Endocrine PhysioEx 2

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Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched with its secreting organ?

A. TSH – posterior pituitary
B. TRH – hypothalamus
C. triiodothyronine – thyroid gland
D.thyroxine – thyroid gland

A. TSH – posterior pituitary

A decrease in the level of thyroxine would increase the secretion of _______.

A. neither TSH nor TRH
B. both TSH and TRH
C. TRH
D. TSH

B. both TSH and TRH

A hypophysectomized rat is missing its _______.

A. pituitary gland
B. adrenal gland
C. hypothalamus
D. thyroid gland

A. pituitary gland

Thyroxine is a _______.

A. slow-acting hormone that works through a second-messenger system
B. slow-acting hormone that enters the nucleus
C. hormone that works through a second-messenger system
D. slow-acting hormone
E. hormone that enters the nucleus

B. slow-acting hormone that enters the nucleus

Which of the following hormones is regulated by a positive feedback mechanism?

A. TSH
B. oxytocin
C. TRH
D. thyroxine

B. oxytocin

Which rat(s) was euthyroid without any injections?

A. the normal rat and the hypophysectomized rat
B. the normal rat
C. the thyroidectomized rat
D. the hypophysectomized rat

B. the normal rat

An abnormally high level of which of the following will result in goiter?

A. TRH
B. thyroxine
C. either TRH or TSH
D. either thyroxine or TRH
E. TSH

E. TSH

Why did the TSH have NO effect on the BMR of the thyroidectomized rat?

A. The rat is missing its pituitary gland.
B. The metabolism of the rat is already too high.
C. The metabolism of the rat is already too low.
D. The rat is missing its thyroid gland.

D. The rat is missing its thyroid gland.

The injection of TSH resulted in goiter in _______.

A. the thyroidectomized rat
B. the normal rat and the hypophysectomized
C. the hypophysectomized rat
D. the normal rat

B. the normal rat and the hypophysectomized

Propylthiouracil injections resulted in goiter formation in _______.

A. the normal rat and the hypophysectomized rat
B. the normal rat
C. the thyroidectomized rat
D. the hypophysectomized rat

B. the normal rat

Glucose is stored in the human body as _______.

A. glycogen
B. insulin
C. plant starch
D. glucagon

A. glycogen

Which hormone stimulates the breakdown of polymerized glucose?

A. glycogen
B. insulin
C. glucagon
D. plant starch

C. glucagon

Glucose remains in the bloodstream as a result of _______.

A. type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
B. type 2 diabetes mellitus
C. diabetes insipidus
D. type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus
E. type 1 diabetes mellitus

A. type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Excess glucose can be found in the urine _______.

A. when the transport maximum for reabsorption in the kidney tubules is exceeded
B. as a result of type 2 diabetes
C. as a result of type 1 diabetes
D. when the transport maximum for reabsorption in the kidney tubules is exceeded, as a result of type 1 diabetes or as a result of type 2 diabetes

D. when the transport maximum for reabsorption in the kidney tubules is exceeded, as a result of type 1 diabetes or as a result of type 2 diabetes

In this experiment, optical density is measured using a _______.

A. spectrophotometer
B. microscope
C. thermocycler
D. caliper

A. spectrophotometer

Using this assay, glucose concentration is _______.

A. inversely proportional to optical density
B .directly proportional to the volume of blood sampled
C. directly proportional to optical density
D. inversely proportional to the volume of blood sampled

C. directly proportional to optical density

Which of the patients tested was(were) in the diabetic range?

A. patients 3, 4, and 5
B. patient 3
C. patients 3 and 4
D. patients 3 and 5

D. patients 3 and 5

Which of the patients tested was(were) in the borderline range for insulin-mediated glucose uptake?

A. patient 3
B. patients 2 and 3
C. patient 4
D. patients 2 and 4
E. patient 2

D. patients 2 and 4

Peptide hormones include which of the following?

A. follicle-stimulating hormone and calcitonin
B. follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogen
C. follicle-stimulating hormone
D. estrogen
E. calcitonin

A. follicle-stimulating hormone and calcitonin

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched with one of its functions?

A. calcitonin – inhibits osteoblast activity
B. estrogen – provides protection against osteoporosis
C. FSH – stimulates ovarian follicle growth
D. All of the above are matched correctly.

A. calcitonin – inhibits osteoblast activity

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched with its primary secreting organ?

A. estrogen – ovaries
B. FSH – ovaries
C. calcitonin – thyroid gland
D. All of the above are matched correctly.

B. FSH – ovaries

Inhibiting osteoclast activity would prevent _______.

A. osteopenia
B. osteopenia and osteoporosis
C. osteoporosis
D. ovariectomy

B. osteopenia and osteoporosis

Replacement therapies for which two hormones were tested in this experiment?

A. FSH and estrogen
B. estrogen and calcitonin
C. FSH and calcitonin
D. saline and calcitonin
E. saline and estrogen

B. estrogen and calcitonin

Which of the following showed the greatest improvement in vertebral bone density for the rats?

A. FSH
B. calcitonin
C. saline
D. estrogen

D. estrogen

The baseline T score for the rats was indicative of _______.

A. osteopenia, because their anterior pituitary was removed
B. osteoporosis, because their ovaries were removed
C. osteoporosis, because they were postmenopausal
D. osteopenia, because their ovaries were removed
E. osteoporosis, because their anterior pituitary was removed

B. osteoporosis, because their ovaries were removed

Which of the following improved the vertebral bone density of the rats?

A. saline
B. calcitonin
C. both calcitonin and estrogen
D. FSH
E. estrogen

C. both calcitonin and estrogen

The target cells for the hormone ACTH are located in the _______.

A. anterior pituitary
B. hypothalamus
C. adrenal cortex
D. posterior pituitary

C. adrenal cortex

Tropic hormones include which of the following?

A. cortisol
B. ACTH
C. CRH
D. both ACTH and CRH
E. cortisol, ACTH and CRH

D. both ACTH and CRH

Which of the following is NOT characterized by high levels of cortisol in the blood?

A. Cushing’s disease
B. Addison’s disease
C. iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome
D. Cushing’s syndrome

B. Addison’s disease

Iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome is _______.

A. a result of treatment with glucocorticoid hormones
B. often referred to as "steroid diabetes"
C. physician induced
D. All of the above are correct.

D. All of the above are correct.

High levels of cortisol would normally provide negative feedback to the _______.

A. posterior pituitary
B. anterior pituitary
C. hypothalamus
D. the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus
E. the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus

E. the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus

Which patients would be diagnosed with primary hypercortisolism?

A. patients 4 and 5
B. patients 2 and 5
C. patients 3 and 5
D. patients 3 and 4

B. patients 2 and 5

Which patient would be diagnosed with secondary hypercortisolism?

A. patient 5
B. patient 1
C. patient 2
D. patient 4
E. patient 3

E. patient 3

Which patient would be diagnosed with secondary adrenal insufficiency?

A. patient 1
B. patient 2
C. patient 5
D. patient 4
E. patient 3

A. patient 1

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