75 sociology

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20. The term institutionalization can be defined as:

a. The idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit.
b. The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.
c. A status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income.
d. Responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society.

The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.

1. During her first day of kindergarten, Marie does not understand how the lunch line in the cafeteria works. She hesitates and watches as the older kids pick up their trays and silverware and then get in line. She follows their lead and successfully buys herself lunch. Marie’s experience in the lunchroom is an example of _____.

a. Socialization
b. The looking glass self
c. Resocialization
d. Anticipatory socialization

Socialization

2. Erik Erikson’s theory explains:

a. Why Rhesus Monkeys preferred terry cloth maternal stand-ins versus the maternal stand-ins that provided food.
b. How human sexual desire is linked to the development of a personality.
c. When human moral development begins in an individual.
d. How the actions of society help shape personalities throughout the eight basic stages of life.

How the actions of society help shape personalities throughout the eight basic stages of life.

3. Some sociologists have pointed out that gender roles are often determined by how a society socializes young boys and girls. Which of the following is an example of socializing a child into a gender role?

a. Taking Jimmy to the aquarium.
b. Buying Sarah a toy kitchen to play with.
c. Letting Kim wear pants to school.
d. Allowing Joey to sleep with his "blankey."

Buying Sarah a toy kitchen to play with

4. According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, when do humans begin to think about the feelings of other people and begin to see the world through other people’s eyes?

a. When they are born.
b. When they first go to school.
c. In their teenage years
d. After they graduate from college.

In their teenage years

5. Bobby came home from school crying because the other kids in his class were calling him stupid. His mother tried to console him, but he really started to believe that he was stupid. Charles Cooley would say that this is a classic example of _______.

a. The looking-glass self
b. The resocialization process
c. A degradation ceremony
d. Poor parenting

The looking glass self

6. Katrina, age 5, and Sharon, age 4, love to play together while their mothers chat. Katrina has a toy iron and washing machine. She and Sharon spend hours "washing" and "ironing" her baby doll’s clothes, just like they see their mothers do. Which of George Herbert Mead’s stages of development are Katrina and Sharon exemplifying?

a. The preparatory stage
b. The play stage
c. The game stage
d. The "generalized other" stage

The prep stage

7. Émile Durkheim’s much lauded study of suicide is important to the field of sociology in many ways. One of the most influential impacts was:

a. It defined the differences between sociology and psychology
b. It allowed psychology and sociology to merge into one field.
c. It showed the psychological reasons for suicide to be a lie.
d. It earned Émile Durkheim the title "Father of Sociology" so that other sociologists would have a role model.

It declined the differences between soc and psych

8. It is parent-teacher conference day at Littleton Elementary School. Jimmy’s teacher is anxious to meet his parents and discuss his habit of disrupting the class. When the teacher expresses her concern that Jimmy is not being socialized properly, his dad insists that he was the same way at Jimmy’s age and that disrupting the class is natural for the children in his family. Jimmy’s teacher and father are arguing about which fundamental sociological theory?

a. Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development
b. George Herbert Mead’s theory of self-development
c. Nature vs. Nurture
d. Freud’s theory of self-development

Nature vs. Nurture

9. Parents often socialize their children to:

a. Understand and follow different norms from what they themselves follow
b. Understand and follow the same norms that they themselves follow
c. Ignore society and create their own norms and follow them regardless of consequences
d. Ignore society and live alone without much interaction with other people

Understand and follow the same norms that they themselves follow

10. Education is important to society because:

a. It teaches children facts about the world in which they live.
b. It teaches children how to interact with their peers and helps them to gain social graces.
c. It teaches children how to react to authority and how to behave in group and one-on-one situations.
d. All of the above

All

11. The transition from college life to work life can be quite difficult for many young adults in the United States. Which is a possible cause for this struggle?

a. The status quo has been maintained for a substantial period of time, and now the economy and government are undergoing significant changes.
b. Many young people are in the same situation, so drawing expertise or knowledge from their experiences from peers is difficult.
c. Finding a job, renting an apartment, and being independent is a daunting task that seems insurmountable.
d. All of the above

All

12. Sherry is in her mid-eighties and is moving to a nursing home. She is used to getting up at 5 o’clock each morning and making breakfast for herself. Her new roommate likes to sleep until 7 o’clock and breakfast is not served at the nursing home until 8 o’clock. What is Sherry most likely to experience through this transition?

a. A shift in her desire to enjoy life.
b. A shift in her reading habits.
c. Resocialization.
d. A complete and permanent loss of herself.

Resocialization

13. During the Medieval Age monks would lock themselves inside a monastery in order to devote their lives to prayer. A sociologist in the 21st century would look at this cultural phenomenon and label it:

a. A total institution
b. An incomplete institution
c. An excellent cross section of the population
d. A psychological phenomenon that is outside the realm of sociological study

An incomplete institution

14. In an effort to control a total institution, and to create a community of sameness, inmates are forced to strip down, be searched by police officers, and given identical uniforms before entering prison. This is an example of _______.

a. An entry test that must be passed
b. A degradation ceremony
c. A graduation ceremony
d. An exit test that must be passed

A degradation ceremony

15. Sumaira is scared that she will not find a job in the current economy. She decides to be a business major and attend one of the top business schools in the country. Upon graduation, she is hired by a major investment banking firm in New York. Sumaira has completed:

a. A degradation ceremony.
b. Developing her sense of self.
c. Anticipatory socialization.
d. Developing her sense of morality.

Anticipatory socialization

16. Mark, whose parents are wealthy, has been socialized to believe that he can be whoever he wants to be. His best friend Matt, whose parents are blue-collar workers, has been socialized to believe that hard work and following instructions is all he needs to support himself. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?

a. Structural Functionalism
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic Interactionism
d. Feminist Theory

Conflict

17. Joseph and Paula are excited to welcome their child into the world. They cannot wait to pass on all their knowledge, insight, and rich culture. Just as their parents gave them guidance and showed them how to live, Joseph and Paula will continue the chain by handing down their societal values and thus, sustain the society they love so much. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?

a. Structural Functionalism
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic Interactionism
d. Feminist Theory

Structural functionalism

18. Baby Marla is always well dressed. She has ribbons, bows, and frills all over her dresses and even in her hair. Her mother, who is worried that people might mistake Marla for a little boy, is determined to communicate to the world that she has a baby girl. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?

a. Structural Functionalism
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic Interactionism
d. Exchange Theory

Symbolic interactionism

19. Ahmed has been trying to change his schedule so that he can take one more AP class his senior year in high school. He keeps running between the guidance office and the administration office to sort out the problem. Ahmed’s interaction with the school’s bureaucracy is an example of:

a. The influences of a total institution
b. The generalized other
c. The influences of one’s peer groups
d. The hidden curriculum of schools

The hidden curriculum of schools

20. Whose study described the differences in the way that boys and girls view morality?

a. Carol Gilligan
b. Erik Erikson
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Lawrence Kholberg

Carol Gilligan

1. Sandy is standing in line for Kanye West tickets. The line wraps around the block, spilling into the streets and crowding store windows. Sandy is part of a(n):

a. Dyad
b. Triad
c. In-group
d. Aggregate

Aggregate

2. What is the difference between a primary group and a secondary group?

a. A primary group is small, consisting of emotional face-to-face relationships; a secondary group is larger and impersonal.
b. A primary group is small and impersonal; a secondary group is large and consists of face-to-face relationships.
c. A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small, consisting of emotional, face-to-face relationships.
d. A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small and purely instrumental in function.

A primary group is small, consisting of emotional face to face relationships; a secondary group is larger and impersonal

3. Which of the following is an example of an in-group/out-group dynamic:

a. Organizations across a college campus come together at a yearly fundraiser to raise money for the local Breast Cancer Awareness chapter.
b. Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta.
c. Chorus members of the campus’s production of Hairspray practice in Theatre building’s first floor, while the cast of God of Carnage practices on the second floor.
d. The Chemistry Club advertises their organization at the local science fair.

Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta.

4. When Michael starts high school, he joins the basketball team. He begins to look to his teammate friends for cues on how to behave at dances, in the hallways, and even in the classroom. Michael’s basketball team is serving as Michael’s _____.

a. Out-group
b. Reference group
c. Aggregate
d. Secondary group

Reference group

5. A total institution can be defined as:

a. A business which offers career advice for federal employees.
b. A group in which the masses have a large influence in decision making.
c. A clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy.
d. An organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs.

An organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total Resocialization occurs

6. Grace works in at an advertising agency. Grace’s coworkers help her complete presentations, contact clients, and assist her with research. Her coworkers are serving a(n):

a. Expressive function
b. Intrinsic function
c. Elementary function
d. Instrumental function

Instrumental function

7. An instrumental leader:

a. Promotes emotional strength and health, ensuring that people feel supported.
b. Refers to the main focus or goal of the leader.
c. Is goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks.
d. Rejects gender roles in the name of the feminist movement.

Is goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks.

8. Christine is president of her Improvisation Comedy Troupe. When making decisions about booking gigs, rehearsal spaces, and call-times, Christine leaves the troupe to decide for themselves. Christine is a(n) _____ leader.

a. Authoritarian
b. Democratic
c. Laissez-faire
d. Republican

Laissez-faire

9. Solomon Asch concluded that one reason people conform to a group is because they believe:

a. They are too weak to decide for themselves.
b. The group is better informed than they are.
c. Dissent is a form of weakness.
d. Large groups never make mistakes.

The group is better informed than they are

10. The United States Government is a form of:

a. A bureaucracy
b. A coercive organization
c. A total institution
d. A normative organization

A bureaucracy

11. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a bureaucracy:

a. Clear division of labor
b. Impersonality
c. Explicit rules
d. Personality-based promotion

Personality-based promotion

12. The McDonalidization of Society refers to:

a. The increasing presence of the fast-food business model in common social institutions.
b. The obesity epidemic that’s rapidly sweeping the United States.
c. The country’s increasing dependence on fast food as a daily meal.
d. The increasing popularity of McDonalds as a hang-out for youths.

The increasing presence of the fast-food business module in common social institution

13. Kellan wants to shop at Express for the new school year, but because all of his friends shop at Pacific Sun, Kellan does as well. Kellan’s behavior is an example of:

a. Consumer-oriented discretion
b. Laissez-faire leadership
c. Conformity
d. Out-group dynamics

Conformity

14. The concept "reference groups" can be defined as:

a. Groups which consist of people for whom an individual feels great disdain.
b. Groups a person belongs to and feels are an integral part of his or her identity.
c. People who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way.
d. Groups to which an individual compares himself or herself.

Groups to which an individual compares himself or herself

15. A famous socialite is court-ordered to enter a rehabilitation center to eliminate her drug addiction. The socialite is about to become a member of a:

a. Voluntary organization
b. Paparazzi organization
c. Utilitarian organization
d. Coercive organization

Coercive organization

16. Justin enrolls in a local community college so he can one day become an engineer. Justin is about to become a member of a:

a. Voluntary organization
b. Paparazzi organization
c. Utilitarian organization
d. Coercive organization

Utilitarian organization

17. Which sociological pioneer performed an experiment in which he showed a group of participants a paper with three lines on it, all varying in length, and asked them to compare the lines?

a. Karl Marx
b. Solomon Asch
c. Ivan Pavlov
d. Émile Durkheim

Solomon asch

18. When Kevin backpacks across Europe after his high school graduation, he is surprised to find Burger Kings, H&Ms, and even Wal-Mart stores in the foreign cities. This is an example of:

a. In-Group/Out-Group dynamic
b. The McDonaldization of Society
c. A bureaucracy
d. Counter-culture

The mcdonalization of society

19. In the 2010 film, The Social Network, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg was portrayed as a leader who was goal-oriented, issuing orders and assigning tasks. Which of the following leadership styles did Zuckerberg likely use?

a. Authoritarian
b. Democratic
c. Laissez-faire
d. Oligarchy

Authoritarian

20. The term meritocracy is defined by the text as:

a. A status-based regime in which advancement is unlikely.
b. The removal of personal feelings from a professional situation.
c. The authoritarian devalue of an employee .
d. A bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on proven and documented skills.

A bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on proven and documented skills

1. Ally’s father was sent to prison when she was 12 for the trafficking of narcotics; her brother was arrested when she was 13 for possession of methamphetamines. By the age of 18, Ally has been arrested three times for possession of marijuana. Which theory best describes Ally’s experience?

a. Differential association theory
b. Strain theory
c. Labeling theory
d. Opaque theory

Differential association theory

2. The term deviance can be defined as:

a. The act of notifying authorities when criminal acts are occurring.
b. A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.
c. Social reward for the violation of norms.
d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.

A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.

3. What is the difference between a violent crime and a hate crime?

a. A violent crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.
b. A violent crime is punishable in a court of law; a hate crime is not.
c. A hate crime is punishable in a court of law; a violent crime is not.
d. A hate crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.

A hate crime is based on a persons race, religion, or other characteristics

4. Jake receives a promotion at his law firm after winning an important case. This is an example of a:

a. Positive informal sanction
b. Negative informal sanction
c. Positive formal sanction
d. Negative formal sanction

Positive formal sanction

5. Which theorist studied the power elite, and the influence they had over society?

a. Karl Marx
b. Carl Sagan
c. Émile Durkheim
d. C. Wright Mills

Wright mills

6. The term crime can be defined as:

a. A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions.
b. A harmful action directed at the authorities.
c. A sequence of events leading to incarceration.
d. An unintended consequence of necessary action.

A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions

7. Functionalist Émile Durkheim believed some deviance within society was:

a. Necessary; it challenged people’s views.
b. Dangerous; it encouraged disruptive behavior.
c. Insignificant; deviance within society is largely ignored.
d. Instrumental; it encouraged the population to rebel.

Necessary; it challenged people’s views

8. Which of the following is not a branch of the U.S. Criminal Justice System?

a. The police
b. The jury
c. The courts
d. The corrections system

The jury

9. The term secondary deviance can be defined as:

a. When positive formal sanctions cause an individual to deviate from society’s expectations.
b. When a violation of norms does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others.
c. When negative informal sanctions encourage an individual to seek more positive behavioral choices.
d. When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.

When a persons self concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society

10. Which of the following is an example of a negative informal sanction?

a. Mario being sent to jail after robbing a CVS.
b. Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine.
c. Eleanor being given a "Teacher of the Year" award for her work as a high school English teacher.
d. Meredith receiving compliments on her hair after visiting the salon.

Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke dhring her comedy routine

11. Social control is:

a. An arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society’s members base their daily lives.
b. A system that has the authority to make decisions based on law.
c. A label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual.
d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.

The regulation and enforcement of norms

12. Strain theory:

a. Argues that morality is based on wealth.
b. Asserts that motivation and personal responsibility are the key factors in living a healthy lifestyle.
c. Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals.
d. States individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance.

Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable Gail’s and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals

13. In first grade, Scott is unfairly singled out by his teacher for bad behavior, partly because his older brothers had behavioral problems themselves. Throughout grade school, Scott gains a reputation as a "problem" child. Scott eventually drops out of school, thinking he was born to fail anyway. Which school of thought best fits Scott’s experience?

a. Strain theory
b. Control theory
c. Differential association
d. Labeling theory

Labeling theory

14. Bernie Madoff, recently sentenced to 150 years in prison for creating a ponzi scheme which caused clients to lose millions of dollars, engaged in which form of crime?

a. Street crime
b. Corporate crime
c. Violent crime
d. Institutional crime

Corporate crime

15. True or False: Deviance is always considered a crime?

a. True
b. False

False

16. As of 2008, how many adults in the United States are in jail or prison?

a. 1 in 1000
b. 1 in 500
c. 1 in 100
d. 1 in 10

1 in 100

Differential association

Edwin Sutherland

Control theory

Travis hirschi

Strain theory

Robert Merton

Cultural deviance theory

Clifford shaw and Henry McKay

1. Caleb attended a private high school, which gave each student access to a personal laptop and iPhone. Ted attended a poorly funded public school, which had few computers and outdated technology. When Caleb gets to college, he’s more prepared than Ted for coursework which includes computer and online material. This occurrence is an example of:

a. Computer lag
b. Digital divide
c. Technological pause
d. New media

Digital divide

2. E-readiness can be defined as:

a. the ability to sort through, interpret, and process digital knowledge.
b. the application of science to solve problems in daily life.
c. the virtual experience offered by leading educational institutions.
d. the electronic waste created by consumers.

The ability to sort through, intrepret, and process digital knowledge

3. Which of the following is an example of planned obsolescence?

a. Evangeline refuses to purchase a Droid or an iPhone because her Razor phone has been in perfect shape for the past 6 years.
b. Target offers a "buy two, get one free" sale on Blue Ray discs.
c. Sarah’s iPod breaks just as the newest iPod Nano is being introduced.
d. Jerome spills coffee on his MacBook, and it ruins the keyboard.

Sarah’s iPod breaking just as the newest iPod nano is being introduced

4. After the floppy disk was introduced, zip drives were invented shortly after, followed quickly by flash drives. This is an example of:

a. Digital divide
b. Design patent
c. Stolen technology
d. Evolutionary model of technological change

Evolutionary model of technological change

5. Last week, a major politician was caught in a political scandal. The story was featured on the front page of the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, CNN.com, and was the lead story on NBC, ABC, and CBS nightly news. This is referred to as:

a. Homogenization
b. Telecommunication
c. Fragmentation
d. Illiteration

Homogenization

6. The term technological diffusion is defined as:

a. The spread of technology across borders.
b. The global lack of access to online media.
c. A form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directly.
d. The breakdown of communication between technological innovators and the general public.

The spread of technology across borders

7. Which sociological perspective sees technology and media as a tool individuals use to express how much wealth they have?

a. Functionalist
b. Cyberfeminist
c. Symbolic Interactionist
d. Conflict

Symbolic Interactionist

8. How has advertising revenue significantly changed in the past few years?

a. Newspaper advertising revenue has greatly increased, while online advertising revenue has fallen.
b. Cable and online revenue have remained greatly unchanged, while newspaper and magazine advertising revenue have fallen greatly.
c. Magazine revenue has risen steadily, while online and newspaper revenue have fallen dramatically.
d. Online advertising revenue has fallen slightly, while newspaper advertising revenue has increased greatly.

Cable and online revenue have remained gravely unchanged, while newspaper and magazine advertising revenue have fallen greatly

9. Which of the following is NOT an example of new media?

a. Barnes and Noble
b. Twitter
c. Facebook
d. The Kindle

Barnes and Noble

10. The term media globalization can be defined as:

a. The cross-cultural development and exchange of computer hardware.
b. The governmental sanction allowing worldwide access to media education.
c. The inability of geographically rural areas to access new media.
d. The worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas.

The worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas

11. Susan has the newest iPhone, iPad, iPod, and Mac. When a new Apple product is released, Susan stands in line for hours to be the first to buy it. Susan is a(n):

a. Republican
b. Technophile
c. PC person
d. Neo-Luddite

Technophile

12. Before the dawn of social media, powerful TV networks and widely circulated newspapers had great influence over the news stories that were reported to the public. This is referred to as:

a. Social control
b. The great divide
c. Gatekeeping
d. Discriminatory journalism

Gatekeeping

13. Which theorist would be most interested in who controls the media, and the ways in which the dominant race and class minimizes the media presence of the lower classes and other races?

a. A conflict theorist
b. A symbolic interactionist
c. A cyberfeminist
d. A functionalist

A conflict theorist

14. What is a negative risk of media globalization?

a. Social media spreading awareness about social causes.
b. Accessible technology being made available to remote societies.
c. The spread of computer literacy.
d. Governments censoring information for their benefit.

Governments censoring info for their benefit

15. The term panoptic surveillance is defined in the text as:

a. A form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directly
b. A network of neighborhood spies who go through local mailboxes and listen in on phone lines
c. When people are too overwhelmed with media input to really care about the issue, so their involvement becomes defined by awareness instead of by action about the issue at hand
d. An online invasion of spyware which track when controversial political beliefs are being expressed

A form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directly

16. Tyson visits China over spring break, and after getting online to write home to her parents, she realizes some of her favorite social media sites are blocked by the Chinese government. She becomes concerned with how technology reinforces inequalities among communities, both within and among countries. What sociological perspective best fits Tyson’s concerns?

a. Functionalist
b. Cyberfeminist
c. Symbolic Interactionist
d. Conflict

Conflict

17. In 1983, 50 corporations owned the majority of mass-media outlets. Today, the majority of mass-media outlets are owned by how many corporations?

a. 65
b. 27
c. 6
d. 2

6

18. This is a product of ___.

a. Cyberfeminism
b. Media globalization
c. Technological imbalance
d. Corporate isolation

Media globalization

19. From the functionalist perspective, which of the following is a function of social media?

a. Life changing function
b. Social norm function
c. Entertainment function
d. All of the above

All

20. The term cyberfeminism is defined by the text as:

a. The application to and promotion of feminism online.
b. The removal of feminist social activism from the physical world to the online world.
c. The threat of sexism overtaking internet message boards.
d. The growing number of young girls who are becoming addicted to World of Warcraft.

The application to and promotion of feminism online

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