(Feist) PSYCH Chapter 8

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After a response has been extinguished, it is quite common for the response to reappear spontaneously if a person ___________.

A. is continuously exposed to the original stimulus

B. returns to the original setting where the conditioning took place

C. experiences the same unconditioned stimulus repeatedly

D. is made to think about the situation and the stimulus

B. returns to the original setting where the conditioning took place

In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment, he presented the sound of a bell along with meat powder to his dogs. After several trials, the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of the bell in the absence of the meat powder. When the dogs salivated only at the sound of the bell and in the absence of meat powder, salivation acted as a(n) _____.

A. unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

B. unconditioned response (UCR)

C. conditioned stimulus (CS)

D. conditioned response (CR)

x

The reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior is called ___________.

A. stimulus generalization

B. habituation

C. shaping

D. backward conditioning

C. shaping

While training his dog, Mark first says the word "sit" and once the dog sits, he gives her a treat. Immediately after this, he says, "Good dog!" He repeats the same process many times, and each time his dog sits after listening to his command. In this example, which of the following is the primary reinforcer?

A. The words "good dog"

B. The treat

C. The word "sit"

D. Mark

B. The treat

Billy, a five-year-old boy, sees his father applying shaving cream on his face while shaving his beard in front of a mirror. Billy copies his father’s facial and hand movements and later that day Billy stands in front of the mirror and pretends to shave. Billy’s behavior is an example of ___________.

A. dark adaption

B. learning by association

C. mimicry

D. habituation

C. mimicry

A(n) ____________ is defined as any internal or external event that increases the frequency of a behavior.

A. catalyst

B. reinforcer

C. converter

D. unconditioned stimulus

B. reinforcer

Forward conditioning occurs when the ___________.

A. conditioned response occurs before the neutral stimulus is presented

B. unconditioned stimulus is presented before the neutral stimulus

C. unconditioned stimulus is presented at the same time as the neutral stimulus

D. neutral stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus

D. neutral stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus

In a ____________, reinforcement always follows the first response after a set amount of time.

A. variable-interval schedule

B. variable-ratio schedule

C. fixed-interval schedule

D. fixed-ratio schedule

x

In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment, he presented the sound of a bell along with meat powder to his dogs. After several trials, the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of the bell in the absence of the meat powder. In this study, meat powder acted as a(n) ___________.

A. unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

B. unconditioned response (UCR)

C. conditioned stimulus (CS)

D. conditioned response (CR)

x

Which of the following statements is true regarding continuous reinforcement?

A. Compared to intermittent reinforcement, continuous reinforcement produces a stronger response in terms of the rate of responding.

B. In continuous reinforcement, reinforcement follows a set number of responses.

C. Continuous reinforcement means rewarding a behavior every time it occurs.

D. Compared to intermittent reinforcement, continuous reinforcement produces responses that are more resistant to extinction.

C. Continuous reinforcement means rewarding a behavior every time it occurs.

Whenever Julia gets ready for school on time, she gets a chocolate from her mother. Hence, Julia always tries to get ready on time. This is an example of ______ type of learning.

A. explicit conditioning

B. operant conditioning

C. observational conditioning

D. backward conditioning

B. operant conditioning

There is always a distinct scent of olive oil and serrano chilies whenever Salma enters her aunt’s home. She no longer notices the smells after staying a little while inside the house. This scenario is an example of ______.

A. dark adaptation

B. learning by association

C. mimicry

D. habituation

D. habituation

In operant conditioning, the word "positive" (preceding the term "reinforcement" or "punishment") indicates:

A. the desirability of a stimulus.

B. the addition of a stimulus.

C. the ineffectiveness of a stimulus.

D. the effectiveness of a stimulus.

B. the addition of a stimulus.

Which of the following statements is true regarding primary reinforcers?

A. Primary reinforcers are learned by association.

B. Primary reinforcers often satisfy psychological needs.

C. Food, water, and sex are primary reinforcers.

D. Money, grades, and peer approval are primary reinforcers.

C. Food, water, and sex are primary reinforcers.

Pavlov defined ______ as fixed stimulus-response patterns.

A. behaviors

B. habits

C. stimuli

D. reflexes

D. reflexes

____________ decrease the frequency of behavior.

A. Reinforcers

B. Punishers

C. Stimulators

D. Converters

B. Punishers

Revoking a child’s TV-watching privileges for repeatedly hitting a sibling is a form of ___________ if it stops the hitting.

A. positive reinforcement

B. positive punishment

C. negative reinforcement

D. negative punishment

D. negative punishment

The learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later when reinforcement occurs, is called ____________.

A. conditioned learning

B. latent learning

C. implicit learning

D. operant learning

B. latent learning

Once we have mastered the skill of riding a bicycle, we don’t have to learn to ride a bicycle every time we want to go for a spin. What is the reason behind this?

A. New knowledge is stored in networks in the brain.

B. Information moves from sensory to short-term memory.

C. Learning and memory work separately.

D. Information moves from implicit to explicit memory.

x

From birth, animals are inclined toward readily learning some things and not others. Biology makes it possible for humans, but not chimpanzees, to ___________.

A. talk

B. listen

C. lift

D. run

A. talk

____________ decrease the frequency of behavior.

Reinforcers

Punishers

Stimulators

Converters

Punishers

While training his dog, Mark first says the word "sit" and once the dog sits, he gives her a treat. Immediately after this, he says, "Good dog!" He repeats the same process many times, and each time his dog sits after listening to his command. In this example, which of the following is the primary reinforcer?

The words "good dog"

The treat

The word "sit"

Mark

The treat

In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment, he presented the sound of a bell along with meat powder to his dogs. After several trials, the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of the bell in the absence of the meat powder. In this study, the sound of the bell acted as a(n) _____.

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

unconditioned response (UCR)

conditioned stimulus (CS)

conditioned response (CR

conditioned stimulus (CS)

Once we have mastered the skill of riding a bicycle, we don’t have to learn to ride a bicycle every time we want to go for a spin. What is the reason behind this?

New knowledge is stored in networks in the brain.

Information moves from sensory to short-term memory.

Learning and memory work separately.

Information moves from implicit to explicit memory.

New knowledge is stored in networks in the brain.

In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment, he presented the sound of a bell along with meat powder to his dogs. After several trials, the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of the bell in the absence of the meat powder. In this study, meat powder acted as a(n) ___________.

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

unconditioned response (UCR)

conditioned stimulus (CS)

conditioned response (CR)

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

After a response has been extinguished, it is quite common for the response to reappear spontaneously if a person ___________.

is continuously exposed to the original stimulus

returns to the original setting where the conditioning took place

experiences the same unconditioned stimulus repeatedly

is made to think about the situation and the stimulus

returns to the original setting where the conditioning took place

There is always a distinct scent of olive oil and serrano chilies whenever Salma enters her aunt’s home. She no longer notices the smells after staying a little while inside the house. This scenario is an example of ______.

dark adaptation

learning by association

mimicry

habituation

habituation

In operant conditioning, the word "positive" (preceding the term "reinforcement" or "punishment") indicates:

the desirability of a stimulus.

the addition of a stimulus.

the ineffectiveness of a stimulus.

the effectiveness of a stimulus.

the addition of a stimulus.

In a ____________, the first response is reinforced after time periods of different duration have passed.

fixed-interval schedule

variable-interval schedule

fixed-ratio schedule

variable-ratio schedule

variable-interval schedule

Revoking a child’s TV-watching privileges for repeatedly hitting a sibling is a form of ___________ if it stops the hitting.

positive reinforcement

positive punishment

negative reinforcement

negative punishment

negative punishment

From birth, animals are inclined toward readily learning some things and not others. Biology makes it possible for humans, but not chimpanzees, to ___________.

talk

listen

lift

run

talk

Billy, a five-year-old boy, sees his father applying shaving cream on his face while shaving his beard in front of a mirror. Billy copies his father’s facial and hand movements and later that day Billy stands in front of the mirror and pretends to shave. Billy’s behavior is an example of ___________.

dark adaption

learning by association

mimicry

habituation

mimicry

Pavlov defined ______ as fixed stimulus-response patterns.

behaviors

habits

stimuli

reflexes

reflexes

In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment, he presented the sound of a bell along with meat powder to his dogs. After several trials, the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of the bell in the absence of the meat powder. When the dogs salivated only at the sound of the bell and in the absence of meat powder, salivation acted as a(n) _____.

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

unconditioned response (UCR)

conditioned stimulus (CS)

conditioned response (CR)

conditioned response (CR)

In operant conditioning, the word "negative" (preceding the term "reinforcement" or "punishment") indicates:

the desirability of a stimulus.

the ineffectiveness of a stimulus.

the removal of a stimulus.

the effectiveness of a stimulus.

the removal of a stimulus.

Which of the following statements best describes the concept of operant conditioning?

Organisms learn from the relations between stimuli.

Organisms learn from the consequences of their behavior.

Organisms learn by observing the behavior of others.

Organisms learn from their involuntary responses which develop over time.

Organisms learn from the consequences of their behavior.

When Ivan Pavlov accidentally discovered classical conditioning, a simple association was formed between:

the sound of the apparatus and the meat powder.

the sight of Pavlov and salivation.

the meat powder and salivation.

salivation and the sound of the apparatus.

the sound of the apparatus and the meat powder.

Which of the following statements is true regarding continuous reinforcement?

Compared to intermittent reinforcement, continuous reinforcement produces a stronger response in terms of the rate of responding.

In continuous reinforcement, reinforcement follows a set number of responses.

Continuous reinforcement means rewarding a behavior every time it occurs.

Compared to intermittent reinforcement, continuous reinforcement produces responses that are more resistant to extinction.

Continuous reinforcement means rewarding a behavior every time it occurs.

_____ challenges the behaviorist conviction that learning always results either from associating an event with an unconditioned stimulus or from shaping by reinforcement or punishment.

Instinctive drift

Conditioned response

Stimulus generalization

Backward conditioning

Instinctive drift

Dominique had a car accident while driving over a bridge and thereafter developed an intense phobia of driving over bridges. In an effort to cure Dominique’s phobia, a psychologist gradually motivated him to drive over bridges. After many sessions of having nonthreatening experiences while driving over bridges, Dominique’s phobia was cured. This is an example of ______.

habituation

stimulus generalization

extinction

backward conditioning

extinction

Albert Bandura called learning by doing ____________.

enactive learning

integrative learning

latent learning

operant learning

enactive learning

According to the research of van Praag, Kempermann, and Gage (1999), which of the following people will most likely experience neurogenesis?

Hank, who loves interacting with his classmates

Velma, who is learning how to play the piano

Jack, who takes part in running races

Celeste, who reads books

Jack, who takes part in running races

____________ is defined as the rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver within a very short period of time after birth.

Imprinting

Habituation

Association

Shaping

Imprinting

Rats that live in enriched laboratory environments show growth in which of the following brain regions?

Cerebellum

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Corpus callosum

Hippocampus

Bandura’s famous studies incorporating a Bobo doll were powerful in that they demonstrated which of the following?

Adults can learn aggression through both reinforcement and punishment.

Adults can teach aggression to children by reinforcing children’s aggressive behavior.

Children can learn aggression through exposure to aggressive adult models.

Children’s aggressive behavior can be suppressed through punishment.

Children can learn aggression through exposure to aggressive adult models.

Newborn Kayla smiles when she sees her father smile. This is most likely a result of which of the following physiological processes?

The firing of mirror neurons

The presence of reinforcement

The activation of the parasympathetic nervous system

The activation of conditioned stimulus

The firing of mirror neurons

Which of the following is true with respect to Albert Bandura’s social learning theory?

It shows that most animals learn through classical and not operant conditioning.

It claims that animals are primed from birth to readily learn some things but not others.

It describes how a previously neutral stimulus can suddenly stimulate a response.

It noted that observation and modeling are major components of learning.

It noted that observation and modeling are major components of learning.

Which of the following is most likely to be useful to help people kick the smoking habit?

Imprinting

Habituation

Stimulus generalization

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning

____________ provides clear evidence of a sensitivity period in learning.

Stimulus discrimination

Spontaneous recovery

Association

Imprinting

Imprinting

Which of the following young children is most likely to experience the highest neural growth?

Jade, whose parents constantly buy her new toys, action figures, and games

Maria, whose parents encourage her to indulge in activities such as running

Amanda, whose parents painted her room in the colors she likes

Julio, whose parents hired an excellent babysitter to watch him during the day

Jade, whose parents constantly buy her new toys, action figures, and games

Albert Bandura called learning by watching the behavior of others ____________.

latent learning

observational learning

integrative learning

enactive learning

observational learning

Smoking can cause the arousal of the sympathetic nervous system and mild relaxation of the muscles. From a learning perspective these are considered ___________.

positive reinforcers

instinctive drifts

unconditioned stimuli

negative punishments

positive reinforcers

Why did Skinner and Watson ignore the role of cognitive and brain processes in learning?

Because they could not be observed

Because they could lead to treacherous results

Because they could not be experimented with

Because they were not suitable for group studies

Because they could not be observed

When people learn from their own successes and failures and from trial and error, it is an example of ______.

enactive learning

observational learning

operant learning

latent learning

enactive learning

Brenda recently joined a new company. She watches how her colleagues dress and act so that she can fit in better. This type of learning is referred to as ___________.

observational learning

enactive learning

operant learning

latent learning

observational learning

What effect does modeling and reward have on learned aggressive behavior?

Kids are more likely to copy behavior that they see others being rewarded for.

Children’s aggressive behavior can be suppressed through punishment.

Adults are less likely to demonstrate behavior that they see others being rewarded for.

Kids can learn aggression through exposure to amicable adult models.

Kids are more likely to copy behavior that they see others being rewarded for.

The ____________ refers to a period in learning when a particular type of learning occurs very readily if an animal is exposed to a particular stimulus or situation.

habituation period

spontaneous recovery period

sensitivity period

synaptic change period

sensitivity period

People displaying which of the following personality traits are more likely to start smoking and less likely to quit successfully?

Conscientiousness

Agreeableness

Extraversion

Intuitiveness

Extraversion

Teenagers might view "being seen as cool"—a form of peer acceptance—as desirable, and so being seen as cool becomes a(n) ____________ for their smoking behavior.

unconditioned stimulus

discriminating stimulus

reinforcer

converter

reinforcer

Which of the following facts regarding reinforcement was noted by Albert Bandura?

Negative reinforcement is more effective in shaping behavior than positive reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement can be effective only after an unconditioned stimulus is associated with a conditioned stimulus.

Punishment is more effective in shaping behavior than negative reinforcement.

Reinforcement matters not only for the person carrying out the behavior, but also for those who watch.

Reinforcement matters not only for the person carrying out the behavior, but also for those who watch.

Which of the following is most likely to be essential for moving an experience from short-term to long-term memory?

Connecting an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus

Having experiences repeated over a short period of time

Converting a change in response into habituation

Connecting a conditioned response to an unconditioned stimulus

Having experiences repeated over a short period of time

Which of the following statements is true regarding imprinting?

Imprinting occurs only in humans.

After a certain age, imprinting cannot be modified at all.

Imprinting provides clear evidence of synaptic change.

Imprinting can be learned at any age.

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