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Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by:

cognitive dissonance theory.

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of:

role-playing on attitude change.

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory?

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Which of the following situations should produce the greatest cognitive dissonance?

A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with.

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?

cognitive dissonance theory

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter’s orders when:

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the:

"teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects:

complied with all the demands of the experiment.

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because:

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.

A person’s behavior is most likely to be consistent with his or her attitudes when:

social influences on behavior are minimal.

Which of the following is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?

After agreeing to wear a small "Enforce Recycling" lapel pin, a woman agrees to collect signatures on a petition to make recycling required by law.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

belief-based feelings

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to:

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request

Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of personal control and social control of our behavior?

Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior.

When pressured to conform, people may do the opposite of what is expected in order to increase their sense of:

personal control.

Jane and Sandy were best friends as freshmen. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn’t. By the end of their senior year, they found that they had less in common with each other than with the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?

group polarization

Deindividuation refers to:

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Which of the following most accurately states the effects of crowding on behavior?

Crowding sometimes intensifies people’s reactions.

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

an individual does something that is personally disagreeable.

Fernando’s favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.

cognitive dissonance

In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when:

they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures.

The impact of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is most clearly illustrated by:

the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.

When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the:

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch "Be a Safe Driver" sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive "Drive Carefully" sign in their front yards. This best illustrates:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of:

group polarization.

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must:

express its position as consistently as possible.

After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of:


We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel:

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove.

In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" were most likely to deliver high levels of shock when:

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is least likely to steal the merchandise if:

she is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting.

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:

role-playing on attitudes.

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the:

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?

"We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there’s no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."

Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?

Group polarization is evident.

Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate:

ingroup bias.

University students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates:

social loafing.

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called:

cognitive dissonance

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

an individual does something that is personally disagreeable.

In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter’s orders when:

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

Participants in Milgram’s obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of:


Having observed participants in his simulated prison study, Philip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of U.S. military guards at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbardo’s explanation best exemplified:

a situational attribution

Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will:

develop an increasing dislike for his brother.

A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts’ critiques of her company’s developing plans is most likely to inhibit:


Anton is the only juror to favor acquittal of the defendant in a murder trial. To influence the majority he should:

be self-confident and consistent in expressing his viewpoint.

When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates:

group polarization.

Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renée notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote:

increased self-awareness.

When New York University women were dressed in Ku Klux Klan-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This finding is best explained in terms of:


Which of the following is true?

Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions.

Four equally attractive women silently attended a 200-student class for zero, 5, 10, or 15 class sessions. When shown slides of each woman, students in the class rated the women who had attended ________ class sessions as the most attractive.


Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?

physical proximity

When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of:

the mere exposure effect.

Which of the following is most clearly supported by research on social attraction?

Birds of a feather flock together.

Research studies indicate that in an emergency situation the presence of others often:

leads to all of the alternatives.

Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in:

the bystander effect.

Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students’ failure to help is best explained in terms of:

diffusion of responsibility.

In one experiment, white Americans read a newspaper article about a foreign terrorist threat against all Americans. They subsequently expressed:

reduced prejudice against black Americans.

Sherif planned a disruption of the water supply in a Boy Scout camp in order to observe how social relationships are influenced by:

superordinate goals.

The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________.

companionate; there is equity between the partners

The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain:

passionate love.

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared to men who had not been aroused, these men:

reported more positive feelings toward the woman.

Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates:


Our mental tapes of culturally prescribed ways of interacting with others in specific situations are called:

social scripts.

Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of:


Although the effect dissipates within an hour or so, one violent TV program is most likely to ________ in its viewer.

prime aggressive thoughts

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films:

may produce all of these effects.

People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ each other and the members of an ingroup as ________ each other.

similar to; different from

We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup as ________.

different from one another; similar to one another

Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying:

social inequalities.

Svetlana, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive college women.

be perceived as more socially skilled

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that:

familiarity breeds fondness.

People’s physical attractiveness is unrelated to their:


Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?

being in a good mood

The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

If one were to generalize from Sherif’s study of conflict resolution between two groups of children campers, the best way for the United States and China to improve their relationship would be to:

conduct a joint space program designed to land humans on Mars.

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?

Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social psychological research on:


The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as:

companionate love.

Ellie is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family’s resources on his own interests. Ellie’s relationship with her husband is best characterized as:


Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is:

increased by exposure to pornography.

After watching a large number of violent pornographic movies, Ollie will probably be:

less likely to believe that women are seriously harmed by rape.

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films:

may produce all of these effects.

An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of:

the just-world phenomenon.

In laboratory experiments, merely observing someone receive painful electric shocks leads viewers to think less of the victim. This reaction is best explained in terms of:

the just-world phenomenon.

Felippe, a 19-year-old university freshman, is very talkative, intelligent, assertive, and politically conservative. Research suggests that he would be most likely to develop a close friendship with:

Toren, who is talkative and assertive

Noncompetitive contact between members of two different ethnic groups is likely to reduce prejudice when the contact is between individuals with:

equal status.

Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of:


Which of the following is true of non-Western cultures, as compared to Western cultures? They have:

lower divorce rates and consider passionate love as less important for marriage.

Opening her mail, Joan discovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to reading the card, she has just:

completed her daily run.

Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that:

many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

Coercive men who believe the rape myth are likely to engage in sexually aggressive behaviors that reflect a misleading:

social script.

Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive the woman’s behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim-blaming is fueled by:

hindsight bias.

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this most directly illustrates:

an ingroup bias.

Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates:

ingroup bias.

People’s preference for mirror-image photographs of themselves illustrates the impact of:

the mere exposure effect

People’s physical attractiveness is a good predictor of their:

frequency of dating

What determined whether college freshmen who had been randomly paired for a Welcome Week dance liked each other?

physical attractiveness

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy’s reaction best illustrates:

the mere exposure effect

Increasing the number of people who are present during an emergency tends to:

decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.

Which of the following would be the best advice to give parents who are concerned about the frequent aggressive outbursts of their 6-year-old son?

"Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic."

Most researchers agree that:

media violence is a factor in aggressive behavior.

Joel’s sexually violent behavior is influenced by his unrealistic sexual scripts, his repeated experience of ostracism, and his persistent abuse of alcohol. An integrated understanding of Joel’s behavior within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by:

a biopsychosocial approach.

Experimental studies indicate that college men who are randomly assigned to play a violent video game:

experience increasing levels of arousal and become increasingly likely to hurt a fellow student.

When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, "What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment." This reaction is best explained in terms of:

the just-world phenomenon.

Which of the following people would be most likely to help Gita study for her history exam?

Gita’s mother, who is excited about the unexpected bonus she just received from her employer

The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the:

emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?

the two-factor theory

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of:


In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves:

role-playing aggression.

Repeated exposure to pornographic films causes viewers to:

see their partners as less attractive and to be more accepting of short prison sentences for convicted rapists.

Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward one camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of:

the scapegoat theory.

The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of:

superordinate goals.

Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious. This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by:


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