What are the cells of the epidermis (5)

1. Stem Cells 2. Keratinocytes 3. Melanocytes 4. Tactile (Merkel) Cells 5. Dendritic (Langerhan) Cells

What are stem cells and where is it located

-undifferentiated cells that give rise to keratinocytes -deepest layer of epidermis (stratum basale)

How much of the epidermis do keratinocytes compose and what is their job in the epidermis

-great majority of epidermal cells -synthesize keratin

Where are melanocytes located, what is their job, what are they

-only in the stratum basale -synthesize pigment melanin that shields DNA from ultraviolet radiation -branched processes that spread asmong keratinocytes

Where are tactile (merkel) cell located, and what are they/their job

-basal layer of epidermis -touch receptor cells associated with dermal nerve fibers

What are dendritic (langerhan) cells, where are they found, and what’s their job

-macrophages originating in bone marrow that guard against pathogens -found in stratum spinosum and granulosum -stand guard against toxins, microbes, and other pathogens that penetrate skin

What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?

1) Stratum Corneum 2) Stratum Lucidum 3) Stratum Granulosum 4) Stratum Spinosum 5) Stratum Basale

Describe the 1st layer of the epidermis?
How many layers does it contain?
What are the cells in that layer?
What does it form?
What happens to the cells on the surface?
What does it resist?

*SUPERFICIAL TO DEEP

Stratum Corneum -30 layers -Dead, flat, scaly kertinized cells -durable surface layer -surface cells flake off (exfoliate) -resists abrasion, penetration, and water loss

Describe the 2nd layer of the epidermis?
-where can this layer only be seen
-is it thick or thin skin
-what is it superficial to
-describe the cells (what do they have/dont have)

Stratum Lucidum -only seen in thick skin -it is a THIN translucent zone -superficial to stratum granulosum -cells have no nucleus or organelles

Describe the 3rd layer of the epidermis?
-how many layers does it consist of
-what cells make up these layers
-what does it contain

Stratum Graulosum -consists of 3-5 layers of flat keratinocytes -contains coarse dark-staining keratohyalin granules

Describe the 4th layer of the epidermis?
-what does it produce more and more of
-what cells are found throughout this layer
-what is it named after
-how many layers are in this layer
-what cells make up this layer
-how thick is this layer compared to all layers
-what deep are these cells
what are the deepest cells capable of
-what happens to these cells are they are pushed upward

Stratum Spinosum -produce more and more keratin filaments -dendritic cells are found throughout this layer -it is named after its artificial appearance -consists of 5-7 layers of keratinocytes -thickest stratum in most skin -cells are the deepest -the deepest cells are capable of mitosis -cells stop dividing as they are pushed upward

Describe the 5th layer of the epidermis?
-how many layers are in this layer
-what cells make up this layer
-what rests on the basement membrane
-what are scattered among ____ and ___ in this layer
-what of the stratum basal divide to produce keratinocytes
-where do these keratinocytes migrate to
-what is their job once they reach the skin surface

Stratum Basale -single layer -cuboidal to low columnar stem cells -keratinocytes rest on basement membrane -melanocytes and tactile (merkel) cells are scattered -… scattered among stem cells and keratinocytes -stem cells divide to produce keratinocytes -they migrate to skin surface -replace lost epidermal cells

Describe the dermis
-it is made up of what tissue
-how thick is this layer; what is the range of thickness
-what is it mainly composed of
-what is it well supplied with

-connective tissue -0.2mm to 4mm -composed mainly of collagen with elastic fibers, reticular fibers, and fibroblasts -it is cell supplied with blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and nerve endings

What are the structures of the dermis?

-Hair follicles & Nail roots -Smooth muscle -Goose bumps

Where are hair follicles and nail roots embedded in the

embedded in the dermis

What smooth muscle (piloerector muscles) associated with

associated with hair follicles

Why do goose bumps occur + how

-response to stimuli (cold, fear, touch) -contract

What are dermal papillae
-in what direction do they go
-describe the extension appearance
-where are they located (integumentary system)
-what do they cause
-where is located (on your body)
-leading to

-upward -fingerlike extension -dermis -cause friction ridges -fingertips -finger prints

What are the two layers of the dermis

1) Papillary 2) Reticular

Which of the 2 layers of the dermis, is deeper?

Papillary

Describe the papillary layer
-is located more superficial or inferior in the dermis
-is it thick or thin
-what type of tissue is it made up of
-what is it located near
-what does it allow
-it allows this for _____ as well as other
-what would trigger the action of this layer
-what type of blood vessels is it rich in

-Superficial -thin -made up of areolar tissue -near the the dermal papillae -allows for mobility -mobility for leukocytes + other defense cells -if the epidermis became broken -rich in small blood vessels

Describe the reticular layer
-where is it located in the dermis; superficial or deep
-is it thick or thin
-what type of tissue is it made up of
-where is this expressed in the skin
-what type of fibers are torn
-this is caused by

-deeper -thicker -dense, irregular connective tissue -stretch marks -tears in the collagen fibers -cause by stretch of the skin (pregnancy or obesity)

What layer is below the dermis

hypodermis

Describe the hypodermis
-what type of tissue is it made up of (1)
-what other of tissues is it made up of (2)
-there is more of this than the other
-what does it do for the body
-what does it bind to
-is this they layer where drugs are introduced
-how
-hypodermis vascular or avascular
-how does the body respond
-what type of fat is present here
-what is the job of this fat
-is this fat thicken in men or in women; by how much, why

-subcutaneous tissue -areolar and adipose -more areolar than adipose -cushions body -binds to underlying tissues -yes -drugs are introduced by injection -hypodermis is highly vascular -thus, absorbs drugs quickly -subcutaneous fat -energy reservoir, thermal insulation -8% thicker in women (estrogen)

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