9th biology ch 10

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allele

alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.

dominant

observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait.

fertilization

fusion of male and female gametes

gamete

male and female sex cells; sperm and eggs.

genetics

branch of biology that studies heredity

genotype

combination of genes in an organism.

heredity

passing on of characteristics frojm parents to offspring

heterozygous

when there are two different alleles for a trait

homozygous

when there are two identical alleles for a trait

hybrid

offspring formed by parents having different forms of a trait.

law of independent assortment

Mendelian priciiple stating that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.

law of segregation

Mendelian principle explaining that because each pant has 2 different alleles, it can produce 2 different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles.

phenotype

outward appearance of an organism, regardless of its genes.

pollination

from male reproductive organs to female reproductive organs of plants, usually within the same species.

recessive

trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait.

trait

characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive.

zygote

diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg.

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