Today, the OD field has grown increasingly strong over the past decade. Today, most authors define the term Intervention of organization development as planned aimed to help increasing organizational effectiveness (Worley & Cummings, 2009; Frend & Bell, 1990). According Swanson (, 2001, p.99) “Intervention processes focuses on improving communication, problem solving, decision making and leadership”. Besides that, he also found that “intervention refers to a set of planned activities intended to help organization increase its effectiveness” (Swanson, 2001, p.99). According to Worley & Cummings (2009 ) there are four types of Interventions used in OD today , there are : Human process, Techno structural, Human Resources management and Strategic. Organisation Development of change is affected through individual, groups and organization.
1.1 Human process Interventions :
According to Worley & Cummings (2009, p. 156 ) ” Human process intervention derive mainly from the disciplines of psychology and social psychology and the applied fields of groups dynamic and human relations”. Follow the theory of human process, DeSimone and Werner (2009 ,p. 498 ) defined that ” Human process- based interventions are directed at improving interpersonal, intragroup and intergroup relation” . Human process includes the following numerous of step such as: Process consultation, third -party interventions, team building, organization confrontation meeting, intergroup relations interventions and large group intervention. OD programs focused more on interpersonal dynamics and social relation. The purpose of the change is to make the company achieve the full potential of productivity and profitability, to be able to solve its own problems. According to Neumann, Kellner, Shepherd (1997) human process interventions focus on improving communication, interaction and leadership, gain the skills and understanding to identify, resolve conflicts and solve problem through process consultation and Third- party intervention.
Human Process Interventions also following team building interventions through helps the development of organizational success. Including team building knowledge to solve problems in the organization, team building help team members feel less pressure, devise solution to problem. Team buildings also need to trust and support members in order to help members more creative ideas to help complete the group’s task, increase understanding, improvement and increased ability about interpersonal behavior.
1.2 Techno structural :
On the other hand, Techno structural forced on organization’s technology, structural, task method, and the work design in the organisation. Technological changes have been designed to make products or services more efficiently. This intervention aims to achieve a more appropriate structure and cost effective organization and address issues such as group activities, structural design, downsizing and reengineering. According to Jones, Heijden & Bono (2008, p. 161) “techno- structural usually consider a common platform when bringing about the required techno – structural change”.
Human Process Interventions also on the payroll reduction through understanding of the organization’s strategy such as reduce the incidence of costs through the organization by reducing costs, reducing the size and design of organizations, layoffs. And it also through reengineering intervention in order to have result in faster, more responsive task performance and control work process more effectively (Worley & Cummings, 2009). Techno- Structural Changes also need to re-thinking and re-design of business processes to achieve performance.
1.3 Human resources Management and Strategic:
As further analysis, the human resources Management and Strategic focus on integrated human resource practices and how they can be used to integrate the employees of both organizations. Human Resources Management used to develop support and help people in organisation (Worley & Cummings ,2009). These practices include career planning, performance management, reward systems, job assignment, recruitment and retention, goal setting relate to dealing with human resource.
According to Jones, Heijden & Bono (2008, p.166) “Strategic interventions in change situations tend to address the relationship between an organization and its environment”. Intervention strategies of integration issues and implement strategic plans to achieve cross-organizational development through the encouragement of participation and it also issues across traditional strategic planning. Besides that, Intervention strategies of integrations bring about a fit between business strategies analysis, culture, and the larger environment. Hence, integrated Strategic change intervention and trans-organisational development intervention will work towards integrated strategic planning, action and tactical operations and in solving problems together to make this acquisition successful.
2: Implementing Change:
2.1. Approach to change:
Approaches to Change is the process of introduces change management through the process help people understand their role of the change agent at individual and organisational levels. Approaches to change can affect behaviour to making happen at work and on organisational performance through influence processes, behaviour and interpersonal relationship. The four approaches are defined ( Harris,2006 ) as developmental transition, Task- focused transitions, Charismatic transformations and Turnarounds. All style of change applied for single leadership styles depend on the scale of change.
By developmental transitions: used to growing market, product innovation and emphasis on market leader culture individual development, team skills. They point to changes in the organization continually aligning and adjusting itself to move in its environment. Their goals are voluntary commitment to shared vision of continuous improvement which the primary style of management is consultative ( Stace & Dunphy , 2001 ).
By task- focused transitions: they refer to have a strong direction for the top level of autonomous units in the implementation ( Harris,2006). According to Baker & McKenzie (2009, p. 381 ) ” they refer to change in which there is a directive style of leadership at the top, with a more consultative approach lower down in the organisation. Their goals are try to conform to redefined job performance systems and beside that strength of this approach are clear focus on tasks- related issue, clear communication, clear roles, relentless approach to change ( Stace & Dunphy , 2001 ).
By charismatic transformation: they refer to the need radical change by charismatic leadership style and consultation management style who able to engage and minds of employees in new direction.
By Turnarounds: refer to used of markets environment changes dramatically is now aligned with external environment ( Stace & Dunphy , 2001 ).”These are applicable to situation where a disjuncture exists between the organisation and its environment but there is little support be employees for the need for change and little time to engage them in a participative change style”( Baker & McKenzie, 2009, p. 381 ). In this situation, their goals are comply with radically redefined culture, goals and performance standards with need for a directive/coercive change style.
2.2 Type of leadership:
a : Coaches:
Leadership training describes a specific type of intervention that can be done strategic with individuals, groups or organization ( Orem, Binkert et al, 2007 ). According to Lee ( 2003 , p. 151) ” Leadership coaching has become a key to success to both individuals and organisations”. Leadership coaching aims to promote progress by providing focus and awareness to help those who are trained to achieve fuller potential. For leadership coaching to be effective, there must be use of personal power and expertise and use role of modelling. This means that individuals who are coached to feel ensure that exchange with coach will be kept confidential and will not affect their jobs or their status in the organization. Leadership coaching should be regarded as an iterative process that people can evaluate the behaviour in their life, they have adjusted until they feel that it right. When done properly, leadership coaching is very active and contributes to the creativity and innovation in organizations.
b : Captain:
Captain leadership though process of directed interaction around main changes. Using the power of manager positions and strategies from top management. Captain leadership are also through communication and cultural renewal. Its aim to get staff behaviour in line with vision and use line managers for communication. Cultural renewal through retraining uses rational strategy and constant adjusting behaviour to match changing strategy ( Stace & Dunphy , 2001).
Most charismatic leader can get others to understand the vision or their goals through the use of symbolic interactive and use of personal charisma that people can understand. Charismatic note communication aim to get emotional commitment to the vision .Cultural renewal is radically different culture and values and creating participation with new role models. ( Stace & Dunphy , 2001).
Commander leadership behaviour is across the board directive action, use of personal power and sanction, beside that also infusion of new role modelling.
Communication: its aim to get across organisation is in crisis, use of formal, authoritative communication. Cultural renewal used power coercive strategy, radical challenge to existing values and culture, and reforming new culture. ( Stace & Dunphy , 2001).
3. Implementing Change
Today, employees and manager can think about the develop way to improve the organisation cultural change, organisation design; built to change…but let these ideas are put into action. According to Daft (2010, p.433) “Implementation is the most crucial part of the change process, but it is also the most difficult”. Change strategies to understand and implement the activities of the organization, how to function in its environment, what the advantages and disadvantages are and how it will be affected by changes to them to plan the implementation of effective. This topic now will explain and analysis some of the key change strategies from thinking to frameworks for action, with “what we will change” and “why we will change” need to change to the “how” manager change it. From a study of implementing change currently, I have identified two general approaches to change strategies, which are cultural change and organisation design. “Change is frequently disruptive and uncomfortable for manager as well as employees” (Daft, 2010,p. 433).
3.1 Cultural change :
According to Weiner & Ronch (p.24 ) ” Implementing culture change involve moving an organization to some desires future state”. A CEO or manager noticed a problem in the culture of an organization. This is a culture change towards the most ordinary way, from the top. First, force on the culture change is “the diversity of today’s workforce” ( Daft, 2010,p. 431). His analysed that diversity is a fact of life for organizations today, and many are implementing new training, mentoring, methods, and diversity recruiting programs, new benefits respond a work force more diverse. However, if the basic culture of an organization that has not changed, all other efforts to support diversity will fail. However, “culture change can be particularly difficult because it challengers people’s core values and established ways of thinking and doing things” (Daft, 2010, p. 431). Hence, leadership from the top is the next turned to matching the strategy of culture change with the organization’s top-down management style and it also driving cultural change.
Cultural change is difficult but nevertheless it can still be achieved (Robbins, 1998 ). Miller (1998) showed that changing the culture of an organization requires strong motivation and a careful strategy because cultural change could cause disastrous results, including the collapse of the organization. Implementing successful cultural change is a big challenge, including time and effort. But, if the successful cultural change, organizations should look for innovation and ready to face with the challenges in the future.
3.2: Organisation design:
Strategy implementation change involves the use of organizational design, the process of organizational design will allow an organization to improve employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and financial performance also improved as a competitive. In order for an organization that has successfully created the best choice is the design hierarchy, integration, control, and powers. The design organization is a business capability to identify changes in market and competitive adaptation. Benefits of strategic organizational design is to ensure correct information to put the right people at the right time, besides it also offers financial and performance monitoring strategies of the organization.
Without a supporting culture, even the safety procedures are the best design will fail. But with the right combination between organizational change dynamics and strategies for change, the whole initiative will be a best service.
4: Institutionalisation of Planned Change:
What the term “Institutionalisation of planned change”
The term “Institutionalisation of planned change” is the processes that are designed to fix the changes in place so that the change becomes normal and people do not go back to their old ways (Worley & Cummings ,2009 ). An institutionalisation is an important concept in process improvement if designed to fix changes in organisation. When referring to the common goal and generic practice descriptions, institutional means that the process is ingrained in how the work is done and is committed and consistent to make this process. Institutionalisation processes are likely to be retained and maintaining them of the organization’s functioning for during a long time and stress. However, the implementation of this process may also need to change to ensure that it remains effective and reach their performance’s tasks. According to Kurtz (1999 , p.211 ) ” Institutionalization process of building the capacities of persons, institutions, communities, organizations and even nations to reflect a set of preferred visions, values, policies, principles and practices”. Other author defined that “The institutionalization processes are critical since they link directly with institutionalization outcomes, regardless of the change” (Jacobs, p.184 ).
4.2 Institutionalization Process:
Socialization is the process of complex interactions the transmission of information about ideas and belief systems, institutions, norms, values with respect to the intervention and explains social life. For the better understand, according to Edles & Appelrouth (2008, p.354 ) “Socialization refers to the process by which individuals come to regard specific norms as binding”. It necessarily involves a community in order to change program of organization. Socialization also seen as induction of new member to help bring new member onboard and allows participants to reaffirm belief systems, institutions, norms, values (Worley & Cummings, 2009). Hence, through socialization, members can develop a sense and personal awareness and capacity for independent thought and action.
According to (Worley & Cummings, 2009, p.206) “Commitment should allow people to select the necessary behavors freely, explicitly and publicly” . Throughout the pursuit of change, commitment should derive at all level of organisation and intervention includes initial commitment to the program as well as recommitment over time. Hence, manager should make it a top priority to prove their commitment to the transformation process.
“This involves linking rewards to the new behaviours required by an intervention.” (Worley & Cummings, 2009, p.207 ). Reward management system can serve to attract potential candidates, retain valuable employees, motivate employees and support organizations in achieving human resources, organizational goals and get the competitive advantage. According to Stewart & Donleavy ( 1995) identified reward allocation based on three aspects there are: Equity, Equality and Need. Equity and Equality is importance means of reward allocation, all individuals have rewarded equally, fairness and need to be seen to be equitable by employees.
The third of reward allocation is need. In this term, can understand that the individuals focus on reward to reach the level of need, which mean that the greater the need, the higher the reward (Stewart & Donleavy, 1995 ).
The process of transferring interventions is from one system to the other systems. Facilitate the diffusion of intelligence institutions a wider base of organizations supporting new behaviors.
Sending and calibration:
This process through using feedback and provide information, desired intervention behaviours and talking correct action ( Worley & Cummings, 2009). The organization is planning to facilitate organizational change to improve the performance of the organization and to achieve their goals and objectives more effectively through feedback, provide information to ensure that behaviours are in line with intervention.
In this report, based on research from a lot of author and based on their idea, we deeply understanding about planned change of organisation. The aim of change is planning and organizational changes related to the organization of work processes, develop the skills of staff in the change process .In order to successful, organizations need to improve the performance of the change plan. The most importance factor of organization need to change are culture change and organization design. Culture change and organization design are interrelationship with behaviours and share value. Changes need to be clear analysis of the current situation of the surveyed organizations about the structure, finance, staff skills, strengths and weaknesses must be listed and planning for change.