2404 ch 4

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1. How is muscular <b>strength</b> assessed?

by measuring the most force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort

2. KNOW muscular <b>endurance</b> is assessed by measuring

by measuring the ability to exert a submaximal force repeatedly over time

3. a motor unit is made up of

one motor nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers

KNOW 4. a muscle fiber is

an individual muscle cell connected in bundles

5. Hypertrophy

an increase in muscle fiber size

6. <b>Slow</b> twitch muscles are characterized by

fatigue resistance , slow contraction speed, lower capacity for tension, usually for endurance activities

7. <b>Fast</b> twitch muscle fibers are characterized by

Rapid Contraction forcefully, fatigue quickly, usually for actions that require strength and power

KNOW 8. activities that would predominantly use <b>slow-twitch</b> muscle fibers are

endurance activities (EX-walking, jogging, swimming…)

KNOW 9. activities that would predominantly use <b>Fast-twitch</b> muscle fibers are

strength and power activities (EX-sprinting)

10. injuries such as low back pain are reduced if the spine is properly aligned by strong muscles in the

abdomen and hips

11. What percentage of all Americans will be afflicted with low back pain at some point in their life?


12. strength training improves body composition primarily by

increasing muscle mass

13. metabolic rate increases when

muscle mass increases

How much boost to the resting metabolic rate can strength training provide?


15. testosterone

an essential hormone that men have in higher amounts than women and that allows men to build more muscle mass than women

16. results of inactivity and aging

loss of muscle mass, slower muscles, decreased strength, trouble performing simple everyday movements

17. people typically begin to lose muscle mass after age


18. cause of the decrease in muscle strength often associated with aging

inactivity , lack of a strength training program, and sarcopenia

19. strength training helps in the prevention and management of chronic disease by

improving glucose metabolism, lessening bone loss, increasing maximal oxygen consumption, reducing blood pressure

Which statement describes a condition of gender and strength training?

women tend to lose inches and increase strength with resistance training

Which describes a comparison between women’s and men’s body composition?

women have approximately the same capacity for increases in strength

22. isometric exercise is best described as applying force

without a change in length of the muscle

24. advantages of isometric or static exercises

they require no equipment

24. What is the best classification of an exercise that includes muscular force exerted as a muscle shortens?


During which exercise does a muscle lengthen as it contracts?

eccentric contraction

Which is a good resistance training technique for developing explosive strength?



an exercise in which the individual jumps from a platform to the ground and then back up on the platform

27. Which type of isotonic exercise would athletes use to simulate movement during sprinting or throwing?

speed loading

isokinetic exercise is best described as applying force

at a constant speed against an equal force

compared to free weights, weight machines are considered

safe, convenient, and easy to use

compared to weight machines, free weights are

widely available, inexpensive, and convenient for home use


type of body weight exercise that emphasizes control of movement

stability ball exercise is particularly effective for improving

core, endurance, and strength

the MINIMUM number of training days per week for gaining strength is

2 nonconsecutive days (3 is better)

training intensity for weight training is determined by

how much weight you use

recommended amount of resistance and number of repetitions for improving muscular endurance is

40-60% of RM; 15-20 reps (RM=repetition maximum)

recommended amount of resistance and number of repetitions for building muscular strength rapidly is

80% of RM; 1-5 reps (RM=repetition maximum)

to build individual muscle strength and muscle size, it is best to

use heavy weight and do less reps

to improve muscular endurance, it is best to

use light weight and do more reps

in weight training, a set is a

group of reps followed by a rest period

to gain muscular strength and endurance for general fitness, the rest interval between sets should last

1-3 minutes

for overall fitness, how many different exercises should you include in your weight training program


antagonist muscle

opposes the action of a contracting muscle, its agonist

a cool-down period after a weight training workout should include

relaxing for 5-10 minutes and some stretching

when you are ready to increase resistance for an exercise in a weight training program, approximately how much weight should you add if you are currently lifting 100 lbs.?

5 lbs. (5%)

recommended strategies for strength training safety

use proper lifting technique, use spotters and collars with free weights, be alert for injuries

TF: Recent research on men indicates greater muscular strength is associated with lower rates of death from all causes, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.


TF: Increased muscular strength and endurance reduces one’s risk of injury.


TF: Weight training improves body composition by increasing fat free mass and raising metabolism.


TF: Strength training can lessen bone loss in postmenopausal women.


TF: Strength training can improve glucose metabolism.


TF: For a strength training program to develop general fitness, it is sufficient to do just one set of each exercise.


TF: For strength gains, a balanced diet is more important than taking supplements.


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