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What causes variations in altimeter settings between weather reporting points?

Answer: Unequal heating of the earth’s surface

The wind at 5,000 feet AGL is southwesterly while the surface wind is southerly. This difference in direction is primarily due to

Answer: friction between the wind and the surface

Convective circulation patterns associated with sea breezes are caused by

Answer: cool, dense air moving inland from over the water Explanation: During the day – land warmer than water – air flows from water to land.

How will frost on the wings of an airplane affect takeoff performance?

Answer: Frost will disrupt the smooth flow of air over the wing, adversely affecting its lifting capability

Every physical process of weather is accompanied by, or is the result of, a

Answer: heat exchange

A temperature inversion would most likely result in which weather condition?

Answer: Clouds with extensive vertical development above an inversion aloft Explanation: Normally, temperatures decrease with altitude. Inversion is opposite.

the most frequent type of ground or surface-based temperature inversion is that which is produced by

Answer: terrestrial radiation on a clear, relatively still night Explanation: Ground cools faster than overlying air

Which weather conditions should be expected beneath a low-level temperature inversion layer when the relative humidity is high?

Answer: Smooth air, poor visibility, fog, haze, or low clouds.

What is meant by the term "dewpoint"?

Answer: The temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated

The amount of water vapor which air can hold depends on the

Answer: air temperature Explanation: Temperature is directly proportional to how much moisture can be in the air

Clouds, fog, or dew will always form when

Answer: water vapor condenses

What are the processes by which moisture is added to unsaturated air?

Answer: Evaporation and sublimation

Which conditions result in the formation of frost?

Answer: The temperature of the collecting surface is at or below the dewpoint of the adjacent air and the dewpoint is below freezing

The presence of ice pellets at the surface is evidence that there

Answer: is a temperature inversion with freezing rain at a higher altitude Explanation: Warm layer of air keeps rain in liquid form until it falls through a colder layer – inversion

What measurement can be used to determine the stability of the atmosphere?

Answer: Actual lapse rate Explanation: Stability – resistance to displacement up and down. Lapse rate – decrease in temperature with increase in altitude

What would decrease the stability of an air mass?

Answer: Warming from below

What is a characteristic of stable air?

Answer: Stratiform clouds Explanation: Cumulus clouds and good visibility – unstable air

Moist, stable air flowing upslope can be expected to

Answer: produce stratus type clouds

If an unstable air mass is forced upward, what type clouds can be expected?

Answer: Clouds with considerable vertical development and associated turbulence.

What feature is associated with a temperature inversion?

Answer: A stable layer of air

What is the approximate base of the cumulus clouds if the surface air temperature at 1,000 feet MSL is 70 degrees F and the dewpoint is 48 degrees F?

Answer: 6,000 feet MSL Explanation: Lapse rate – 4.5. Cloud base – Temp minus dewpoint divided by lapse rate times 1,000 plus elevation (70-48)/4.5)+1,000

At approximately what altitude above the surface would the pilot expect the base of cumuliform clouds if the surface air temperature is 82 degrees F and the dewpoint is 38 degrees F?

Answer: 10,000 feet AGL Explanation: Lapse rate – 4.5. Cloud base – Temp minus dewpoint divided by lapse rate times 1,000

What are characteristics of a moist, unstable air mass?

Answer: Cumuliform clouds and showery precipitation

What are characteristics of unstable air?

Answer: Turbulence and good surface visibility Explanation: Lifting motion produces turbulence and clears clouds and pollutants from sky

A stable air mass is most likely to have which characteristic?

Answer: Smooth air Explanation: Stable air resists the lifting motion

The suffix "nimbus," used in naming clouds, means

Answer: a rain cloud

Clouds are divided into four families according to their

Answer: height range

The boundary between two different air masses is referred to as a

Answer: front

One of the most easily recognized discontinuities across a front is

Answer: a change in temperature

One weather phenomenon which will always occur when flying across a front is a change in the

Answer: wind direction

Steady precipitation preceding a front is an indication of

Answer: stratiform clouds with little or no turbulence Explanation: These are indicative of stable air

What situation is most conducive to the formation of radiation fog?

Answer: Warm, moist air over low, flatland areas on clear, calm nights Explanation: Forms when moist air cools to the dewpoint. Ex. ground fog

If the temperature/dewpoint spread is small and decreasing, and the temperature is 62 degrees F, what type weather is most likely to develop?

Answer: Fog or low clouds Explanation: When temperature is close to dewpoint, you get condensation

In which situation is advection fog most likely to form?

Answer: An air mass moving inland from the coast in winter Explanation: When warmer air moves inland

What types of fog depend upon wind in order to exist?

Answer: Advection fog and upslope fog

Low-level turbulence can occur and icing can become hazardous in which type of fog?

Answer: Steam fog Explanation: formed by cold, dry air moving over warmer water

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