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According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, the term ________ correctly describes the behavior of a school "dropout" who rejects both cultural goals and the conventional means to reach them.


If a parent threatens a child with punishment in order to discourage wrongdoing, the parent is using punishment to accomplish


Crime committed by persons of high social position during the course of their occupations is called

white-collar crime.

In his study of New England’s Puritans, Kai Erikson concluded that

even this disciplined and highly religious group created deviance to clarify the moral boundaries of their community.

According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to do anything wrong?


Prostitution is widely regarded as a

victimless crime.

One of the social foundations of deviance is that

deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms.

Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion that

mental illness is a myth so that "insanity" is only "differences" that bother other people.

A hate crime is defined as

a criminal act motivated by race or other bias.

Looking back in history, the oldest justification for punishing an offender is


The concept of due process refers to

the criminal justice system operating within the bounds of the law.

Organized crime refers to

any business that supplies illegal goods or services.

Both Albert Cohen and Walter Miller argue that deviance is most likely to arise among

low-income youths.

According to Durkheim, functions of deviance include

the idea that responding to deviance promotes social unity.

Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" as

a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person’s self-concept.

Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called ______.

social control

According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, the term ________ would correctly describe a gangster like Al Capone, who made a lot of money breaking the law.


Crimes against the person" includes all but


"Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime

refers to a violation of norms enacted into law.

In Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance, ___________ refers to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them.


Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz claimed that "good boys" have the ability to rein in deviant impulses. They called their analysis

containment theory.

Most criminal cases handled by the criminal justice system in the United States are resolved

through plea bargaining.

An example of the "medicalization of deviance" is

theft being redefined as a "compulsive stealing."

"The recognized violation of cultural norms" refers to the concept of


According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, the term _______ correctly describes the behavior of a radical activist who rejects just about everything in the existing society in favor of some alternative system.


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