A&P 1 – Chapter 4- Tissues

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The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength to absorb shock is because they possess ________.
A) hydroxyapatite crystals
B) collagen fibers
C) reticular fibers
D) elastic fibers

B) collagen fibers

The presence of lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels would indicate ________.
A) cartilage tissue
B) fibrocartilaginous tissue
C) osseous tissue
D) areolar tissue

C) osseous tissue

Hyaline cartilage is different from elastic or fibrocartilage because ________.
A) it is more vascularized
B) it contains more nuclei
C) fibers are not normally visible
D) it has more elastic fibers

C) fibers are not normally visible

Epithelial tissue ________.
A) is highly vascularized
B) has a basement membrane
C) is usually acellular
D) contains a number of neuron types

B) has a basement membrane

Mammary glands exhibit a glandular type called ________.
A) simple tubular
B) compound tubular
C) simple alveolar
D) compound alveolar

D) compound alveolar

Simple columnar epithelium of the digestive tract is characterized by ________.
A) dense microvilli
B) a rich vascular supply
C) fibroblasts
D) cilia

A) dense microvilli

A single-celled layer of epithelium that forms the lining of serous membranes is ________.
A) simple transitional
B) simple columnar
C) simple squamous
D) simple cuboidal

C) simple squamous

Matrix is ________.
A) cells and fibers
B) fibers and ground substance
C) ground substance and cells
D) composed of all organic compounds

B) fibers and ground substance

The tissue type that arises from all three embryonic germ layers is ________.
A) epithelial tissue
B) connective tissue
C) nervous tissue
D) muscle tissue

A) epithelial tissue

The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.
A) elastic
B) collagen
C) reticular
D) muscle

B) collagen

Inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue?
A) simple squamous
B) transitional
C) simple columnar
D) stratified squamous

C) simple columnar

Which of the following is true about epithelia?
A) Simple epithelia are commonly found in areas of high abrasion.
B) Stratified epithelia are associated with filtration.
C) Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs.
D) Pseudostratified epithelia are commonly keratinized.

C) Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs.

Chondroblasts ________.
A) are mature cartilage cells located in spaces called lacunae
B) within the cartilage, divide and secrete new matrix
C) located deep to the perichondrium divide and secrete new matrix on the internal portions of the cartilage
D) never lose their ability to divide

B) within the cartilage, divide and secrete new matrix

A multilayered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ________.
A) simple cuboidal
B) simple squamous
C) transitional
D) stratified squamous

D) stratified squamous

An epithelial membrane ________.
A) usually involves transitional epithelium
B) is formed of epithelium and smooth muscle
C) contains simple or stratified epithelia and a basement membrane
D) never contains mucus-forming cells

C) contains simple or stratified epithelia and a basement membrane

Multicellular exocrine glands can be classified ________.
A) structurally into alveolar and acinar types
B) structurally into vascular and avascular types
C) functionally into merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine divisions
D) functionally into secreting or nonsecreting types

C) functionally into merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine divisions

Which of the following is true about the mode of secretion of exocrine glands?
A) Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process.
B) Apocrine cells are destroyed, then replaced after secretion.
C) Holocrine cells are slightly damaged by the secretory process, but repair themselves.
D) These glands are ductless.

A) Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process.

Which of these is not considered connective tissue?
A) cartilage
B) adipose
C) muscle
D) blood

C) muscle

What are glycosaminoglycans?
A) positively charged proteins
B) negatively charged proteins
C) positively charged polysaccharides
D) negatively charged polysaccharides

D) negatively charged polysaccharides

Which is true concerning muscle tissue?
A) highly cellular and well vascularized
B) cuboidal shape enhances function
C) contains contractile units made of collagen
D) is a single-celled tissue

A) highly cellular and well vascularized

The first step in tissue repair involves ________.
A) replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
B) proliferation of fibrous connective tissue
C) inflammation
D) formation of scar tissue

C) inflammation

Select the correct statement regarding multicellular exocrine glands.
A) Compound glands are so called because they are constructed from more than one cell type.
B) The secretory cells of holocrine glands release their product by rupturing.
C) Exocrine glands always lack ducts.
D) Merocrine glands release their secretion by pinching off part of the cell.

B) The secretory cells of holocrine glands release their product by rupturing.

Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair.
A) Granulation tissue is highly susceptible to infection.
B) Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.
C) Granulation tissue is another name for a blood clot.
D) The clot is formed from dried blood and transposed collagen fibers.

B) Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.

Select the correct statement regarding factors that affect the tissue repair process.
A) The type of tissue injured is not an important factor.
B) Nutrition does not seem to influence tissue repair.
C) The age of the person is a factor in the repair process.
D) The health of an individual does not seem to make any difference in the speed of repair

C) The age of the person is a factor in the repair process.

In adults, new surface epithelial cells and the epithelial cells lining the intestine are derived from _________.
A) mitotic division of existing epithelial cells
B) stem cells
C) underlying epithelial cells
D) components of the connective tissue

B) stem cells

What would be a substance you would expect to find expelled from a compound alveolar gland?
A) milk
B) acid
C) oil
D) salivary fluid

A) milk

Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in ________ connective tissue.
A) areolar
B) dense regular
C) embryonic
D) reticular

C) embryonic

Heart muscle cells would tend to separate without ______ .
A) myofiliments
B) stoma
C) flana
D) intercalated discs

D) intercalated discs

Which of the following is not a step in tissue repair?
A) Inflammation
B) Regeneration and Fibrosis
C) Restoration of blood supply
D) Formation of new stem cells

D) Formation of new stem cells

Select the correct statement regarding epithelia.
A) Pseudostratidied epithelia consist of at least two layers of cells stacked on top of one another
B) Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important
C) Simple epithelia form impermeable barriers
D) Stratified epithelia are tall, narrow cells

B) Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important

Which statement best describes connective tissue?
A) Typically arranged in a single layer of cells
B) Usually lines a body cavity
C) Primarily concerned with secretion
D) Usually contains a large amount of matrix

D) Usually contains a large amount of matrix

Select the correct statement regarding the stem cells of connective tissue.
A) Connective tissue cells are nondividing.
B) "Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.
C) Chondroblasts are the main cell type of connective tissue proper.
D) Connective tissue does not contain cells.

B) "Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.

The shape of the external ear is maintained by ______.
A) Elastic cartilage
B) Hyaline cartilage
C) Fibrocartilage
D) Dense elastic connective tissue

A) Elastic cartilage

_______ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
A) Stratified cuboidal
B) Transitional
C) Stratified columnar
D) Pseudostratified columnar

D) Pseudostratified columnar

Which of the following is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is found in the bone?
A) Organic fibers
B) Blood vessels
C) Lacunae
D) Living cells

B) Blood vessels

Which of the following would be of most importance to goblet cells and other glandular epithelium?
A) Golgi Bodies
B) Microvilli
C) Lysosomes
D) Multiple Nuclei

A) Golgi Bodies

What are the three main components of connective tissue?
A) Collagen, Elastin, and Reticular Fibers
B) Fibroblasts, Chondroblasts, and Osteoblasts
C) Alveoli, Fibrous Capsule, and Secretory Cells
D) Ground substance, fibers, cells

D) Ground substance, fibers, cells

Which cells are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells?
A) Cilia
B) Goblet cells
C) Mast Cells
D) Macrophages

B) Goblet cells

Which of the following is able to absorb the most amount of stress?
A) Elastic Cartilage
B) Dense Elastic Connective Tissue
C) Fibrocartilage
D) Hyaline Cartilage

C) Fibrocartilage

Cell type not found in areolar connective tissue.
A) Macrophages
B) Fibroblasts
C) Chondrocytes
D) Mast Cells

C) Chondrocytes

Inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue?
A) Simple Squamous
B) Stratified Squamous
C) Simple Columnar
D) Transitional

C) Simple Columnar

Which of the following describes the regeneration capacity of cardiac muscle?
A) Regenerated extremely well
B) Moderate regenerating ability
C) Virtually no functional regenerative ability
D) Weak regenerative ability

C) Virtually no functional regenerative ability

Groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function form a(n) __________.
A) Organ System
B) Organism
C) Organ
D) Tissue

D) Tissue

Select the correct statement regarding adipose tissue.
A) Its primary function is nutrient storage
B) Mature adipose cells are highly mitotic
C) Most of the cell volume is occupied by the nucleus
D) It is composed mostly of extracellular matrix

A) Its primary function is nutrient storage

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium ciliated variety _______.
A) Is not an epithelial classification
B) Possessed no goblet cells
C) Lines most of the upper respiratory tract
D) Aids in digestion

C) Lines most of the upper respiratory tract

Which of the following statements is true of connective tissue?
A) Reticular fibers form thick, ropelike structures.
B) When connective tissue is stretched, collagen gives it the ability to snap back.
C) Collagen fibers provide high tensile strength.
D) Elastin fibers are sometimes called white fibers.

C) Collagen fibers provide high tensile strength.

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as _______.
A) Sebaceous
B) Ceruminous
C) Endocrine
D) Exocrine

C) Endocrine

Basal Lamina

Top Layer of Basement Membrane Supports epithelial cells, acellular, glycoproteins, collagen, selective filter

Reticular Lamina

Bottom Layer of Basement Membrane Collagen, attached to connective tissue

3 Types of Fibers

Collagen Elastic Reticular

Collagen Fibers

Strongest and most abundant type; touch, provides high tensile strength

Elastic Fibers

Networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch and recoil

Reticular Fibers

Short, fine, highly branches collagenous fibers (different chemistry and form than collagen fibers); branch, forming networks that offer more "give"

Cutaneous Membranes

Outer Surface (Epithelial Tissues): Epidermis, Stratified Squamous Underlying Layer (Connective Tissue): Dermis, Dense Irregular, Adipose, Areolar

Mucus Membranes

Outer Surface (Epithelial Tissues): Secretory Cells, Goblet Cells Underlying Layer (Connective Tissue): Lamina Propria, Areolar Connective Tissue

Serous Membranes

Lines Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Cavities (Parietal and Visceral Layers) Outer Surface (Epithelial Tissues): Mesothelium —> Serous fluid Underlying Layer (Connective Tissue): Areolar

Tissue Repair Steps

1. Inflammation 2. Restore Blood Supply 3. Regeneration and Fibrosis

Inflammatory Stage of Tissue Repair

Release inflammatory chemicals Increase vessel permeability (make leaky) Blood leaks out of vessels Clotting occurs – scab forms on surface

Restoration of Blood Supply Stage of Tissue Repair

Blood clot is replaced with granulation tissue Epithelium begins to regenerate Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to bridge gap Debris is phagosytized

Regeneration and Fibrosis Stage of Tissue Repair

Scab detaches Fibrous tissue matures; epithelium thickens and begins to resemble adjacent tissue Results in fully regenerated epithelium with underlying scar tissue

Tight Junctions

maintain epithelial polarity by helping to keep proteins in the apical region of the plasma membrane from diffusing into the basal region

Explain how epithelium are nourished.

substances diffuse from blood vessels in the underlying connective tissue

Endothelium

friction-reducing lining in lymphatic vessels in all hallow organs of the cardiovascular system; exceptional thinness encourages the efficient exchange of nutrients and wastes between the bloodstream and surrounding tissue cells

Mesothelium

found in serous membranes that line the ventral cavity and its organs

Endocrine Glands

produce hormones; secrete by exocytosis directly into the extracellular space

Exocrine Glands

secrete their products onto body surfaces or into body cavities via an epithelium walled duct that transports the secretion to the epithelial surface

Simple Exocrine Glands

unbranched ducts

Complex Exocrine Glands

branched ducts

Tubular Exocrine Glands

secretory cells form tubes

Alveolar

secretory cells form small flask like sacs

Tubuloalveolar

secretory cells form tubes and small flask like sacs

Merocrine

secrete products by exocytosis as they are produces (pancreas, sweat glands, salivary glands)

Holocrine

accumulate products within them until they rupture (only sebaceous glands)

Apocrine

accumulate products within them then apex pinches off, releasing secretory granules and a small amount of cytoplasm

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