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Humans are classified as

homo sapiens

Which primate groups is most closely related to humans?


_____ are the oldest known primate group.


The primates that spend the most time walking upright are the _____.


Which of these anthropoid groups consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whose forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?


Which primate group lives in trees in Central and South America and have nostrils that are wide open and far apart?

New World monkeys

Vertebrates and tunicates share

a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Some animals that lived 530 million years ago resembled lancelets but had a brain and a skull. These animals may represent

early craniates

What permits reptiles to thrive in arid environments?

Their scales contain the protein keratin, which helps prevent dehydration

What is not considered an amniote?


What is considered an amniote?

placental mammals nonbird reptiles birds egg-laying mammals

Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?

It allows incubation of eggs in a terrestrial environment

Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?

the amniotic egg

From which of the following groups are snakes most likely descended?


Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?


Which of the following structures are possessed only by birds?

feathers and kneeled sternum

During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent)?

1. paired fins 2. jaws 3. swim bladder 4. amniotic egg 5. four-chambered heart

Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in


Differentiation of teeth is observed in


Which is characteristic of all mammals, and only of mammals?

having glands to produce nourishing milk for offspring

Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?

examine the teeth

Which of these is a trend in hominin evolution?

increased brain to body ratio

How are primates different from all other mammals?

opposable thumbs in many species

In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?

reptiles and mammals

In which extant vertebrae group does their scales closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin


In which extant vertebrae group does internal fertilization, amniotic egg, skin that resists drying, heavy bones occur

non bird reptiles

Which extant vertebrae group has three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and placental


Which extant vertebrae group may have lungs, or gills, and may use skin as a respiratory surface


Which clade does not include humans?


Which is not a diagnostic feature of the Chordata?


Which is a diagnostic feature of the Chordata?

notochord a muscular, post-anal tail pharyngeal slits or clefts a hollow dorsal nerve cord

Which of the following chordates is most likely to look least like other chordates?

adult tunicate

A unique feature of craniates is _____

the neural crest

What do lampreys, sharks, snakes, turtles, and cats have that a hagfish lacks?


Jaws evolved _____

by modification of the skeletal rods that previously supported the anterior pharyngeal gill slits

The diagnostic feature of Chondrichthyes is _____

an endoskeleton of calcified cartilage

Which one of the following groups is most closely associated with a wet environment?


Four adaptations of terrestrial animals:

1. tetrapod locomotion 2. lungs 3. amniotic eggs 4. nephron tube systems for osmoregulation

There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____

method of reproduction

As hominins have evolved _____

sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced

Which of the following is a shared characteristic of all chordates?

dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Which characteristics of all chordates have during at least a portion of their development?

a dorsal, hollow nerve chord pharyngeal clefts post-anal tail

Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as

suspension-feeding devices

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?


What do craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?

partial or complete skull

Lampreys differ from hagfishes in

having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage

The endoskeletons of most vertebrates are composed of calcified


Lancelets only live/survive in

saltwater environments

In which of these extant classes did jaws occur earliest?


According to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of

skeletal rods that supported pharyngeal slits

What is a distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans?

mostly cartilaginous endoskeleton

To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?

chondrichthyan teeth

Which statement accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?

They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure

Which group’s members had (have) both lungs and gills during their adult lives?


There is evidence that ray-finned fishes originally evolved

in fresh-water environments

The ray-finned fishes are characterized by

a bony endoskeleton, operculum, and usually a swim bladder

All of the following belong to the lobe-fin clade:

tetrapods. African lungfishes Australian lungfishes. coelacanths

A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was

feet with digits

What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?

They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land

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